journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32989310/what-trump-s-supreme-court-pick-could-mean-for-science
#1
Nidhi Subbaraman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32989309/water-on-mars-discovery-of-three-buried-lakes-intrigues-scientists
#2
Jonathan O'Callaghan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32989308/bacteria-sting-viral-invaders
#3
Justin Jenson, Zhijian J Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32985605/the-visa-woes-that-shattered-scientists-american-dreams
#4
Virginia Gewin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32978612/-apocalyptic-fires-are-ravaging-the-world-s-largest-tropical-wetland
#5
Emiliano Rodríguez Mega
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32978611/covid-vaccine-results-are-on-the-way-and-scientists-concerns-are-growing
#6
Smriti Mallapaty, Heidi Ledford
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32973348/how-helping-my-international-students-succeed-helped-everyone
#7
Michael Scott Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32971526/cells-of-the-adult-human-heart
#8
Monika Litviňuková, Carlos Talavera-López, Henrike Maatz, Daniel Reichart, Catherine L Worth, Eric L Lindberg, Masatoshi Kanda, Krzysztof Polanski, Matthias Heinig, Michael Lee, Emily R Nadelmann, Kenny Roberts, Liz Tuck, Eirini S Fasouli, Daniel M DeLaughter, Barbara McDonough, Hiroko Wakimoto, Joshua M Gorham, Sara Samari, Krishnaa T Mahbubani, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Giannino Patone, Joseph J Boyle, Hongbo Zhang, Hao Zhang, Anissa Viveiros, Gavin Y Oudit, Omer Bayraktar, J G Seidman, Christine E Seidman, Michela Noseda, Norbert Hubner, Sarah A Teichmann
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Advanced insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies require deeper understanding of the healthy heart's molecular processes. Knowledge of the full repertoire of cardiac cells and their gene expression profiles is a fundamental first step in this endeavor. Here, using state-of-the-art analyses of large-scale single-cell and nuclei transcriptomes, we characterise six anatomical adult heart regions. Our results highlight the cellular heterogeneity of cardiomyocytes, pericytes, and fibroblasts, revealing distinct atrial and ventricular subsets with diverse developmental origins and specialized properties...
September 24, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32971525/integration-of-innate-immune-signaling-by-caspase-8-cleavage-of-n4bp1
#9
Alexander D Gitlin, Klaus Heger, Alexander F Schubert, Rohit Reja, Donghong Yan, Victoria C Pham, Eric Suto, Juan Zhang, Youngsu C Kwon, Emily C Freund, Jing Kang, Anna Pham, Roger Caothien, Natasha Bacarro, Trent Hinkle, Min Xu, Brent S McKenzie, Benjamin Haley, Wyne P Lee, Jennie R Lill, Merone Roose-Girma, Monika Dohse, Joshua D Webster, Kim Newton, Vishva M Dixit
Mutations in the death receptor Fas1,2 or its ligand FasL3 cause autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), whereas mutations in caspase-8 or its adaptor FADD - which mediate cell death downstream of Fas/FasL - cause severe immunodeficiency in addition to ALPS4-6 . Mouse models have corroborated a role for FADD-caspase-8 in promoting inflammatory responses7-12 , but the mechanisms underlying immunodeficiency remain undefined. Here, we identify NEDD4-binding protein 1 (N4BP1) as a suppressor of cytokine production that is cleaved and inactivated by caspase-8...
September 24, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32973349/a-robot-triumphs-in-a-curling-match-against-elite-humans
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32973347/a-smiling-whale-makes-a-record-deep-dive
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968283/fractional-antiferromagnetic-skyrmion-lattice-induced-by-anisotropic-couplings
#12
Shang Gao, H Diego Rosales, Flavia A Gómez Albarracín, Vladimir Tsurkan, Guratinder Kaur, Tom Fennell, Paul Steffens, Martin Boehm, Petr Čermák, Astrid Schneidewind, Eric Ressouche, Daniel C Cabra, Christian Rüegg, Oksana Zaharko
Magnetic skyrmions are topological solitons with a nanoscale winding spin texture that hold promise for spintronics applications1-4 . Skyrmions have so far been observed in a variety of magnets that exhibit nearly parallel alignment for neighbouring spins, but theoretically skyrmions with anti-parallel neighbouring spins are also possible. Such antiferromagnetic skyrmions may allow more flexible control than conventional ferromagnetic skyrmions5-10 . Here, by combining neutron scattering measurements and Monte Carlo simulations, we show that a fractional antiferromagnetic skyrmion lattice is stabilized in MnSc2 S4 through anisotropic couplings...
