RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
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Sandwich electrochemical immunoassay for the detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B based on immobilized thiolated antibodies.

A new approach for the sensitive detection of Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is presented based upon an electrochemical enzymatic immunoassay that utilizes thiolated antibodies immobilized on a gold surface. This method relies on the use of amine- or sulfhydryl-reactive heterobifunctional cross-linkers for the introduction of 2-pyridyl-disulfide groups to the antibody. The disulfide-containing linkages are subsequently cleaved with a suitable reducing agent, such as dithiothreitol (DTT), and the thiolated antibody-gold bond is covalently formed on a gold working electrode. Various cross-linking agents for immobilization of the capture antibody onto the gold electrode were investigated and compared. Factors influencing the thiolation and immobilization were investigated and optimized. The feasibility of such antibody immobilization and the subsequent sandwich enzyme immunoassay is demonstrated for the sensitive detection of SEB. The detection limit estimated from a representative dose-response curve is 1 ng/mL, corresponding to 5 pg in a 5-microL sample. Coupling the specificity of immunoassays with the sensitivity and low detection limits of electrochemical detection shows real promise for future sensing technology in enabling the development of single-use disposable devices.

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