Blessing A Obafemi, Isaac A Adedara, Joao B T Rocha
Data from epidemiological and experimental studies evidenced that some chemical contaminants in food elicit their harmful effects by targeting the central nervous system. Ochratoxin A is a foodborne mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Research on neurotoxicity associated with ochratoxin A exposure has increased greatly in recent years. The present review accrued substantial evidence on the neurotoxicity associated with ochratoxin A exposure as well as discusses notable susceptible targets of noxious ochratoxin A at molecular, cellular and genetic levels...
September 12, 2023: Toxicology
Amany Abdel-Rahman Mohamed, Gihan G Moustafa, Khlood M El Bohy, Taghred M Saber, Mohamed M M Metwally, Heba El Desoukey Mohammed, Ali H El-Far, Badriyah S Alotaibi, Manal Alosaimi, Samah S Abuzahrah, Leena S Alqahtani
Nicotine-induced cardiac tissue damage is a concern for cancer patients, but the exact pathogenesis from nicotine oral exposure is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the impact of nicotine and Chlorella vulgaris (Ch. V) on cardiac glutathione homeostasis, inflammatory response, cardiac damage markers, apoptotic proteins and histopathological findings in an experimentally transplantable neoplasm mouse model (Ehrlich ascites carcinoma; EAC). In the in-vivo experiment, the female Swiss mice were divided into four groups: control, Ch...
September 11, 2023: Toxicology
Jianwei Bai, Hua Han, Feng Wang, Liyu Su, Hongwei Ding, Xiyin Hu, Binli Hu, Hong Li, Wei Zheng, Yan Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2023: Toxicology
Pei Yang, Bingbing Xu, Ruirong Zhu, Tao Zhang, Zihan Wang, Qiao Lin, Ming Yan, Zhangsen Yu, Hongjiao Mao, Yun Zhang
Our previous data have revealed TCP particles caused cell death of osteocytes, comprising over 95% of all bone cells, which contribute to periprosthetic osteolysis, joint loosening and implant failure, but its mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we reported that TCP particles inhibited cell viability of osteocytes MLO-Y4, and caused cell death. TCP particles caused mitochondrial impairment and increased expressions of LC-3 II, Parkin and PINK 1, accompanied by the elevation of autophagy flux and intracellular acidic components, the accumulation of LC-3II, PINK1 and Parkin in damaged mitochondria, and p62 reduction...
September 5, 2023: Toxicology
Dan Sun, Shanshan Li, Haiqin Huang, Lixing Xu
Melittin (Mel), a main active peptide component of bee venom, has been proven to possess strong antitumor activity. Previous studies have shown that Mel caused severe cell membrane lysis and acted on the central nervous system (CNS). Here, this study was designed to investigate the effects of Mel on CNS and explore the potential mechanism. We confirmed the neurotoxic effect of melittin by in vivo and in vitro experiments. After subcutaneous administration of Mel (4mg/kg, 8mg/kg) for 14 days, the mice exhibited obvious depression-like behavior in a dose dependent manner...
September 5, 2023: Toxicology
Eun-Jung Park, Mi-Jin Yang, Min-Sung Kang, Young-Min Jo, Cheolho Yoon, Hyun-Bin Kim, Dong-Wan Kim, Gwang-Hee Lee, Ik-Hwan Kwon, Hee-Jin Park, Jin-Bae Kim
With its increasing value as a means of public transportation, the health effects of the air in subway stations have attracted public concern. In the current study, we investigated the pulmonary toxicity of dust collected from an air purifier installed on the platform of the busiest subway station in Seoul. We found that the dust contained various elements which are attributable to the facilities and equipment used to operate the subway system. Particularly, iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zirconium (Zr), barium (Ba), and molybdenum (Mo) levels were more notable in comparison with those in dust collected from the ventilation chamber of a subway station...
August 21, 2023: Toxicology
Felix Effah, Atallah Elzein, Benjamin Taiwo, Deborah Baines, Alexis Bailey, Tim Marczylo
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are considered a less hazardous alternative to tobacco smoking but are not harmless. Growing concerns about the safety profiles of flavors in e-liquids underpin the need for this study. Here, we screened 53 nicotine-free flavored e-liquids (across 15 flavor categories) across a 3-point concentration range (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% v/v) in a high-throughput fashion in human bronchial epithelial (HBEC-3KT) submerged cell cultures to identify 'toxic hits' using in vitro endpoint assays comprising cell count, cell viability, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...