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968282/functional-genomic-landscape-of-cancer-intrinsic-evasion-of-killing-by-t-cells
#13
Keith A Lawson, Cristovão M Sousa, Xiaoyu Zhang, Eiru Kim, Rummy Akthar, Joseph J Caumanns, Yuxi Yao, Nicholas Mikolajewicz, Catherine Ross, Kevin R Brown, Abdelrahman Abou Zid, Zi Peng Fan, Shirley Hui, Jordan A Krall, Donald M Simons, Chloe J Slater, Victor De Jesus, Lujia Tang, Richa Singh, Joshua E Goldford, Sarah Martin, Qian Huang, Elizabeth A Francis, Andrea Habsid, Ryan Climie, David Tieu, Jiarun Wei, Ren Li, Amy Hin Yan Tong, Michael Aregger, Katherine S Chan, Hong Han, Xiaowei Wang, Patricia Mero, John H Brumell, Antonio Finelli, Laurie Ailles, Gary Bader, Gromoslaw A Smolen, Gillian A Kingsbury, Traver Hart, Charles Kung, Jason Moffat
The genetic circuits that allow cancer cells to evade destruction by the host immune system remain poorly understood1-3 . Here, to identify a phenotypically robust core set of genes and pathways that enable cancer cells to evade killing mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), we performed genome-wide CRISPR screens across a panel of genetically diverse mouse cancer cell lines that were cultured in the presence of CTLs. We identify a core set of 182 genes across these mouse cancer models, the individual perturbation of which increases either the sensitivity or the resistance of cancer cells to CTL-mediated toxicity...
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968281/shared-yet-dissociable-neural-codes-across-eye-gaze-valence-and-expectation
#14
Raviv Pryluk, Yosef Shohat, Anna Morozov, Dafna Friedman, Aryeh H Taub, Rony Paz
The direction of the eye gaze of others is a prominent social cue in primates and is important for communication1-11 . Although gaze can signal threat and elicit anxiety6,12,13 , it remains unclear whether it shares neural circuitry with stimulus value. Notably, gaze not only has valence, but can also serve as a predictor of the outcome of a social encounter, which can be either negative or positive2,8,12,13 . Here we show that the neural codes for gaze and valence overlap in primates and that they involve two different mechanisms: one for the outcome and another for its expectation...
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968280/conformation-of-sister-chromatids-in-the-replicated-human-genome
#15
Michael Mitter, Catherina Gasser, Zsuzsanna Takacs, Christoph C H Langer, Wen Tang, Gregor Jessberger, Charlie T Beales, Eva Neuner, Stefan L Ameres, Jan-Michael Peters, Anton Goloborodko, Ronald Micura, Daniel W Gerlich
The three-dimensional organization of the genome supports regulated gene expression, recombination, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation during mitosis. Chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C)1,2 analysis has revealed a complex genomic landscape of internal chromosomal structures in vertebrate cells3-7 , but the identical sequence of sister chromatids has made it difficult to determine how they topologically interact in replicated chromosomes. Here we describe sister-chromatid-sensitive Hi-C (scsHi-C), which is based on labelling of nascent DNA with 4-thio-thymidine and nucleoside conversion chemistry...
