The Latin American Dialysis and Transplantation Registry (RLDT) annual report 2004

Ana Cusumano, Guillermo Garcia Garcia, Cristina Di Gioia, Osvaldo Hermida, Carlos Lavorato et al.
Ethnicity & Disease 2006, 16 (2): S2-10-3

INTRODUCTION: The Latin American Dialysis and Transplantation Registry (RLDT) includes 20 national affiliates. Data are provided annually by delegates designated by the national affiliate or by the Registry's Coordinating Committee.

RESULTS: Prevalence of persons on renal replacement therapy (RRT) has increased from 192 patients per million population (pmp) in 1992 to 424 pmp in 2003, a 10% annual increment. Fifty-six percent were on hemodialysis, 23% on peritoneal dialysis, and 21% had a functioning graft. The highest prevalence was observed in Puerto Rico, and the lowest in Ecuador. Hemodialysis was the preferred treatment modality, except in El Salvador, Mexico, and Guatemala. Incidence rates varied widely; they were high in Puerto Rico (336 pmp) and Mexico (275 pmp) and low in Costa Rica (24 pmp) and Ecuador (14 pmp). Diabetes was the main reported cause of endstage renal disease (ESRD); it caused from 21% (Uruguay) to 65% (Puerto Rico) of cases. Forty percent of incident patients were > 65 years old. Access to RRT is universal in Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela but restricted in countries like Mexico and Paraguay. Main causes of death on dialysis were cardiovascular (44%) and infection (26%). Transplantation rates increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 13.7 pmp in 2003, mostly from living donors (55%). The number of transplants reached 69,181 grafts.

CONCLUSION: Prevalence of RRT has increased over the years; diabetes has become the main cause of ESRD, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death on dialysis. Transplantation rates, although increasing, have not matched the growing population on dialysis. Programs to promote renal health in the region are urgently needed.

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