JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Pluripotent stem cell differentiation into vascular cells: a novel technology with promises for vascular re(generation)

Nicole M Kane, Qingzhong Xiao, Andrew H Baker, Zhenling Luo, Qingbo Xu, Costanza Emanueli
Pharmacology & Therapeutics 2011, 129 (1): 29-49
20965210
Several types of stem and progenitor cells are currently under investigation for their potential to accomplish vascular regeneration. This review focuses on embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We will discuss the technologies allowing for their derivation, culture expansion and maintenance in a pluripotent status. Moreover, both ESCs and iPSCs can be differentiated in endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cell, including vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we will describe the involvements of growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factors-VEGFs-, platet-derived growth factors-PDGFs-), Wnt and Notch signal pathways, reactive oxygen species (ROS), histone deacetylases (HDACs), and microRNAs (miRNAs) in vascular cell differentiation from pluripotent stem cells. We will additionally describe the therapeutic potential of stem cells for vascular medicine.

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