Skin manifestation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection—a case report and review article

Wan Yee Teo, Mei Yoke Chan, Ching Mei Lam, Chia Yin Chong
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 2006, 35 (12): 897-900

INTRODUCTION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus that is a frequent coloniser of fluids used in the hospital setting. It causes infection in immunosuppressed hosts, especially those who are neutropaenic, on chemotherapy and broad spectrum antibiotics. Skin and soft tissue manifestations of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection are becoming an increasingly recognised entity; the clinical spectrum ranges from mucocutaneous, skin to soft tissue infections.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a case of an 8-year-old girl with acute myeloid leukaemia who developed metastatic skin lesions secondary to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteraemia. The authors reviewed a total of 24 reported cases of mucocutaneous, skin and soft tissue infections by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The presentations include metastatic cellulitis, primary cellulitis and infected mucocutaneous ulcers.

RESULTS: This is the first locally reported case of metastatic nodular skin lesions caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteraemia. This is also the first reported paediatric case of embolic skin lesions caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Of the 6 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteraemia seen in the paediatric oncology patients from year 2000 to 2004 at our hospital, only 1 case developed metastatic skin lesions.

CONCLUSION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia skin infection should be included into the list of differential diagnoses for metastatic skin lesions in neutropaenic patients, especially with an underlying haematologic malignancy who has received recent chemotherapy and broad spectrum antibiotics. Haematologic malignancy, transplantation, neutropaenic, immunosuppressive therapy and a high severity of illness score were important prognostic factors.

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