Taif J Mukhdomi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Nadia B Hensley, Richard Gyi, Andres Zorrilla-Vaca, Chun W Choi, Jennifer S Lawton, Charles H Brown, Steve M Frank, Michael C Grant, Brian C Cho
BACKGROUND: Retrograde autologous priming (RAP) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may minimize allogeneic red cell transfusion. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine the impact of RAP on perioperative allogeneic red cell transfusions in cardiac surgical patients. METHODS: This study involved a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies evaluating the use of RAP in cardiac surgery involving CPB...
September 16, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Thomas T Joseph, David B Wax, Raymond Goldstein, Jia Huang, Patrick J McCormick, Matthew A Levin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Eric A Fried, George Zhou, Ronak Shah, Da Wi Shin, Anjan Shah, Daniel Katz, Garrett W Burnett
BACKGROUND: Numerous barrier devices have recently been developed and rapidly deployed worldwide in an effort to protect healthcare workers (HCWs) from exposure to COVID-19 during high-risk procedures. However, only a few studies have examined their impact on the dispersion of droplets and aerosols, which are both thought to be significant contributors to the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: Two commonly used barrier devices, an intubation box and a clear plastic intubation sheet, were evaluated using a physiologically accurate cough simulator...
September 15, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Manuel Taboada, Mariana González, Antía Álvarez, Irene González, Javier García, María Eiras, María Diaz Vieito, Alberto Naveira, Pablo Otero, Olga Campaña, Ignacio Muniategui, Ana Tubio, Jose Costa, Salomé Selas, Agustín Cariñena, Adrián Martínez, Sonia Veiras, Francisco Aneiros, Valentín Caruezo, Aurora Baluja, Julian Alvarez
BACKGROUND: In the treatment for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends prone positioning (PP) during mechanical ventilation for periods of 12-16 hours per day to potentially improve oxygenation and survival. In this prospective observational study, we evaluated the ability of long PP sessions to improve oxygenation in awake ICU patients with moderate or severe ARDS due to COVID-19. METHODS: The study was approved by the ethics committee of Galicia (code No...
September 14, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Lukas M Löffel, Robert G Hahn, Dominique Engel, Patrick Y Wuethrich
BACKGROUND: The intraoperative effect of 20% albumin on plasma volume during surgery involving major blood loss has not been explored extensively due to methodological difficulties. Crystalloids poorly expand the plasma volume, and using a colloid might then be a way to avoid fluid overload. As doubts have been raised about synthetic colloids, albumin solutions are currently used more extensively. This study presents a methodological development showing how plasma volume expansion can be studied in surgical settings with the coinfusion of 20% albumin and lactated Ringer's solution...
September 14, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jeffrey M Feldman, Jan Hendrickx, R Ross Kennedy
CO2 absorbents were introduced into anesthesia practice in 1924 and are essential when using a circle system to minimize waste by reducing fresh gas flow to allow exhaled anesthetic agents to be rebreathed. For many years, absorbent formulations consisted of calcium hydroxide combined with strong bases like sodium and potassium hydroxide. When Sevoflurane and Desflurane were introduced, the potential for toxicity (compound A and CO, respectively) due to the interaction of these agents with absorbents became apparent...
September 14, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Viviane G Nasr, Eleonore Valencia, Steven J Staffa, David Faraoni, James A DiNardo, Jay G Berry, Izabela Leahy, Lynne Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Utilizing the intrinsic surgical risk (ISR) and the patient's chronic and acute conditions, this study aims to develop and validate a comprehensive predictive model of perioperative morbidity in children undergoing noncardiac surgery. METHODS: Following institutional review board (IRB) approval at a tertiary care children's hospital, data for all noncardiac surgical encounters for a derivation dataset from July 2017 to December 2018 including 16,724 cases and for a validation dataset from January 2019 to December 2019 including 9043 cases were collected retrospectively...
