Katie M Beverley, Nicolas Barbera, Irena Levitan
Cholesterol is a negative regulator of a variety of ion channels. We have previously shown that cholesterol suppresses Kir2.2 channels via residue-residue uncoupling on the inter-subunit interfaces within the close state of the channels (3JYC). In this study, we extend this analysis to the other known structure of Kir2.2 that is closer to the open state of Kir2.2 channels (3SPI) and provide additional analysis of the residue distances between the uncoupled residues and cholesterol binding domains in the two conformation states of the channels...
April 17, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
S Aguirre-Sampieri, A Casañal, P Emsley, G Garza-Ramos
Many enzymes can self-assemble into higher-order structures with helical symmetry. A particularly noteworthy example is that of nitrilases, enzymes in which oligomerization of dimers into spiral homo-oligomers is a requirement for their enzymatic function. Nitrilases are widespread in nature where they catalyze the hydrolysis of nitriles into the corresponding carboxylic acid and ammonia. Here, we present the Cryo-EM structure, at 3 Å resolution, of a C-terminal truncate nitrilase from Rhodococcus sp...
April 12, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Ziao Fu, Elliot J Crooks, Brandon A Irizarry, Xiaoyue Zhu, Saikat Chowdhury, William E Van Nostrand, Steven O Smith
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is associated with the accumulation of fibrillar Aβ peptides upon and within the cerebral vasculature, which leads to loss of vascular integrity and contributes to disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigate the structure of human-derived Aβ40 fibrils obtained from patients diagnosed with sporadic or familial Dutch-type (E22Q) CAA. Using cryo-EM, two primary structures are identified containing elements that have not been observed in in vitro Aβ40 fibril structures...
April 12, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Peter Kirchweger, Debakshi Mullick, Prabhu Prasad Swain, Sharon G Wolf, Michael Elbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Camille Grosse, Maud Sigoillot, Véronique Megalizzi, Abdalkarim Tanina, Nicolas Willand, Alain R Baulard, René Wintjens
Ethionamide (ETO) is a prodrug that is primarily used as a second-line agent in the treatment of tuberculosis. Among the bacterial ETO activators, the monooxygenase MymA has been recently identified, and its expression is regulated by the mycobacterial regulator VirS. The discovery of VirS ligands that can enhance mymA expression and thereby increase the antimycobacterial efficacy of ETO, has led to the development of a novel therapeutic strategy against tuberculosis. This strategy involves the selection of preclinical candidates, including SMARt751...
March 26, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Christopher G Bon, Jason C Grigg, Jaeyong Lee, Craig S Robb, Nathanael A Caveney, Lindsay D Eltis, Natalie C J Strynadka
Staphylococcus aureus, an ESKAPE pathogen, is a major clinical concern due to its pathogenicity and manifold antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. The commonly used β-lactam antibiotics target bacterial penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and inhibit crosslinking of peptidoglycan strands that comprise the bacterial cell wall mesh, initiating a cascade of effects leading to bacterial cell death. S. aureus PBP1 is involved in synthesis of the bacterial cell wall during division and its presence is essential for survival of both antibiotic susceptible and resistant S...
March 26, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
María C Cardona-Echavarría, Carmen Santillán, Ricardo Miranda-Blancas, Vivian Stojanoff, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera
Fusion proteins (FPs) are frequently utilized as a biotechnological tool in the determination of macromolecular structures using X-ray methods. Here, we explore the use of different protein tags in various FP, to obtain initial phases by using them in a partial molecular replacement (MR) and constructing the remaining FP structure with ARP/wARP. Usually, the tag is removed prior to crystallization, however leaving the tag on may facilitate crystal formation, and structural determination by expanding phases from known to unknown segments of the complex...
March 25, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Toru Kojima, Hiromi Yamada, Sakiko Enomoto, Tomoyo Nakao, Shigeo Arai
Melanin granules (melanosomes) in Asian and Caucasian black hairs were investigated by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). This technique facilitates a direct evaluation of the three-dimensional distribution and morphology of melanin granules without requiring their isolation from hair. Three-dimensional reconstructed images of melanin granule distribution in hair samples were obtained using serial SEM images observed by FIB-SEM. Melanin granules in black hair tended to be three-dimensionally dense in the outer periphery of the cortex...
March 24, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Vipul Kumar, Seyad Shefrin, Durai Sundar
The global spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since 2019 has led to a continuous evolution of viral variants, with the latest concern being the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. In this study, classical molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to elucidate the biophysical aspects of the Omicron spike protein's receptor-binding domain (RBD) in its interaction with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and a neutralizing antibody, comparing it to the wildtype (WT). To model the Omicron variant, 15 in silico mutations were introduced in the RBD region of WT (retrieved from PDB)...
March 15, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Valeriy Titarenko, Alan M Roseman
The goal of cryo-EM experiments in the biological sciences is to determine the atomic structure of a molecule and deduce insights into its functions and mechanisms. Despite improvements in instrumentation for data collection and new software algorithms, in most cases, individual atoms are not resolved. Model building of proteins, nucleic acids, or molecules in general, is feasible from the experimentally determined density maps at resolutions up to the range of 3-4 Angstroms. For lower-resolution maps or parts of maps, fitting smaller structures obtained by modelling or experimental techniques with higher resolution is a way to resolve the issue...
March 13, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Lourdes R Couoh, Lauro Bucio, José Luis Ruvalcaba, Britta Manoel, Tengteng Tang, Aurélien Gourrier, Kathryn Grandfield
In humans, the growth pattern of the acellular extrinsic fibre cementum (AEFC) has been useful to estimate the age-at-death. However, the structural organization behind such a pattern remains poorly understood. In this study tooth cementum from seven individuals from a Mexican modern skeletal series were analyzed with the aim of unveiling the AEFC collagenous and mineral structure using multimodal imaging approaches. The organization of collagen fibres was first determined using: light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron tomography, and plasma FIB scanning electron microscopy (PFIB-SEM) tomography...