August 16, 2023: Toxicology
Gabriela Alice Fiais, Douglas Sadrac de Biagi Ferreira, Rayara Nogueira de Freitas, Lucas Guilherme Leite da Silva, Marcelo Kawaguchi, Allice Santos Cruz Veras, Giovana Rampazzo Teixeira, Cristina Antoniali, Rita Cássia Menegati Dornelles, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato Nakamune, Walid D Fakhouri, Antonio Hernandes Chaves-Neto
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anticonvulsant for epilepsy. The toxic effects of this medication in tissues have been associated with redox state imbalance, which can lead to salivary gland dysfunction. Therefore, the current work investigated the effects of LEV on the biochemical, functional, and redox parameters of the parotid and submandibular glands in rats. For this, male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10/group): Control (0.9% saline solution), LEV100 (100mg/kg), and LEV300 (300mg/kg)...
August 10, 2023: Toxicology
Patrícia Alves, Cristina Amaral, Natércia Teixeira, Georgina Correia-da-Silva
In recent years, cannabis use has increased among pregnant women. In addition, the phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or in combination are being used for therapeutical applications. THC and CBD are able to cross the placenta and a lot remains unknown concerning their impact on angiogenesis and extravillous trophoblasts' (EVTs) migration and invasion, which are essential processes for placentation. Thus, in this study, the HTR-8/SVneo cell line was employed to evaluate the effects of CBD, THC and of their combination (1:1, 2µM)...
August 9, 2023: Toxicology
Kasper Mikkelsen, Jorid B Sørli, Marie Frederiksen, Niels Hadrup
Exposure to spray-formulated products for car cabin detailing is a potential risk for asthma induction. With a focus on the asthma-related endpoints sensitisation and irritation of the lungs, we performed an occupational risk assessment based on requirements in the EU Chemical Agents Directive. We identified 71 such spray products available in Denmark. We identified ingredient substances in safety data sheets and screened for harmonised classifications of respiratory sensitisation and airway irritation. For respiratory sensitisation, we also applied quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR)...
August 7, 2023: Toxicology
R Nguyen, M Barry, R Azevedo Loiola, P-J Ferret, E Andres
Although photosensitization remains a major toxicological endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic products and their raw materials, there is no validated in vitro method available for the evaluation of this adverse effect so far. Given that previous studies have proposed that the Interleukine-18 (IL-18) plays a key role in keratinocyte-driven pro-inflammatory responses specific of the skin sensitization process, we hypothesize that IL-18 might be used as a specific biomarker for in vitro photosensitization assessment...
August 7, 2023: Toxicology
Anthony L Su, Lawrence H Lash, Rita Loch-Caruso
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a known human carcinogen with toxicity attributed to its metabolism. S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) is a metabolite of TCE formed downstream in TCE glutathione (GSH) conjugation and is upstream of several toxic metabolites. Despite knowledge that DCVC stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis in placental cells, the extent to which these outcomes are attributable to DCVC metabolism is unknown. The current study used N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) at 5mM and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) at 1mM as pharmacological modifiers of DCVC metabolism to investigate DCVC toxicity at concentrations of 5-50µM in the human placental trophoblast BeWo cell model capable of forskolin-stimulated syncytialization...
August 4, 2023: Toxicology
Weiping Li, Zhe Zhang, Jiawen Li, Jun Mu, Meng Sun, Xue Wu, Xiaochen Niu, Yang Yang, Huanle Yan, Xiaoling Xu, Chengxu Xue, Lu Qian, Ye Tian
Ischemic stroke is regarded one of the most common causes of brain vulnerability. Silibinin (SIL), extracted from the seeds of Silybinisus laborinum L., has been found to exhibit obvious therapeutic effects on neurodegenerative diseases. GAS6 has been proven to have significant neuroprotective effects; however, the role of SIL and GAS6 in ischemic stroke remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of SIL against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in neuroblastoma N2a cells, and the mechanisms involved...
August 4, 2023: Toxicology
Samad Khaksar, Alireza Aliabadi, Akram Panjehpour, Sara Abdolmaleki
Two Ga(III) complexes (C1) and (C2) were prepared by the one-pot reaction of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and aminopyridine derivatives with gallium(III) nitrate octahydrate. The compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The distorted octahedral geometry was confirmed by crystallographic data for both complexes. The study of the in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds showed that the presence of different extra-nuclear cations can affect the cytotoxicity of the same anionic complexes...
