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The classification and diagnosis of erythrocytosis.

An absolute erythrocytosis is present when the red cell mass is raised and the haematocrit is elevated above prescribed limits. Causes of an absolute erythrocytosis can be primary where there is an intrinsic problem in the bone marrow and secondary where there an event outside the bone marrow driving erythropoiesis. This can further be divided into congenital and acquired causes. There remain an unexplained group idiopathic erythrocytosis. Investigation commencing with thorough history taking and examination and then investigation depending on initial features is required. Clear simple criteria for polycythaemia vera are now defined. Those who do not fulfil these criteria require further investigation depending on the clinical scenario and initial results. The erythropoietin level provides some guidance as to the direction in which to proceed and the order and extent of investigation necessary in an individual patient. It should thus be possible to make an accurate diagnosis in the majority of patients.

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Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

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