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Philippe Vervliet, Celine Gys, Noelia Caballero-Casero, Adrian Covaci
Thermal printing is a fast, widespread and inexpensive technology that uses a developer to produce a print on the paper, among many applications. A common developer is bisphenol A (BPA), used for this purpose in its free form. Consequently, the handling of thermal paper, as evaluated by the European Food Safety Authority, was reported to be the second largest source of external human exposure to this endocrine disrupting chemical. Recently, reports have been made on the substitution of BPA by alternative developers, which are yet less studied...
February 8, 2019: Toxicology
Shimin Pang, Yanshu Li, Wei Chen, Yaobin Li, Meiyuan Yang, Lijuan Zhao, Qiwei Shen, Nuo Cheng, Ying Wang, Xuequn Lin, Jianmin Ma, Honghao Wu, Gaochun Zhu
Lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental heavy metal toxicant and chronic Pb exposure can have irreversible effects on memory and cognitive function, which is closely related to dendritic spines. Studies have shown that SNX6 and Homer1 can regulate the growth of dendritic spines. We aimed to investigate the effect of Pb exposure on the dendritic spines in hippocampus, the expression of SNX6 and Homer1 in rats and PC12 cells. The animals were randomly divided to three groups: control group, low lead group and high lead group...
February 6, 2019: Toxicology
Boutheina Cherif, Hana Triki, Sana Sahnoun, Khaled Hamden, Afifa Sallemi, Slim Charfi, Saloua Lassoued
Imipenem is a β-Lactam antibiotics characterized by a larger specter activity, it's applied during hard infections in adults and children patients. Our goal is to investigate toxicity induced in male rat reproductive system following imipenem (15, 50 or 100 mg/kg) exposure compared to gentamicin (50 mg/kg) treatment. Effects of imipenem on reproductive organ weights, histoarchitecture, sperm parameters, and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Serum testosterone level was measured. Apoptosis and inflammatory behaviors were investigated by immunohistochemical proteins expression analysis of apoptosis regulator BAX (Bax), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in testis...
February 2, 2019: Toxicology
Daniela Rebleanu, Carmen Gaidau, Geanina Voicu, Cristina Ana Constantinescu, Catalina Mansilla Sánchez, Teresa Cristina Rojas, Sandra Carvalho, Manuela Calin
The potential human health risks following the exposure to inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) is a very important issue for their application in leather finishing industry. The aim of our study was to investigate the cytotoxic effect of silver (Ag)/titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) NPs on human cells. Photocatalytic NPs were prepared by electrochemical deposition of Ag on the surface of TiO2 and nitrogen (N)-TiO2 NPs and, subsequently, physico-chemical characterized. Then, a set of experiments have been performed to study the cytotoxicity and cell death mechanisms involved, the changes in cell morphology and the production of ROS induced in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human lung epithelial cells (A549) by exposure to NPs...
January 31, 2019: Toxicology
Xilin Li, Zemin Wang, James E Klaunig
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is affecting up to one-third of the general population in western countries. While the major cause of NAFLD is related to an unhealthy lifestyle, recent evidence has shown a role of chemical exposure in the induction and progression of NAFLD. Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that exerts its hepatotoxicity mainly through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). We examined how PFOA might affect the progression of NAFLD and whether a preexisting fatty liver intensified or alleviated the effects of PFOA in the livers...
January 31, 2019: Toxicology
Milan Jokanović
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: Toxicology
Jiaxiang Zhang, Na Li, Ling Yang, Haibo Xie, Yi Yang, Hui Wang, Changhao Wu, Tong Shen, Qixing Zhu
We have previously shown trichloroethylene (TCE) induced occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to TCE (OMLDT) with immune liver injury, and kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) activation as a probably mechanism underlying the immune damage. Bradykinin (BK) is an important active component of KKS system function, but the specific role of BK in the immune liver injury has never been examined. The present study aimed to explore the important role of BK and mechanisms of action in immune liver injury induced by TCE...
January 24, 2019: Toxicology
Xia Wen, Angela A Baker, Curtis D Klaassen, J Christopher Corton, Jason R Richardson, Lauren M Aleksunes
Hepatic carboxylesterases (Ces) catalyze the metabolism of drugs, environmental toxicants, and endogenous lipids and are known to be regulated by multiple nuclear receptors. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a synthetic fluorochemical that has been associated with dyslipidemia in exposed populations. In liver, PFOA can activate nuclear receptors such as PPARα, and alter the metabolism and excretion of chemicals. Here, we sought to test the ability of PFOA to modulate Ces expression and activity in the presence and absence of the PPARα receptor...
