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Anesthesia and Analgesia

Scott D Cook-Sather, Gabrielle Castella, Bingqing Zhang, Janell L Mensinger, Jorge Galvez, Ralph F Wetmore
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic analgesic administration reduces pain behavior after pediatric bilateral myringotomy and pressure equalization tube placement (BMT). We hypothesized that postoperative pain in children treated with intraoperative ketorolac would, among several exposures of interest, be strongly associated with ear condition. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of healthy children (9 months to 7 years) who underwent BMT at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia or its ambulatory surgery centers from 2013 to 2016...
May 9, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ali I Kandil, Cindy S Pettit, Lisa N Berry, Veronica O Busso, Matthew Careskey, Emily Chesnut, David W Buck, Nancy D Leslie, Junichi Tamai, John J McAuliffe, Vidya Chidambaran
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal deformities in mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) patients pose unique challenges when patients present for surgery, especially nonspinal surgery. MPS patients have developed postsurgical neurological deficits after nonspinal surgery. While the incidence of neurological deficits after nonspinal surgery under anesthesia is unknown, accumulating evidence provides impetus to change current practice and increased neurological monitoring in these patients. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) with somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) has been implemented at select institutions with varying degree of success...
May 9, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Iris A Speigel, Christopher M Ma, Edyta K Bichler, Jennifer L Gooch, Paul S García
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies implicate the perioperative period in cognitive complications, and increasing experimental evidence shows that the anesthetic agents can affect neuronal processes that underpin learning and memory. Calcineurin, a Ca-dependent phosphatase critically involved in synaptic plasticity, is activated after isoflurane exposure, but its role in the neurological response to anesthesia is unclear. METHODS: We investigated the effect of chronic calcineurin inhibition on postanesthetic cognitive function...
May 9, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Eleonore Valencia, Steven J Staffa, David Faraoni, James A DiNardo, Viviane G Nasr
BACKGROUND: Early identification of children at high risk for perioperative mortality could lead to improved outcomes; however, there is a lack of well-validated risk prediction tools. The Pediatric Risk Assessment (PRAm) score is a new model to prognosticate perioperative risk of mortality in pediatric patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. It was derived from the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Pediatric database. In this study, we aimed to externally validate the PRAm score at 1 large institution...
May 9, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ethan L Sanford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 9, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Christopher L Wu, Adam B King, Timothy M Geiger, Michael C Grant, Michael P W Grocott, Ruchir Gupta, Jennifer M Hah, Timothy E Miller, Andrew D Shaw, Tong J Gan, Julie K M Thacker, Michael G Mythen, Matthew D McEvoy, Charles Argoff, David A Edwards, Debra B Gordon, Padma Gulur, Traci L Hedrick, Stefan D Holubar, Robert W Hurley, Jennifer Jayaram, Michael L Kent, Gary M Oderda, Erin Sun
Surgical care episodes place opioid-naive patients at risk for transitioning to new persistent postoperative opioid use. With one of the central principles being the application of multimodal pain interventions to reduce the reliance on opioid-based medications, enhanced recovery pathways provide a framework that decreases perioperative opioid use. The fourth Perioperative Quality Initiative brought together a group of international experts representing anesthesiology, surgery, and nursing with the objective of providing consensus recommendations on this important topic...
May 9, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Vwaire Orhurhu, Mariam Salisu Orhurhu, Anuj Bhatia, Steven P Cohen
BACKGROUND: IV ketamine is widely used to treat patients with chronic pain, yet the long-term impact remains uncertain. We synthesized evidence from randomized control trials to investigate the effectiveness of IV ketamine infusions for pain relief in chronic conditions and to determine whether any pain classifications or treatment regimens are associated with greater benefit. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar, as well as the clinicaltrials...
May 9, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jeanette R Bauchat, Carolyn F Weiniger, Pervez Sultan, Ashraf S Habib, Kazuo Ando, John J Kowalczyk, Rie Kato, Ronald B George, Craig M Palmer, Brendan Carvalho
The majority of women undergoing cesarean delivery in the United States receive neuraxial morphine, the most effective form of postoperative analgesia for this surgery. Current American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) recommend respiratory monitoring standards following neuraxial morphine administration in the general surgical population that may be too frequent and intensive when applied to the healthy obstetric population receiving a single dose of neuraxial morphine at the time of surgery...
