c-Myc and Sp1 contribute to proviral latency by recruiting histone deacetylase 1 to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter

Guochun Jiang, Amy Espeseth, Daria J Hazuda, David M Margolis
Journal of Virology 2007, 81 (20): 10914-23
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors such as valproic acid (VPA) induce the expression of quiescent proviral human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and may deplete proviral infection in vivo. To uncover novel molecular mechanisms that maintain HIV latency, we sought cellular mRNAs whose expression was diminished in resting CD4(+) T cells of HIV-1-infected patients exposed to VPA. c-Myc was prominent among genes markedly downregulated upon exposure to VPA. c-Myc expression repressed HIV-1 expression in chronically infected cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that c-Myc and HDAC1 are coordinately resident at the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter and absent from the promoter after VPA treatment in concert with histone acetylation, RNA polymerase II recruitment, and LTR expression. Sequential ChIP assays demonstrated that c-Myc, Sp1, and HDAC1 coexist in the same DNA-protein complex at the HIV promoter. Short hairpin RNA inhibition of c-Myc reduces both c-Myc and HDAC1 occupancy, blocks c-Myc repression of Tat activation, and increases LTR expression. These results expand the understanding of mechanisms that recruit HDAC and maintain the latency of HIV-1, suggesting novel therapeutic approaches against latent proviral HIV infection.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"