Stefania Nobili, Laura Micheli, Elena Lucarini, Alessandra Toti, Carla Ghelardini, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli
Current epidemiological data estimate that one in five people suffers from chronic pain with considerable impairment of health-related quality of life. The pharmacological treatment is based on first- and second-line analgesic drugs, including COX-2 selective and nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs and opioids, that are characterized by important side effects. N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is a body's own fatty-acid ethanolamide belonging to the family of autacoid local injury antagonist amides...
April 12, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mingrui Duan, Shuguang Leng, Peng Mao
Platinum compounds such as cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are widely used in chemotherapy. Cisplatin induces cytotoxic DNA damage that blocks DNA replication and gene transcription, leading to arrest of cell proliferation. Although platinum therapy alone is effective against many tumors, cancer cells can adapt to the treatment and gain resistance. The mechanisms for cisplatin resistance are complex, including low DNA damage formation, high DNA repair capacity, changes in apoptosis signaling pathways, rewired cell metabolisms, and others...
April 11, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zarah R Haniff, Mariia Bocharova, Tim Mantingh, James J Rucker, Latha Velayudhan, David M Taylor, Allan H Young, Dag Aarsland, Anthony C Vernon, Sandrine Thuret
Major depression is an established risk factor for subsequent dementia, and depression in late life may also represent a prodromal state of dementia. Considering current challenges in the clinical development of disease modifying therapies for dementia, the focus of research is shifting towards prevention and modification of risk factors to alter the neurodegenerative disease trajectory. Understanding mechanistic commonalities underlying affective symptoms and cognitive decline may reveal biomarkers to aid early identification of those at risk of progressing to dementia during the preclinical phase of disease, thus allowing for timely intervention...
April 5, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Abigail V Lee, Kevin A Nestler, Katherine B Chiappinelli
DNA methylation is a critical component of gene regulation and plays an important role in the development of cancer. Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes and silencing of DNA repair pathways facilitate uncontrolled cell growth and synergize with oncogenic mutations to perpetuate cancer phenotypes. Additionally, aberrant DNA methylation hinders immune responses crucial for antitumor immunity. Thus, inhibiting dysregulated DNA methylation is a promising cancer therapy. Pharmacologic inhibition of DNA methylation reactivates silenced tumor suppressors and bolster immune responses through induction of viral mimicry...
April 1, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yan Ning, Xinyue Dou, Zhichao Wang, Kao Shi, Zeping Wang, Chuan Ding, Xianan Sang, Xiang Zhong, Meiyu Shao, Xin Han, Gang Cao
Sirtuin3 (SIRT3) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ )-dependent protein deacetylase located in the mitochondria, which mainly regulates the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins. In addition, SIRT3 is involved in critical biological processes, including oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and apoptosis, all of which are closely related to the progression of liver disease. Liver fibrosis characterized by the deposition of extracellular matrix is a result of long termed or repeated liver damage, frequently accompanied by damaged hepatocytes, the recruitment of inflammatory cells, and the activation of hepatic stellate cells...
March 30, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jihyun Jang, Federica Accornero, Deqiang Li
Congenital heart disease is the most common birth defect worldwide. Defective cardiac myogenesis is either a major presentation or associated with many types of congenital heart disease. Non-myocardial tissues, including endocardium and epicardium, function as a supporting hub for myocardial growth and maturation during heart development. Recent research findings suggest an emerging role of epigenetics in nonmyocytes supporting myocardial development. Understanding how growth signaling pathways in non-myocardial tissues are regulated by epigenetic factors will likely identify new disease mechanisms for congenital heart diseases and shed lights for novel therapeutic strategies for heart regeneration...
March 26, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jacqueline Wen Hui Leow, Eric Chun Yong Chan
Cytochrome P450 2 J2 (CYP2J2) is primarily expressed extrahepatically and is the predominant epoxygenase in human cardiac tissues. This highlights its key role in the metabolism of endogenous substrates. Significant scientific interest lies in cardiac CYP2J2 metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, to regioisomeric bioactive epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) metabolites that show cardioprotective effects including regulation of cardiac electrophysiology. From an in vitro perspective, the accurate characterization of the kinetics of CYP2J2 metabolism of AA including its inhibition and inactivation by drugs could be useful in facilitating in vitro-in vivo extrapolations to predict drug-AA interactions in drug discovery and development...
March 21, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Magdalena Strachowska, Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz
Due to the contribution of highly homologous acetyltransferases CBP and p300 to transcription elevation of oncogenes and other cancer promoting factors, these enzymes emerge as possible epigenetic targets of anticancer therapy. Extensive efforts in search for small molecule inhibitors led to development of compounds targeting histone acetyltransferase catalytic domain or chromatin-interacting bromodomain of CBP/p300, as well as dual BET and CBP/p300 inhibitors. The promising anticancer efficacy in in vitro and mice models led CCS1477 and NEO2734 to clinical trials...
March 21, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Kevin Mou, Stanley M H Chan, Ross Vlahos
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a multifaceted respiratory disorder characterized by progressive airflow limitation and systemic implications. It has become increasingly apparent that COPD exerts its influence far beyond the respiratory system, extending its impact to various organ systems. Among these, the musculoskeletal system emerges as a central player in both the pathogenesis and management of COPD and its associated comorbidities. Muscle dysfunction and osteoporosis are prevalent musculoskeletal disorders in COPD patients, leading to a substantial decline in exercise capacity and overall health...