January 24, 2019: Toxicology
Miloš P Stojiljković, Ranko Škrbić, Milan Jokanović, Dubravko Bokonjić, Vesna Kilibarda, Maja Vulović
BACKGROUND: Carbamates physostigmine and pyridostigmine have been used as a pretreatment against poisoning with nerve agents in order to reversibly inhibit and thus protect from irreversible inhibition a portion of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain and respiratory muscles that is crucial for survival. Memantine, an adamantine derivative, has emerged as a promising alternative to carbamates, since it prevented the fasciculations and skeletal muscle necrosis induced by carbamates and organophosphates, including nerve agents...
January 22, 2019: Toxicology
Takumi Kagawa, Tomáš Zárybnický, Takanao Omi, Yuji Shirai, Shinya Toyokuni, Shingo Oda, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Drug-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent cause of adverse drug reaction. Serum creatinine (CRE) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) are widely used as standard biomarkers for kidney injury; however, the sensitivity and specificity are considered to be low. In recent years, circulating microRNA (miRNAs) have been attracting considerable attention as novel biomarkers for organ injury, but there are currently no established miRNA biomarkers for drug-induced AKI. The present study aimed to identify plasma miRNAs that may enable early and specific detection of drug-induced tubular and glomerular injury through next-generation sequencing analysis...
January 22, 2019: Toxicology
Yassine Ait Bali, Nour-Eddine Kaikai, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Mohamed Bennis
Numerous clinical and epidemiological data have reported the deleterious effects of glyphosate on learning and memory. The ability of this herbicide to cross the blood-brain barrier may have adverse effects on the structure and various functions of the nervous system. This study was conducted to highlight the effects of Glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) on these two functions in mice treated daily with 250 or 500 mg/kg following acute (unique administration), subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) treatments...
January 22, 2019: Toxicology
Yumi Hayashi, Yuki Ito, Hisao Naito, Hazuki Tamada, Nozomi Yamagishi, Takaaki Kondo, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Frank J Gonzalez, Tamie Nakajima
Exposure of pregnant mice to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) induces maternal lipid malnutrition and decreases the number of live fetuses/pups. In this study, we aimed to clarify the relationship between maternal lipid malnutrition and the nutritional status of the neonatal, lactational, and adult offspring, as well as the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in these relationships. Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARA), Ppara-null, and PPARα-humanized (hPPARA) mice were fed diets containing 0, 0...
January 17, 2019: Toxicology
S A Yates, M F Murphy, S A Moore
The effects of malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of oxidative stress, on normal lung fibroblast cells (MRC5) and transformed c ells (MRC5 SV2) showed differing responses between the two cell lines. MRC5 cells showed lower viability at low MDA concentrations (<250 µM) but had better viability at higher concentrations than the transformed cells. Both cell lines showed an increase in the number of micronuclei, nuclear size and a relocation of p53 to the nucleus with increasing MDA. The expression of p53 was higher in the MRC5 cells at 24 h; 2-8 fold induction vs 1-2...
January 15, 2019: Toxicology
Qi Xu, Yi Liu, Honghong Pan, Tiantian Xu, Yan Li, Jiali Yuan, Ping Li, Wenxi Yao, Weiwen Yan, Chunhui Ni
Various miRNAs are dysregulated during initiation and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. However, their function remains limited in silicosis. Here, we observed that miR-125a-3p was downregulated in silica-induced fibrotic murine lung tissues. Ectopic miR-125a-3p expression with chemotherapy attenuated silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Further in vitro experiments revealed that TGF-β1 effectively decreased miR-125a-3p expression in fibroblast lines (NIH/3T3 and MRC-5). Overexpression of miR-125a-3p blocked fibroblast activation stimulated by TGF-β1...