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968279/modulating-tradd-to-restore-cellular-homeostasis-and-inhibit-apoptosis
#16
Daichao Xu, Heng Zhao, Minzhi Jin, Hong Zhu, Bing Shan, Jiefei Geng, Slawomir A Dziedzic, Palak Amin, Lauren Mifflin, Masanori Gomi Naito, Ayaz Najafov, Jing Xing, Lingjie Yan, Jianping Liu, Ying Qin, Xinqian Hu, Huibing Wang, Mengmeng Zhang, Vica Jean Manuel, Li Tan, Zhuohao He, Zhenyu J Sun, Virginia M Y Lee, Gerhard Wagner, Junying Yuan
Cell death in human diseases is often a consequence of disrupted cellular homeostasis. If cell death is prevented without restoring cellular homeostasis, it may lead to a persistent dysfunctional and pathological state. Although mechanisms of cell death have been thoroughly investigated1-3 , it remains unclear how homeostasis can be restored after inhibition of cell death. Here we identify TRADD4-6 , an adaptor protein, as a direct regulator of both cellular homeostasis and apoptosis. TRADD modulates cellular homeostasis by inhibiting K63-linked ubiquitination of beclin 1 mediated by TRAF2, cIAP1 and cIAP2, thereby reducing autophagy...
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968278/initiation-of-a-conserved-trophectoderm-program-in-human-cow-and-mouse-embryos
#17
Claudia Gerri, Afshan McCarthy, Gregorio Alanis-Lobato, Andrej Demtschenko, Alexandre Bruneau, Sophie Loubersac, Norah M E Fogarty, Daniel Hampshire, Kay Elder, Phil Snell, Leila Christie, Laurent David, Hilde Van de Velde, Ali A Fouladi-Nashta, Kathy K Niakan
Current understandings of cell specification in early mammalian pre-implantation development are based mainly on mouse studies. The first lineage differentiation event occurs at the morula stage, with outer cells initiating a trophectoderm (TE) placental progenitor program. The inner cell mass arises from inner cells during subsequent developmental stages and comprises precursor cells of the embryo proper and yolk sac1 . Recent gene-expression analyses suggest that the mechanisms that regulate early lineage specification in the mouse may differ in other mammals, including human2-5 and cow6 ...
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968277/hippocampal-ca2-sharp-wave-ripples-reactivate-and-promote-social-memory
#18
Azahara Oliva, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, Felix Leroy, Steven A Siegelbaum
The consolidation of spatial memory depends on the reactivation ('replay') of hippocampal place cells that were active during recent behaviour. Such reactivation is observed during sharp-wave ripples (SWRs)-synchronous oscillatory electrical events that occur during non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep1-8 and whose disruption impairs spatial memory3,5,6,8 . Although the hippocampus also encodes a wide range of non-spatial forms of declarative memory, it is not yet known whether SWRs are necessary for such memories...
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968276/the-maternal-microbiome-modulates-fetal-neurodevelopment-in-mice
#19
Helen E Vuong, Geoffrey N Pronovost, Drake W Williams, Elena J L Coley, Emily L Siegler, Austin Qiu, Maria Kazantsev, Chantel J Wilson, Tomiko Rendon, Elaine Y Hsiao
'Dysbiosis' of the maternal gut microbiome, in response to challenges such as infection1 , altered diet2 and stress3 during pregnancy, has been increasingly associated with abnormalities in brain function and behaviour of the offspring4 . However, it is unclear whether the maternal gut microbiome influences neurodevelopment during critical prenatal periods and in the absence of environmental challenges. Here we investigate how depletion and selective reconstitution of the maternal gut microbiome influences fetal neurodevelopment in mice...
September 23, 2020: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32968275/structure-of-nucleosome-bound-dna-methyltransferases-dnmt3a-and-dnmt3b
#20
Ting-Hai Xu, Minmin Liu, X Edward Zhou, Gangning Liang, Gongpu Zhao, H Eric Xu, Karsten Melcher, Peter A Jones
CpG methylation by de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 3A and 3B is essential for mammalian development and differentiation and is frequently dysregulated in cancer1 . These two DNMTs preferentially bind to nucleosomes, yet cannot methylate the DNA wrapped around the nucleosome core2 , and they favour the methylation of linker DNA at positioned nucleosomes3,4 . Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a ternary complex of catalytically competent DNMT3A2, the catalytically inactive accessory subunit DNMT3B3 and a nucleosome core particle flanked by linker DNA...
September 23, 2020: Nature
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