September 7, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
David O Warner, Danqing Hu, Michael J Zaccariello, Darrell R Schroeder, Andrew C Hanson, Robert T Wilder, Juraj Sprung, Randall P Flick
BACKGROUND: Two prior population-based (children born in Olmsted County, MN), retrospective cohort studies both found that multiple exposures to anesthesia before age 3 were associated with a significant increase in the frequency of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) later in life. The primary purpose of this secondary analysis of these data was to test the hypothesis that a single exposure to anesthesia before age 3 was associated with an increased risk of ADHD...
September 7, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Indranil Balki, James S Khan, Phillip Staibano, Emmanuelle Duceppe, Amal Bessissow, Erin N Sloan, Erin E Morley, Alexandra N Thompson, Breagh Devereaux, Constanza Rojas, Camila Rojas, Naveed Siddiqui, Daniel I Sessler, P J Devereaux
BACKGROUND: Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia is a common complication of surgery, and active body surface warming (ABSW) systems are used to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. Prior data on certain outcomes are equivocal (ie, blood loss) or limited (ie, pain and opioid consumption). The objective of this study was to provide an updated review on the effect of ABSW on clinical outcomes and temperature maintenance. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating ABSW systems compared to nonactive warming controls in noncardiac surgeries...
September 7, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Michael C Grant, Tetsuro Isada, Pavel Ruzankin, Allan Gottschalk, Glenn Whitman, Jennifer S Lawton, Jeffrey Dodd-O, Viachaslau Barodka
BACKGROUND: Cardiac anesthetics rely heavily on opioids, with the standard patient receiving between 70 and 105 morphine sulfate equivalents (MSE; 10-15 µg/kg of fentanyl). A central tenet of Enhanced Recovery Programs (ERP) is the use of multimodal analgesia. This study was performed to assess the association between nonopioid interventions employed as part of an ERP for cardiac surgery and intraoperative opioid administration. METHODS: This study represents a post hoc secondary analysis of data obtained from an institutional ERP for cardiac surgery...
September 1, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Weihua Ding, Zerong You, Qian Chen, Liuyue Yang, Jason Doheny, Xue Zhou, Na Li, Shiyu Wang, Kun Hu, Lucy Chen, Suyun Xia, Xinbo Wu, Changning Wang, Can Zhang, Liang Chen, Christine Ritchie, Peigen Huang, Jianren Mao, Shiqian Shen
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, a consortium of diverse microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract, has emerged as a key player in neuroinflammatory responses, supporting the functional relevance of the "gut-brain axis." Chronic-constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI) is a commonly used animal model of neuropathic pain with a major input from T cell-mediated immune responses. In this article, we sought to examine whether gut microbiota influences CCI neuropathic pain, and, if so, whether T-cell immune responses are implicated...
September 1, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Tomohiro Chaki, Shunsuke Tachibana, Sho Kumita, Honami Sato, Kosuke Hamada, Yasuyuki Tokinaga, Michiaki Yamakage
BACKGROUND: Second-generation supraglottic airway (SGA) devices are useful for airway management during positive pressure ventilation in general anesthesia and emergency medicine. In some clinical settings, such as the anesthetic management of awake craniotomy, SGAs are used in the head-rotated position, which is required for exposure of the surgical field, although this position sometimes worsens the efficiency of mechanical ventilation with SGAs. In this study, we investigated and compared the influence of head rotation on oropharyngeal leak pressures (OPLP) of the i-gel and LMA® Supreme™ which are second-generation SGA devices...
September 1, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Nasir Khoso, Waleed B Ghaffar, Shemila Abassi, Fauzia A Khan
BACKGROUND: The analysis of adverse events, including morbidity and mortality (M&M), helps to identify subgroups of children at risk and to modify clinical practice. There are scant data available from low- and middle-income countries. Our aim was to estimate the proportion of pediatric patients with various severe adverse events in the perioperative period extending to 48 hours and to describe the clinical situations and causes of those events. METHODS: We reviewed the M&M database of the Department of Anesthesiology between 1992 and 2016...
