Validation of the Chinese version of pain self-efficacy questionnaire

Huey S Lim, Phoon P Chen, Tony C M Wong, Tony Gin, Emma Wong, Ide S F Chan, Josephine Chu
Anesthesia and Analgesia 2007, 104 (4): 918-23

BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy is a person's belief in his or her ability to perform a certain behavior that achieves a desired outcome. Belief in self-efficacy influences the use of pain-coping strategies, physical and psychological function, and rehabilitation outcome in chronic pain patients. We conducted this prospective study to validate the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ-HK).

METHODS: A previously translated PSEQ-HK was evaluated with the author's consent. Forward-backward translation was conducted, followed by critical appraisal by an expert panel. Reliability was examined by completing the PSEQ-HK twice over a 1-wk interval. One-hundred-twenty Chinese patients with chronic nonmalignant pain were asked to self-complete a set of health-related instruments in Chinese: Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 (SF36) Health Survey.

RESULTS: PSEQ-HK had good retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.75) and high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.93). Exploratory factor analysis showed a one-factor model that accounted for 61% of the total variance, with minimal factor loading of 0.69. It was significantly correlated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and five domains of SF36 (bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, role emotion, and mental health). Moderate correlations were observed with Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and two domains of SF36 (role physical, general health). It had no correlation with pain score and medication use.

CONCLUSIONS: PSEQ-HK is a reliable Chinese clinical assessment tool with satisfactory psychometric properties. Our results provided preliminary support for the construct validity of PSEQ-HK in a heterogeneous Chinese population with chronic nonmalignant pain.

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