Edwin R Miranda, Jacob M Haus
Obesity prevalence in the US has nearly tripled since 1975 and a parallel increase in prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity promotes a myriad of metabolic derangements with insulin resistance (IR) being perhaps the most responsible for the development of T2D and other related diseases such as cardiovascular disease. The precarious nature of IR development is such that it provides a valuable target for the prevention of further disease development. However, the mechanisms driving IR are numerous and complex making the development of viable interventions difficult...
September 16, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Lina Fadel, Marija Dacic, Vlera Fonda, Baila A Sokolsky, Fabiana Quagliarini, Inez Rogatsky, N Henriette Uhlenhaut
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones that regulate key physiological processes such as metabolism, immune function, and stress responses. The effects of GCs are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor that activates or represses the expression of hundreds to thousands of genes in a tissue- and physiological state-specific manner. The activity of GR is modulated by numerous coregulator proteins that interact with GR in response to different stimuli assembling into a multitude of DNA-protein complexes and facilitate the integration of these signals, helping GR to communicate with basal transcriptional machinery and chromatin...
September 15, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Muhammad Ammar Malik, Stephen V Faraone, Tom Michoel, Jan Haavik
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) impact multiple aspects of an individual's functioning, including social interactions, communication, and behaviors. The underlying biological mechanisms of NDDs are not yet fully understood, and pharmacological treatments have been limited in their effectiveness, in part due to the complex nature of these disorders and the heterogeneity of symptoms across individuals. Identifying genetic loci associated with NDDs can help in understanding biological mechanisms and potentially lead to the development of new treatments...
September 12, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Maya Ezzo, Boris Hinz
The ability of cells to sense and respond to changes in mechanical environment is vital in conditions of organ injury when the architecture of normal tissues is disturbed or lost. Among the various cellular players that respond to injury, fibroblasts take center stage in re-establishing tissue integrity by secreting and organizing extracellular matrix into stabilizing scar tissue. Activation, activity, survival, and death of scar-forming fibroblasts are tightly controlled by mechanical environment and proper mechanotransduction ensures that fibroblast activities cease after completion of the tissue repair process...
September 12, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Qiyue Wang, Xiaofei Xin, Qihao Dai, Mengjuan Sun, Jinhua Chen, Ebrahim Mostafavi, Yan Shen, Xueming Li
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a major pediatric malignant brain tumor that arises in the cerebellum. MB tumors exhibit highly heterogeneous driven by diverse genetic alterations and could be divided into four major subgroups based on their different biological drivers and molecular features (Wnt, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), group 3, and group 4 MB). Even though the therapeutic strategies for each MB subtype integrate their pathogenesis and were developed to focus on their specific target sites, the unexpected drug non-selective cytotoxicity, low drug accumulation in the brain, and complexed MB tumor microenvironment still be huge obstacles to achieving satisfied MB therapeutic efficiency...
September 11, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Diksha Choudhary, Amritpal Kaur, Pargat Singh, Gaurav Chaudhary, Rajwinder Kaur, Mohammad F Bayan, Balakumar Chandrasekaran, Saeed M Marji, Reema Ayman
Cancer is one of the most common causes of death. So, its lethal effect increases with time. Near about hundreds of cancers are known in humans. Cancer treatment is done to cure or prolonged remission, and shrinkage of the tumor. Cytotoxic agents, biological agents/targeted drugs, hormonal drugs, surgery, radiotherapy/proton therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and gene therapy are currently used in the treatment of cancer but their cost is high and cause various side effects. Seeing this, some new targeted strategies such as PROTACs are the need of the time...
September 9, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Debasish Kumar Dey, Danielle Krause, Rajani Rai, Swati Choudhary, Lauren E Dockery, Vishal Chandra
The tumor microenvironment is surrounded by blood vessels and consists of malignant, nonmalignant, and immune cells, as well as signalling molecules, which primarily affect the therapeutic response and curative effects of drugs in clinical studies. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells participate in tumor progression, impact anticancer therapy and eventually lead to the development of immune tolerance. Immunotherapy is evolving as a promising therapeutic intervention to stimulate and activate the immune system to suppress cancer cell growth...
September 8, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sameer Ullah Khan, Kaneez Fatima, Fayaz Malik, Halime Kalkavan, Abubakar Wani
Metastatic progression combined with non-responsiveness towards systemic therapy often shapes the course of disease for cancer patients and commonly determines its lethal outcome. The complex molecular events that promote metastasis are a combination of both, the acquired pro-metastatic properties of cancer cells and a metastasis-permissive or -supportive tumor micro-environment (TME). Yet, dissemination is a challenging process for cancer cells that requires a series of events to enable cancer cell survival and growth...
September 1, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gabriella Juhasz, Kinga Gecse, Daniel Baksa
After 35 years since the introduction of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD), we are living in the era of the second great revolution in migraine therapies. First, discoveries of triptans provided a breakthrough in acute migraine treatment utilizing bench-to-bedside research results on the role of serotonin in migraine. Next, the discovery of the role of neuropeptides, more specifically calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine attack led to the development of anti-CGRP therapies that are effective both in acute and preventive treatment, and are also able to reduce migraine-related burden...
August 30, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zi-Xian Liao, Shan-Hui Hsu, Shiue-Cheng Tang, Ivan Kempson, Pan-Chyr Yang, S Ja Tseng
In 2015, oncolytic virotherapy was approved for clinical use, and in 2017, recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery was also approved. However, systemic administration remains challenging due to the limited number of viruses that successfully reach the target site. Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permits the use of higher doses of AAV to achieve greater rates of transduction, most AAV still accumulates in the liver, potentially leading to toxicity there and elsewhere. Targeting the tumor microenvironment is a promising strategy for cancer treatment due to the critical role of the tumor microenvironment in controlling tumor progression and influencing the response to therapies...