September 1, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Sahar Abdel-Baky Mohamed, Hala Saad Abdel-Ghaffar, Nivin Abdel-Azim Hassan, Fatma Adel El Sherif, Samia Abdelsamie Shouman, Mervat Mostafa Omran, Sahar Badr Hassan, Ayat Ahmed Abd El-Monsef Allam, Doaa Gomaa Sayed
BACKGROUND: Buccal dexmedetomidine (DEX) produces adequate preoperative sedation and anxiolysis when used as a premedication. Formulating the drug as a gel decreases oral losses and improves the absorption of buccal DEX. We compared pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of 3 doses of buccal DEX gel formulated in our pharmaceutical laboratory for sedative premedication in women undergoing modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. METHODS: Thirty-six patients enrolled in 3 groups (n = 12) to receive buccal DEX gel 30 minutes before surgery at 0...
September 1, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Annika Raupach, Elif Karakurt, Carolin Torregroza, Sebastian Bunte, Katharina Feige, Martin Stroethoff, Timo Brandenburger, André Heinen, Markus W Hollmann, Ragnar Huhn
BACKGROUND: Cardioprotective interventions-such as pharmacological postconditioning-are a promising strategy to reduce deleterious consequences of ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/RI) in the heart, especially as timing and onset of myocardial infarction are unpredictable. Pharmacological postconditioning by treatment with dexmedetomidine (Dex), an α2-adrenoreceptor agonist, during reperfusion protects hearts from I/RI, independently of time point and duration of application during the reperfusion phase...
September 1, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Lisa K Lee, Lejla Medzikovic, Mansoureh Eghbali, Holger K Eltzschig, Xiaoyi Yuan
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is characterized by lung epithelial and endothelial cell injury, with increased permeability of the alveolar-capillary membrane, leading to pulmonary edema, severe hypoxia, and difficulty with ventilation. The most common cause of ARDS is sepsis, and currently, treatment of ARDS and sepsis has consisted mostly of supportive care because targeted therapies have largely been unsuccessful...
September 1, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Jane S Moon, Douglas R Bacon
The letters between Emery Andrew Rovenstine, MD (1895-1960), and Arthur Ernest Guedel, MD (1883-1956), are a window into the personalities and politics of the creation of American anesthesiology. The ambition of these men, both personal and professional, lay at the heart of their sacrifices and successes. Their correspondence unmasked common struggles and foibles, humanizing these giants of our field. Notably throughout the letters, Rovenstine, as the junior partner, wrestled with Guedel's advice to temper personal ambition for the collective good...
August 26, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Gayani S Jayasooriya, Jose C A Carvalho, Alice Luca, Mrinalini Balki
BACKGROUND: Nitroglycerin is used for acute reduction in uterine tone. Prolonged oxytocin exposure causes desensitization of oxytocin receptors. It is unknown if nitroglycerin exposure impacts the subsequent action of oxytocin in the setting of oxytocin receptor desensitization. This study investigated the effects of nitroglycerin on oxytocin-desensitized and oxytocin-naïve human myometrium and the subsequent response to oxytocin dose-response testing in vitro. METHODS: Myometrial samples from 17 elective cesarean deliveries were divided into strips and allocated to 1 of 4 groups: (1) oxytocin desensitized and no nitroglycerin; (2) oxytocin desensitized and nitroglycerin; (3) oxytocin naïve and nitroglycerin; and (4) oxytocin naïve and no nitroglycerin...
August 26, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Yuchen Yuan, Yuelun Zhang, Le Shen, Li Xu, Yuguang Huang
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether the benefits of performing perioperative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion outweigh the risks of postoperative wound infection. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of perioperative RBC transfusion as well as dose-response relationship on wound infections in surgical patients in a large cohort. METHODS: As a retrospective observational study, the national Hospital Quality Monitoring System database was used to retrieve information about in-hospital surgical patients without limitations on surgical types in the People's Republic of China between 2013 and 2018...
August 25, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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