XIAP deficiency in humans causes an X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

Stéphanie Rigaud, Marie-Claude Fondanèche, Nathalie Lambert, Benoit Pasquier, Véronique Mateo, Pauline Soulas, Lionel Galicier, Françoise Le Deist, Frédéric Rieux-Laucat, Patrick Revy, Alain Fischer, Geneviève de Saint Basile, Sylvain Latour
Nature 2006 November 2, 444 (7115): 110-4
The homeostasis of the immune response requires tight regulation of the proliferation and apoptosis of activated lymphocytes. In humans, defects in immune homeostasis result in lymphoproliferation disorders including autoimmunity, haemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis and lymphomas. The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency that is characterized by lymphohystiocytosis, hypogammaglobulinaemia and lymphomas, and that usually develops in response to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Mutations in the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein SAP, a signalling adaptor molecule, underlie 60% of cases of familial XLP. Here, we identify mutations in the gene that encodes the X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis XIAP (also termed BIRC4) in patients with XLP from three families without mutations in SAP. These mutations lead to defective expression of XIAP. We show that apoptosis of lymphocytes from XIAP-deficient patients is enhanced in response to various stimuli including the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex, the death receptor CD95 (also termed Fas or Apo-1) and the TNF-associated apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R). We also found that XIAP-deficient patients, like SAP-deficient patients, have low numbers of natural killer T-lymphocytes (NKT cells), indicating that XIAP is required for the survival and/or differentiation of NKT cells. The observation that XIAP-deficiency and SAP-deficiency are both associated with a defect in NKT cells strengthens the hypothesis that NKT cells have a key role in the immune response to EBV. Furthermore, by identifying an XLP immunodeficiency that is caused by mutations in XIAP, we show that XIAP is a potent regulator of lymphocyte homeostasis in vivo.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.