Mechanical manipulation of Alzheimer's amyloid beta1-42 fibrils

A Karsai, Zs Mártonfalvi, A Nagy, L Grama, B Penke, M S Z Kellermayer
Journal of Structural Biology 2006, 155 (2): 316-26
The 39- to 42-residue-long amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta-peptide) forms filamentous structures in the neuritic plaques found in the neuropil of Alzheimer's disease patients. The assembly and deposition of Abeta-fibrils is one of the most important factors in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disease. Although the structural analysis of amyloid fibrils is difficult, single-molecule methods may provide unique insights into their characteristics. In the present work, we explored the nanomechanical properties of amyloid fibrils formed from the full-length, most neurotoxic Abeta1-42 peptide, by manipulating individual fibrils with an atomic force microscope. We show that Abeta-subunit sheets can be mechanically unzipped from the fibril surface with constant forces in a reversible transition. The fundamental unzipping force (approximately 23 pN) was significantly lower than that observed earlier for fibrils formed from the Abeta1-40 peptide (approximately 33 pN), suggesting that the presence of the two extra residues (Ile and Ala) at the peptide's C-terminus result in a mechanical destabilization of the fibril. Deviations from the constant force transition may arise as a result of geometrical constraints within the fibril caused by its left-handed helical structure. The nanomechanical fingerprint of the Abeta1-42 is further influenced by the structural dynamics of intrafibrillar interactions.

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