March 11, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Meagan E MacDonald, Nicholas G M Wells, Bakar A Hassan, Joshua A Dudley, Kylie J Walters, Dmitry M Korzhnev, James M Aramini, Colin A Smith
While protein activity is traditionally studied with a major focus on the active site, the activity of enzymes has been hypothesized to be linked to the flexibility of adjacent regions, warranting more exploration into how the dynamics in these regions affects catalytic turnover. One such enzyme is Xylanase A (XylA), which cleaves hemicellulose xylan polymers by hydrolysis at internal β-1,4-xylosidic linkages. It contains a "thumb" region whose flexibility has been suggested to affect the activity. The double mutation D11F/R122D was previously found to affect activity and potentially bias the thumb region to a more open conformation...
March 2, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Bin Shi, Kevin Zhang, David J Fleet, Robert A McLeod, R J Dwayne Miller, Jane Y Howe
Cryo-electron microscopy has become a powerful tool to determine three-dimensional (3D) structures of rigid biological macromolecules from noisy micrographs with single-particle reconstruction. Recently, deep neural networks, e.g., CryoDRGN, have demonstrated conformational and compositional heterogeneity of complexes. However, the lack of ground-truth conformations poses a challenge to assess the performance of heterogeneity analysis methods. In this work, variational autoencoders (VAE) with three types of deep generative priors were learned for latent variable inference and heterogeneous 3D reconstruction via Bayesian inference...
March 1, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Yugo Kato, Woosuk Ha, Zehua Zheng, Lumi Negishi, Jun Kawano, Yoshihisa Kurita, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Michio Suzuki
Calcium carbonate is present in many biominerals, including in the exoskeletons of crustaceans and shells of mollusks. High Mg-containing calcium carbonate was synthesized by high temperatures, high pressures or high molecular organic matter. For example, biogenic high Mg-containing calcite is synthesized under strictly controlled Mg concentration at ambient temperature and pressure. The spines of sea urchins consist of calcite, which contain a high percentage of magnesium. In this study, we investigated the factors that increase the magnesium content in calcite from the spines of the sea urchin, Heliocidaris crassispina...
March 1, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Da Xu, Nozomi Ando
Efficient and high-accuracy filtering of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) micrographs is an emerging challenge with the growing speed of data collection and sizes of datasets. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are machine learning models that have been proven successful in many computer vision tasks, and have been previously applied to cryo-EM micrograph filtering. In this work, we demonstrate that two strategies, fine-tuning models from pretrained weights and including the power spectrum of micrographs as input, can greatly improve the attainable prediction accuracy of CNN models...
February 29, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Jakub Filipek, Katarzyna Chalaskiewicz, Aleksandra Kosmider, Maciej Nielipinski, Agnieszka Michalak, Maria Bednarkiewicz, Mieszko Goslawski-Zeligowski, Filip Prucnal, Bartosz Sekula, Agnieszka J Pietrzyk-Brzezinska
TetR family regulators (TFRs) represent a large group of one-component bacterial signal transduction systems which recognize environmental signals, like the presence of antibiotics or other bactericidal compounds, and trigger the cell response by regulating the expression of genes that secure bacterial survival in harsh environmental conditions. TFRs act as homodimers, each protomer is composed of a conserved DNA-binding N-terminal domain (NTD) and a variable ligand-binding C-terminal domain (CTD). Currently, there are about 500 structures of TFRs available in the Protein Data Bank and one-fourth of them represent the structures of TFR-ligand complexes...
February 22, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Xuzichao Li, Jie Han, Jie Yang, Heng Zhang
CRISPR-Cas system is an RNA-guided adaptive immune system widespread in bacteria and archaea. Among them, type III CRISPR-Cas systems are the most ancient throughout the CRISPR-Cas family, proving anti-phage defense through a crRNA-guided RNA targeting manner and possessing multiple enzymatic activities. Type III CRISPR-Cas systems comprise four typical members (type III-A to III-D) and two atypical members (type III-E and type III-F), providing immune defense through distinct mechanisms. Here, we delve into structural studies conducted on three well-characterized members: the type III-A, III-B, and III-E systems, provide an overview of the structural insights into the crRNA-guided target RNA cleavage, self/non-self discrimination, and the target RNA-dependent regulation of enzymatic subunits in the effector complex...
February 22, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Helmut Plattner, Wolfgang Baumeister
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Marc Siggel, Rasmus K Jensen, Valentin J Maurer, Julia Mahamid, Jan Kosinski
Cellular cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) has emerged as a key method to unravel the spatial and structural complexity of cells in their near-native state at unprecedented molecular resolution. To enable quantitative analysis of the complex shapes and morphologies of lipid membranes, the noisy three-dimensional (3D) volumes must be segmented. Despite recent advances, this task often requires considerable user intervention to curate the resulting segmentations. Here, we present ColabSeg, a Python-based tool for processing, visualizing, cleaning, and fitting membrane segmentations from cryo-ET data for downstream analysis...
February 15, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
Rose Marie Haynes, Janette Myers, Claudia S López, James Evans, Omar Davulcu, Craig Yoshioka
In recent years, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a practical and effective method of determining structures at previously unattainable resolutions due to advances in detection, automation, and data processing. However, sample preparation remains a major bottleneck in the cryo-EM workflow. Even after the arduous process of biochemical sample optimization, it often takes several iterations of grid vitrification and screening to determine the optimal grid freezing parameters that yield suitable ice thickness and particle distribution for data collection...
February 14, 2024: Journal of Structural Biology
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