15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis through inhibition of PKA/NF-kappaB in renal proximal epithelial cells

Dong Ryeol Lee, Chae Hwa Kwon, Ji Yeon Park, Yong Keun Kim, Jae Suk Woo
Toxicology 2009 April 5, 258 (1): 17-24
We have previously reported the cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) induces renal proximal epithelial cell death through NF-kappaB inhibition. However, the upstream and down-stream signaling pathways that NF-kappaB inhibition mediates 15d-PGJ(2)-induced apoptosis remain to be defined. In the present study, we determined whether NF-kappaB inhibition induces cell death through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and whether protein kinase A (PKA) functions upstream of NF-kappaB inhibition by 15d-PGJ(2). The role of NF-kappaB inhibition in this apoptotic pathway was evaluated using NF-kappaB p65 transfected cells. 15d-PGJ(2) induced cell death by a PPARgamma-independent mechanism and the cell death was prevented by NF-kappaB p65 transfection. 15d-PGJ(2) treatment caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation, suggesting that 15d-PGJ(2) induces cell death through a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic mechanism. These changes by 15d-PGJ(2) were attenuated by NF-kappaB p65 transfection. 15d-PGJ(2) treatment resulted in an increase in Bax expression, which were blocked by NF-kappaB p65 transfection. 15d-PGJ(2) treatment caused PKA inhibition and 15d-PGJ(2)-induced cell death was enhanced by the PKA specific inhibitor H89. Inhibition of NF-kappaB by 15d-PGJ(2) was prevented by addition of forskolin, a PKA activator. Taken together, these results suggest that PKA-dependent NF-kappaB inhibition stimulates 15d-PGJ(2)-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through alterations in expression of the NF-kappaB target genes Bax.

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