Sitagliptin 100 mg daily effect on DPP-4 inhibition and compound-specific glycemic improvement

M Alba, D Sheng, Y Guan, D Williams-Herman, P Larson, J R Sachs, N Thornberry, G Herman, K D Kaufman, B J Goldstein
Current Medical Research and Opinion 2009, 25 (10): 2507-14

OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials, the degree of glucose lowering with sitagliptin has been correlated with the magnitude of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition over 24 h. Previous studies evaluating sitagliptin doses ranging from 25 to 200 mg/day demonstrated that the daily dose of 100 mg provided maximal glucose-lowering efficacy for this compound in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, sitagliptin 200 mg once daily provided numerically greater percent plasma DPP-4 inhibition compared with 100 mg once daily. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether sitagliptin 200 mg once daily provides greater improvement in glycemic efficacy as assessed by weighted mean glucose (WMG) over 24 h relative to sitagliptin 100 mg once daily and to relate the percent DPP-4 inhibition achieved with these doses to any between-treatment differences in glycemic efficacy.

METHODS: In a double-blind crossover study, patients with type 2 diabetes (fasting plasma glucose [FPG] 130-250 mg/dL) were randomized to one of six treatment sequences over three treatment periods (placebo, sitagliptin 100 mg once daily, or sitagliptin 200 mg once daily). Each of the treatment periods was 7 days in duration, with 28-day washout periods between treatments. After each treatment period, patients underwent blood sampling at various time points over 24 h to determine 24-h WMG. Plasma DPP-4 activity was assessed at trough, 24 h following dosing on day 7; percent DPP-4 inhibition was corrected for sample assay dilution.

RESULTS: The 103 randomized patients had a baseline mean FPG of 172 mg/dL. Following a planned interim analysis, the study was stopped because the 24-h WMG values were not different between the sitagliptin doses. Furthermore, a significant carryover effect across periods was observed for FPG; thus, efficacy results from period 1 are presented herein. The 24-h WMG values were significantly (p < 0.01) lower with sitagliptin relative to placebo, but the difference between sitagliptin doses was not significant (p = 0.365). Corrected percent plasma DPP-4 inhibition at trough was not significantly (p = 0.791) different with sitagliptin 200 mg (LS mean [95% CI] 96.9% [90.0, 100.0]) compared with sitagliptin 100 mg (95.6% [88.4, 100.0]). The early termination and the carryover effect described above are limitations to this study.

CONCLUSION: Across sitagliptin doses in this study, the similarity of the 24-h WMG concentrations and the similarity of the corrected DPP-4 inhibition values support prior findings that the maximal glucose-lowering efficacy of sitagliptin is achieved with once-daily dosing of 100 mg. NCT00541229.

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