May 9, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Miles Berger, David M Murdoch, Janet S Staats, Cliburn Chan, Jake P Thomas, Grant E Garrigues, Jeffrey N Browndyke, Mary Cooter, Quintin J Quinones, Joseph P Mathew, Kent J Weinhold
Animal models suggest postoperative cognitive dysfunction may be caused by brain monocyte influx. To study this in humans, we developed a flow cytometry panel to profile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected before and after major noncardiac surgery in 5 patients ≥60 years of age who developed postoperative cognitive dysfunction and 5 matched controls who did not. We detected 12,654 ± 4895 cells/10 mL of CSF sample (mean ± SD). Patients who developed postoperative cognitive dysfunction showed an increased CSF monocyte/lymphocyte ratio and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 receptor downregulation on CSF monocytes 24 hours after surgery...
May 3, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
David J Birnbach, Taylor C Thiesen, Nathan T McKenty, Lisa F Rosen, Kristopher L Arheart, Maureen Fitzpatrick, Ruth Everett-Thomas
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia providers' hand hygiene practices in the operating room may contribute to the transmission of bacteria. There is a debate, however, over the best approaches for pathogen containment during task dense periods (induction and extubation) of anesthesia care. A novel approach to reducing pathogen spread during these task dense periods is the use of alcohol-based hand rub on gloves when it may be difficult to either change gloves or clean hands. METHODS: To evaluate the impact of alcohol-based hand rub on gloves, we estimated perforation rates of 50 gloves that were worn as pairs by volunteers for 2 hours at a time applying alcohol-based hand rub every 15 minutes (total of 8 alcohol-based hand rub applications per pair of gloves)...
April 17, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Ellen M Lockhart, Alexander Hincker, Thomas T Klumpner, Jennifer Hofer, Alison G Cahill, Arvind Palanisamy, Walter Boyle, Yehuda Ginosar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
David J Birnbach, Nathan T McKenty, Lisa F Rosen, Kris A Arheart, Ruth Everett-Thomas, Scott F Lindsey
Anesthesia providers have the burden of constant hand hygiene during task dense periods. The requirement for hand hygiene often demands frequent application of alcohol-based hand rub. To assess whether frequent alcohol-based hand rub use leads to skin changes or irritant contact dermatitis, volunteers cleaned their hands with alcohol-based hand rub every 15 minutes for 8 hours for 5 sequential days. They were examined by a dermatologist before and after and asked about subjective skin changes. Results suggest an increase in irritant contact dermatitis scores and subjective complaints...
April 17, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Edward J Mascha, Daniel I Sessler
Perioperative investigators and professionals increasingly seek to evaluate whether implementing systematic practice changes improves outcomes compared to a previous routine. Cluster randomized trials are the optimal design to assess a systematic practice change but are often impractical; investigators, therefore, often select a before-after design. In this Statistical Grand Rounds, we first discuss biases inherent in a before-after design, including confounding due to periods being completely separated by time, regression to the mean, the Hawthorne effect, and others...
April 17, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
T Anthony Anderson, Joshua R Segaran, Chihiro Toda, A Sassan Sabouri, Julien De Jonckheere
BACKGROUND: Maintaining a balance between nociception and analgesia perioperatively reduces morbidity and improves outcomes. Current intraoperative analgesic strategies are based on subjective and nonspecific parameters. The high-frequency heart rate (HR) variability index is purported to assess the balance between nociception and analgesia in patients under general anesthesia. This prospective observational study investigated whether intraoperative changes in the high-frequency HR variability index correlate with clinically relevant nociceptive stimulation and the addition of analgesics...
April 17, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Andrew J Toner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Tomasz Gaszynski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Philippe Guerci, Bulent Ergin, Can Ince
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Matthias Görges, Andrew K Poznikoff, Nicholas C West, Sonia M Brodie, Rollin F Brant, Simon D Whyte
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective α2-adrenergic agonist, which is increasingly used in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care. Potential adverse effects that have not been rigorously evaluated in children include its effects on blood glucose and serum potassium concentrations, which are relevant due to the associations of derangements of both parameters with undesired outcomes. We investigated the effects of 3 different doses of dexmedetomidine on these outcomes in a randomized controlled trial in children undergoing elective surgery...
April 16, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Coert J Zuurbier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Richard H Epstein, Franklin Dexter, Todd J Smaka
BACKGROUND: Hospitals achieve growth in surgical caseload primarily from the additive contribution of many surgeons with low caseloads. Such surgeons often see clinic patients in the morning then travel to a facility to do 1 or 2 scheduled afternoon cases. Uncertainty in travel time is a factor that might need to be considered when scheduling the cases of to-follow surgeons. However, this has not been studied. We evaluated variability in travel times within a city with high traffic density...
April 15, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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