Twice-daily pre-mixed insulin rather than basal insulin therapy alone results in better overall glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes

J K Malone, S Bai, B N Campaigne, J Reviriego, B Augendre-Ferrante
Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association 2005, 22 (4): 374-81

AIMS: To compare the glycaemic control of an insulin lispro mixture (25% insulin lispro and 75% NPL) twice daily in combination with metformin to that of once-daily insulin glargine plus metformin in patients with Type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with intermediate insulin, or insulin plus oral agent(s) combination therapy.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ninety-seven patients were randomized in a multicentre, open-label, 32-week crossover study. Primary variables evaluated: haemoglobin A1c (A1c), 2-h post-prandial blood glucose (BG), hypoglycaemia rate (episodes/patient/30 days), incidence (% patients experiencing > or = 1 episode) of overall and nocturnal hypoglycaemia.

RESULTS: At endpoint, A1c was lower with the insulin lispro mixture plus metformin compared with glargine plus metformin (7.54% +/- 0.87% vs. 8.14% +/- 1.03%, P < 0.001). Change in A1c from baseline to endpoint was greater with the insulin lispro mixture plus metformin (-1.00% vs. -0.42%; P < 0.001). Two-hour post-prandial BG was lower after morning, midday, and evening meals (P < 0.001) during treatment with the insulin lispro mixture plus metformin. The fasting BG values were lower with glargine plus metformin (P = 0.007). Despite lower BG at 03.00 hours (P < 0.01), patients treated with the insulin lispro mixture plus metformin had a lower rate of nocturnal hypoglycaemia (0.14 +/- 0.49 vs. 0.34 +/- 0.85 episodes/patient/30 days; P = 0.002), although the overall hypoglycaemia rate was not different between treatments (0.61 +/- 1.41 vs. 0.44 +/- 1.07 episodes/patient/30 days; P = 0.477).

CONCLUSION: In patients with Type 2 diabetes and inadequate glucose control while on insulin or insulin and oral agent(s) combination therapy, treatment with a twice-daily insulin lispro mixture plus metformin, which targets both post-prandial and pre-meal BG, provided clinically significant improvements in A1c, significantly reduced post-prandial BG after each meal, and reduced nocturnal hypoglycaemia as compared with once-daily glargine plus metformin, a treatment that targets fasting BG.

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