March 18, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Lei Wang, Li Lin, Wei Zhou
The study aims to evaluate the benefits and potential adverse effects of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with lenvatinib and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) protein inhibitors in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A systematic literature search of several databases for relevant studies, published from inception up to May 2023, was performed. Clinical trials investigating TACE combined with lenvatinib and PD-1 inhibitors compared with other treatment regimens for advanced HCC were included...
March 16, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Stephen M Stribbling, Callum Beach, Anderson J Ryan
Mouse models of disease play a pivotal role at all stages of cancer drug development. Cell-line derived subcutaneous tumour models are predominant in early drug discovery, but there is growing recognition of the importance of the more complex orthotopic and metastatic tumour models for understanding both target biology in the correct tissue context, and the impact of the tumour microenvironment and the immune system in responses to treatment. The aim of this review is to highlight the value that orthotopic and metastatic models bring to the study of tumour biology and drug development while pointing out those models that are most likely to be encountered in the literature...
March 9, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ying Bai, Yang Cai, Di Chang, Daxing Li, Xinchen Huo, Tianhao Zhu
Depression stands as a prominent contributor to global disability, entailing an elevated risk of suicide. Substantial evidence supports the notion that immune dysregulation may play a role in the development of depression and impede responses to antidepressant treatments. Immune dysregulation may cause depression in susceptible individuals through raising inflammatory responses. Differences in immune cell types and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators are observed in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with major depressive disorder, which is associated with neuroimmune dysfunction...
March 3, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Xiaolei Huang, Yichang Chen, Qin Xiao, Xinci Shang, Yanli Liu
Histone methylation reader domains are protein modules that recognize specific histone methylation marks, such as methylated or unmethylated lysine or arginine residues on histones. These reader proteins play crucial roles in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, chromatin structure, and DNA damage repair. Dysregulation of these proteins has been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and developmental disorders. Therefore, targeting these proteins with chemical inhibitors has emerged as an attractive approach for therapeutic intervention, and significant progress has been made in this area...
February 22, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Shijie Wen, Hiroshi Arakawa, Ikumi Tamai
Owing to renal reabsorption and the loss of uricase activity, uric acid (UA) is strictly maintained at a higher physiological level in humans than in other mammals, which provides a survival advantage during evolution but increases susceptibility to certain diseases such as gout. Although monosodium urate (MSU) crystal precipitation has been detected in different tissues of patients as a trigger for disease, the pathological role of soluble UA remains controversial due to the lack of causality in the clinical setting...
February 19, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yi-Wen Meng, Jun-Yan Liu
Oxylipins have garnered increasing attention because they were consistently shown to play pathological and/or pharmacological roles in the development of multiple cancers. Oxylipins are the metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids via both enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways. The enzymes mediating the metabolism of PUFAs include but not limited to lipoxygenases (LOXs), cyclooxygenases (COXs), and cytochrome P450s (CYPs) pathways, as well as the down-stream enzymes. Here, we systematically summarized the pleiotropic effects of oxylipins in different cancers through pathological and pharmacological aspects, with specific reference to the enzyme-mediated oxylipins...
February 16, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Jeffrey M Witkin, Hana Shafique, Rok Cerne, Jodi L Smith, Ann M Marini, Robert H Lipsky, Elizabeth Delery
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a highly prevalent medical condition for which no medications specific for the prophylaxis or treatment of the condition as a whole exist. The spectrum of symptoms includes coma, headache, seizures, cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety. Although it has been known for years that the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is involved in TBI, no novel therapeutics based upon this mechanism have been introduced into clinical practice. We review the neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, neurochemical, and neuropharmacological relationships of GABA neurotransmission to TBI with a view toward new potential GABA-based medicines...
February 16, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Min Zhang, Kaiyuan Wu, Weijie Zhang, Xia Lin, Qi Cao, Lili Zhang, Kaifu Chen
Accumulating evidence indicates that epigenetic events undergo deregulation in various cancer types, playing crucial roles in tumor development. Among the epigenetic factors involved in the epigenetic remodeling of chromatin, the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein (CHD) family frequently exhibits gain- or loss-of-function mutations in distinct cancer types. Therefore, targeting CHD remodelers holds the potential for antitumor treatment. In this review, we discuss epigenetic regulations of cancer development...
February 15, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Lindsey M Williams, Shijie Cao
Microbial metabolites have emerged as key players in the interplay between diet, the gut microbiome, and host health. Two major classes, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and tryptophan (Trp) metabolites, are recognized to regulate inflammatory, immune, and metabolic responses within the host. Given that many human diseases are associated with dysbiosis of the gut microbiome and consequent reductions in microbial metabolite production, the administration of these metabolites represents a direct, multi-targeted treatment...
February 15, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Fatma Saaoud, Yifan Lu, Keman Xu, Ying Shao, Domenico Pratic├▓, Roberto I Vazquez-Padron, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle that is physiologically responsible for protein folding, calcium homeostasis, and lipid biosynthesis. Pathological stimuli such as oxidative stress, ischemia, disruptions in calcium homeostasis, and increased production of normal and/or folding-defective proteins all contribute to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, causing ER stress. The adaptive response to ER stress is the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR), which affect a wide variety of cellular functions to maintain ER homeostasis or lead to apoptosis...
February 13, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yi You, Zhong Chen, Wei-Wei Hu
Microglia play a crucial role in interacting with neuronal synapses and modulating synaptic plasticity. This function is particularly significant during postnatal development, as microglia are responsible for removing excessive synapses to prevent neurodevelopmental deficits. Dysregulation of microglial synaptic function has been well-documented in various pathological conditions, notably Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. The recent application of RNA sequencing has provided a powerful and unbiased means to decipher spatial and temporal microglial heterogeneity...
February 10, 2024: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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