The development and preliminary validation of a brief measure of chronic pain impact for use in the general population

Linda S Ruehlman, Paul Karoly, Craig Newton, Leona S Aiken
Pain 2005, 113 (1): 82-90
From a biopsychosocial perspective, assessing chronic pain's psychological impact should involve at minimum the measurement of pain severity, functional interference, and pain-related emotional burden. This article details the development of a brief instrument, the 15-item Profile of Chronic Pain: Screen (PCP:S), designed to address these three key elements in a national (US) sample of over 2400 individuals recruited via random digit dialing. Retest reliability, internal consistency, and preliminary validity were excellent. The scales also demonstrated minimal social desirability response bias. A series of confirmatory factor analyses on several distinct samples revealed a stable, 3-factor solution reflecting pain severity, interference, and emotional burden. Finally, national norms were developed by gender and three age groups. In view of its strong psychometric properties, the PCP:S has the potential to serve as a brief, cost-effective assessment tool for identifying individuals whose chronic pain merits more detailed psychosocial evaluation.

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