August 30, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Saumya Rastogi, Shashank Shekher Mishra, Mandeep Kumar Arora, Gaurav Kaithwas, Sugato Banerjee, Velayutham Ravichandiran, Subhadeep Roy, Lakhveer Singh
Lactate acidosis is often observed in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of solid tumors. This is because glucose breaks down quickly via glycolysis, causing lactate acidity. Lactate is harmful to healthy cells, but is a major oncometabolite for solid cancer cells that do not receive sufficient oxygen. As an oncometabolite, it helps tumor cells perform different functions, which helps solid hypoxic tumor cells spread to other parts of the body. Studies have shown that the acidic TME contains VEGF, Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cathepsins, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), all of which help spread in direct and indirect ways...
August 23, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Julie Blatt, Jennifer E Brondon, Elizabeth L Nieman, Kynlon Phillips, Arti Pandya
Vascular anomalies (VA) are developmental anomalies of veins, arteries, lymphatics or capillaries thought to be caused by mutations in genes that drive angiogenesis. Treatments targeting these genes are limited. We review the literature for conventional medications and products from traditional medicine cultures that have been found to have antiangiogenic activity. Fewer than 50 drugs with credible human activity in VA were identified and include β blockers, monoclonal antibodies, microtubule inhibitors, multi-kinase inhibitors, PIK3CA- and RAS-MAPK pathway inhibitors, and thalidomides...
August 23, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Charlotte Bérard, Charles Truillet, Benoit Larrat, Frédéric Dhermain, Marie-Anne Estève, Florian Correard, Anthony Novell
The therapeutic management of gliomas remains particularly challenging. Brain tumors present multiple obstacles that make therapeutic innovation complex, mainly due to the presence of blood-tumor and blood-brain barriers (BTB and BBB, respectively) which prevent penetration of anticancer agents into the brain parenchyma. Focused ultrasound-mediated BBB disruption (FUS-BBBD) provides a physical method for non-invasive, local, and reversible BBB disruption. The safety of this technique has been demonstrated in small and large animal models...
August 22, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Harish Sharma, Shazia Afzal, Jürgen Leick, Nikos Werner, Sagar N Doshi, M Adnan Nadir
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly being performed to treat symptomatic patients with aortic stenosis and annual procedure volume has overtaken surgical aortic valve replacement in the United States. However, current international guidelines were written prior to the publication of several important recent studies. Furthermore, European and American guidelines differ in their recommendations of antithrombotic therapy following TAVR. Consequently, there is a need to examine the literature to provide clinicians guidance on the optimum antithrombotic strategy, particularly as different patient populations exist...
August 10, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Manoj Kumar Gupta, He Peng, Yang Li, Cheng-Jian Xu
Epigenetics functions as a bridge between host genetic & environmental factors, aiding in human health and diseases. Many immune-related diseases, including infectious and allergic diseases, have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation. In this review, we summarized an updated overview of DNA methylation and its importance in personalized medicine, and demonstrated that DNA methylation has excellent potential for disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in a personalized manner...
August 9, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Emanuel Raschi, Manuela Casula, Arrigo F G Cicero, Alberto Corsini, Claudio Borghi, Alberico Catapano
The pharmacological treatment of dyslipidemia, a major modifiable risk factor for developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), remains a debated and controversial issue, not only in terms of the most appropriate therapeutic range for lipid levels, but also with regard to the optimal strategy and sequence approach (stepwise vs upstream therapy). Current treatment guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia focus on the intensity of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction, stratified according to risk for developing ASCVD...
August 9, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mirela-Diana Ilie, Dario De Alcubierre, Anna Lucia Carretti, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Gérald Raverot
The tumor microenvironment (TME), the complex environment in which tumors develop, has been increasingly targeted for cancer treatment in recent years. Aggressive pituitary tumors and pituitary carcinomas have been so far targeted with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (28 cases, including a large cohort), and anti-angiogenic drugs (34 cases), specifically bevacizumab (30 cases), sunitinib (three cases), and apatinib (one case). Here, we reviewed all these cases, reporting tumor response, potential predictors of response, as well as adverse events...
August 8, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yo Oishi, Yuki C Saito, Takeshi Sakurai
Benzodiazepine, a classical medication utilized in the treatment of insomnia, operates by augmenting the activity of the GABAA receptor. This underscores the significance of GABAergic neurotransmission in both the initiation and maintenance of sleep. Nevertheless, an increasing body of evidence substantiates the notion that GABA-mediated neurotransmission also assumes a vital role in promoting wakefulness in specific neuronal circuits. Despite the longstanding belief in the pivotal function of GABA in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, there exists a dearth of comprehensive documentation regarding the specific regions within the central nervous system where GABAergic neurons are crucial for these functions...
August 2, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Palak P Oza, Khosrow Kashfi
Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) are three endogenously produced gases with important functions in the vasculature, immune defense, and inflammation. It is increasingly apparent that, far from working in isolation, these three exert many effects by modulating each other's activity. Each gas is produced by three enzymes, which have some tissue specificities and can also be non-enzymatically produced by redox reactions of various substrates. Both NO and CO share similar properties, such as activating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) to increase cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels...
July 28, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Lida Du, Xiaoli He, Xiaonuo Fan, Xiaoya Wei, Linhao Xu, Tuo Liang, Chunbo Wang, Ya Ke, Wing-Ho Yung
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by elevated motor behaviors and dream enactments in REM sleep, often preceding the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). As RBD could serve as a biomarker for early PD developments, pharmacological interventions targeting α-synuclein aggregation triggered RBD could be applied toward early PD progression. However, robust therapeutic guidelines toward PD-induced RBD are lacking, owing in part to a historical paucity of effective treatments and trials...
July 25, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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