January 15, 2019: Toxicology
Keiko Aida-Yasuoka, Noriko Nishimura, Nozomi Fujisawa, Nozomi Endo, Shuh Narumiya, Chiharu Tohyama
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of dioxin-induced neonatal hydronephrosis. Since the PGE2 receptor has four subtypes, EP1 - EP4, this study was aimed to challenge the hypothesis that at least one of the four subtypes is responsible for the pathogenesis of dioxin-induced hydronephrosis. To this end, we used mouse pups, with a C57BL/6 J background, genetically lacking EP1, EP2, or EP3, and wild-type pups in whom EP4 was suppressed by administering ONO-AE3-208 (ONO), an EP4 antagonist, from postnatal day 1 (PND 1) to PND 13...
January 11, 2019: Toxicology
Christopher M Timperley, Jonathan E Forman, Mohammad Abdollahi, Abdullah Saeed Al-Amri, Augustin Baulig, Djafer Benachour, Veronica Borrett, Flerida A Cariño, Michael Geist, David Gonzalez, William Kane, Zrinka Kovarik, Roberto Martínez-Álvarez, Nicia Maria Fusaro Mourão, Slawomir Neffe, Syed K Raza, Valentin Rubaylo, Alejandra Graciela Suárez, Koji Takeuchi, Cheng Tang, Ferruccio Trifirò, Francois Mauritz van Straten, Paula S Vanninen, Slavica Vučinić, Volodymyr Zaitsev, Muhammad Zafar-Uz-Zaman, Mongia Saïd Zina, Stian Holen
The Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has provided advice on assistance and protection in relation to the Chemical Weapons Convention. In this, the first of three sequential papers describing the SAB's work on this topic, we describe advice given in response to questions from the OPCW Director-General in 2013 and 2014 on the status of available medical countermeasures and treatments to blister and nerve agents. This paper provides the evidence base for this advice which recommended to the OPCW pretreatments, emergency care, and long-term treatments that were available at the time of the request for both classes of chemical warfare agent (CWA)...
January 9, 2019: Toxicology
Ziqiao Yuan, Haoran Zhang, Muhammad Hasnat, Jiaxin Ding, Xi Chen, Peishi Liang, Lixin Sun, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate whether the mice treated with triptolide (TP) could disrupt the liver immune homeostasis, resulting in the inability of the liver to eliminate the harmful response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, we explored whether apoptosis and necroptosis played a critical role in the progression of the hepatotoxicity induced by TP-LPS co-treatment. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice were continuously administrated with two different doses of TP (250 μg/kg and 500 μg/kg) intragastrically for 7 days...
January 8, 2019: Toxicology
Jeongah Song, Kyung Jin Jung, Seok-Joo Yoon, Kyuhong Lee, Bumseok Kim
Polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) is a polymeric biocide with a guanidine group. It has multiple positive charges in physiological conditions due to nitrogen atom in the guanidine and this cationic property contributes antimicrobial effect by disrupting cell membranes. To determine whether the cationic nature of PHMG-P results in cytotoxicity in human cell lines, anionic compounds were treated with PHMG-P. The cytotoxic effect was evaluated with ROS production and HMGB1 release into media. To verify the protection effect of anion against PHMG-P-induced cell death in vivo, a zebrafish assay was adopted...
January 7, 2019: Toxicology
Weihong Xu, Jie Yu, Zhigang Jiang, Wenxia Yan, Shengnan Li, Ya Luo, Jie Xu
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of subchronic low-dose exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on depression-like behaviors and synaptic morphological plasticity in the context of a high-sucrose/high-fat diet in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n = 10 per group), as follows: rats fed a normal-diet (ND), as the control (C-ND); rats fed a normal diet and gavaged with NP at a dose of 0.02 mg/kg/day (NP-L-ND), 0.2 mg/kg/day (NP-M-ND) or 2 mg/kg/day (NP-H-ND); rats fed a high-sucrose/high-fat diet (HSHFD), as the HSHFD control (C-HSHFD); rats fed a HSHFD and gavaged with NP at a dose of 0...
January 7, 2019: Toxicology
Chelsea A O'Driscoll, Madeline E Gallo, John H Fechner, James J Schauer, Joshua D Mezrich
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex component of air pollution and the leading environmental risk factor for death worldwide. PM is formed from a combination of primary sources that emit PM directly into the atmosphere and secondary sources that emit gaseous precursors which oxidize in the atmosphere to form PM and composed of both inorganic and organic components. Currently, all PM is regulated by total mass. This regulatory strategy does not consider individual chemical constituents and assumes all PM is equally toxic...
January 3, 2019: Toxicology
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