Zanthoxyli Fructus induces growth arrest and apoptosis of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo in association with blockade of the AKT and AR signal pathways

Yang Yang, Takayuki Ikezoe, Tamotsu Takeuchi, Yoshihiro Adachi, Yuji Ohtsuki, H Phillip Koeffler, Hirokuni Taguchi
Oncology Reports 2006, 15 (6): 1581-90
Zanthoxyli Fructus belongs to the family of oranges and is used as a seasoning in Asian countries including Japan. This study found that a water extract of Zanthoxyli Fructus possessed anti-tumor activity against a wide variety of cancer cells including those from prostate (LNCaP, DU145, PC-3), breast (MCF-7, T47D, MDA-MB231), lung (NCI-H460, -H520), as well as leukemia (HL-60, NB4, Jurkat) in vitro, as measured by the trypan blue exclusion test. Importantly, Zanthoxyli Fructus slowed the proliferation of LNCaP, DU145, and MDA-MB231 cells present as xenografts in BALB/c nude mice without adverse effects. Further studies explored the molecular mechanism by which Zanthoxyli Fructus inhibited the proliferation of androgen-dependent human prostate cancer LNCaP cells because Zanthoxyli Fructus possessed the strongest anti-tumor activity against these cells. Zanthoxyli Fructus blocked androgen receptor (AR) signaling in conjunction with down-regulation of nuclear levels of AR and induced apoptosis of these cells, as measured by the reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and TUNEL assay, respectively. As expected, Zanthoxyli Fructus also decreased the level of the AR-target molecule, prostate-specific antigen in these cells. Furthermore, Zanthoxyli Fructus inhibited AKT kinase and down-regulated levels of cyclin D1 protein, as measured by the AKT kinase assay with GSK-3alpha/beta as a substrate and Western blot analysis, respectively. Taken together, Zanthoxyli Fructus might be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for the treatment of individuals with a variety of cancer types.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"