August 2, 2023: Toxicology
Baolong Pan, Fanpeng Kong, Xiaofen Ju, Jing Song, Linping Wang, Qiao Niu, Xiaoting Lu
Aluminum (Al) is recognized as a neurotoxin. Studies have confirmed that the neurotoxicity induced by Al may be related to tau hyperphosphorylation. Phosphorylated tau is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), in which the carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) plays an important role. However, whether the CHIP plays a role in regulating tau hyperphosphorylation induced by Al is yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of the CHIP in tau hyperphosphorylation induced by AlCl3 in N2a cells...
August 2, 2023: Toxicology
Zhe Zhao, Lilan Yuan, Yue Yuan, Chenping Kang, Yuhong Ma, Qianyi Liu, Xiaoxia Wang, Qianqian Xiao, Qinghe Meng, Xuetao Wei, Weidong Hao
2-Acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI), a by-product of Class Ⅲ caramel color, is generally recognized to cause lymphopenia in mammals. However, it remains unknown whether THI exposure during gestation and lactation causes damage to the immune system of offspring. In this study, pregnant Balb/c mice were gavaged with 0, 0.5, 2.5 and 12.5mg/kg THI from gestation day (GD) 6 to postanal day (PND) 21, after which we treated another batch of dams from GD6 to PND21 and the offspring for 3 weeks after weaning with 0, 2, 10, 50mg/L THI in drinking water respectively, and investigated the immunological anomalies of dams and offspring...
July 31, 2023: Toxicology
V Tallandier, L Merlen, M Chalansonnet, S Boucard, A Thomas, T Venet, B Pouyatos
Numerous ototoxic drugs, such as some antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, are both cochleotoxic and vestibulotoxic (causing hearing loss and vestibular disorders). However, the impact of some industrial cochleotoxic compounds on the vestibular receptor, if any, remains unknown. As in vivo studies are long and expensive, there is considerable need for predictive and cost-effective in vitro models to test ototoxicity. Here, we present an organotypic model of cultured ampullae harvested from rat neonates. When cultured in a gelatinous matrix, ampulla explants form an enclosed compartment that progressively fills with a high-potassium (K+ ) endolymph-like fluid...
July 27, 2023: Toxicology
Xinyu Wu, Yeyun Ma, Xueqing Li, Nana He, Tianmeng Zhang, Feixue Liu, Huimiao Feng, Jingquan Dong
Indiscriminate use of pesticides not only leads to environmental pollution problems, but also causes poisoning of non-target organisms. Abamectin (ABM), a widely used insecticide worldwide, is of wide concern due to its persistence in the environment and its high toxicity to fish. The kidney, as a key organ for detoxification, is more susceptible to the effects of ABM. Unfortunately, few studies investigated the mechanisms behind this connection. In this study, carp was used as an indicator organism for toxicological studies to investigate renal damage caused by ABM residues in carp...
July 25, 2023: Toxicology
Zhi Xiong Chong, Chean Yeah Yong, Alan Han Kiat Ong, Swee Keong Yeap, Wan Yong Ho
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent receptor that belongs to the superfamily of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. The activation of the canonical AHR signaling pathway is known to induce the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes, facilitating the detoxification metabolism in the human body. Additionally, AHR could interact with various signaling pathways such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κβ), estrogen receptor (ER), and androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathways...
July 20, 2023: Toxicology
Yao Tan, Zhiqun Qiu, Hui Zeng, Jiaohua Luo, Lingqiao Wang, Jia Wang, Ke Cui, Guowei Zhang, Yi Zeng, Huidong Jin, Xiaoling Chen, Yujing Huang, Weiqun Shu
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) affects bone health in adult mice via osteo-immunomodulation. However, its effect on osteoblasts and bone development is unclear. This study investigated the effect of MC-LR on bone osteoimmune and osteoblasts in the developing period. 18 Four-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups (n=9 per group) and exposed to 0 (control) and 1μg/kg b.w. MC-LR (exposure) by intraperitoneal injection for four weeks. The heart blood was collected for serological examination, and the femur for morphological, histopathological, and biomechanical analysis...
July 17, 2023: Toxicology
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