Interaction of ligand-receptor system between stromal-cell-derived factor-1 and CXC chemokine receptor 4 in human prostate cancer: a possible predictor of metastasis

Hideki Mochizuki, Akio Matsubara, Jun Teishima, Kazuaki Mutaguchi, Hiroaki Yasumoto, Rajvir Dahiya, Tsuguru Usui, Kenji Kamiya
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2004 July 30, 320 (3): 656-63
Interaction of ligand-receptor systems between stromal-cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is closely involved in the organ specificity of cancer metastasis. We hypothesized that SDF-1-CXCR4 ligand-receptor system plays an important role in prostate cancer metastasis. To test this hypothesis, expression level of SDF-1 and CXCR4 was analyzed in prostate cancer (PC) cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, and DU145) and normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC). We also performed migration assay and MTT assay to investigate the chemotactic effect and growth-promoting effect of SDF-1 on DU145 and PC3 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of CXCR4 expression in tissues from 35 cases of human prostate cancer. CXCR4 expression was detected in all three prostate cancer cell lines, but not in PrECs. SDF-1 significantly enhanced the migration of PC3 and DU145 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and anti-CXCR4 antibody inhibited this chemotactic effect. However, SDF-1 itself did not significantly stimulate the cell growth rate of prostate cancer cell lines. Positive CXCR4 protein was found in 20 out of 35 clinical PC samples (57.1%). Three patients with lung metastasis showed definitely positive CXCR4 immunostaining. Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive expression of CXCR4 protein was an independent and superior predictor for bone metastasis to Gleason sum (P < 0.05). Furthermore, among PC patients with PSA greater than 20 ng/mL, the positive rate of CXCR4 protein was significantly higher in patients with bone metastasis than in those with no bone metastasis (P = 0.017). These findings suggest that the interaction between SDF-1 and CXCR4 ligand-receptor system is involved in the process of PC metastasis by the activation of cancer cell migration. This is the first report to investigate the role of interaction of ligand-receptor systems between SDF-1 and CXCR4 in prostate cancer metastasis.

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