Retroflexed endoscopic multiple band ligation of symptomatic internal hemorrhoids

Akihisa Fukuda, Toru Kajiyama, Hiroaki Arakawa, Hiroyuki Kishimoto, Hitoshi Someda, Masahiko Sakai, Shoji Tsunekawa, Tsutomu Chiba
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2004, 59 (3): 380-4

BACKGROUND: Elastic band ligation is a well-established nonoperative method for treatment of internal hemorrhoids that give rise to symptoms. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of retroflexed endoscopic multiple band ligation, a procedure that involves extensive ligation of internal hemorrhoids, and the immediately proximal normal rectal mucosa, by means of a retroflexed endoscope.

METHODS: Eighty-two patients with symptoms caused by internal hemorrhoids (15, stage I; 19, stage II; 47, stage III; 1, stage IV) were treated by retroflexed endoscopic multiple band ligation. Symptoms (prolapse, bleeding, pain with defecation) were graded from 0 to 3. Range and form of the internal hemorrhoids were evaluated endoscopically. Retroflexed endoscopic multiple band ligation was performed by using a flexible endoscope with an attached band ligation device in the retroflexed position.

RESULTS: A mean of 8 bands (range 4-14) were placed per treatment session. Seventy-six patients were treated in a single session, 5 in two sessions, and one in 3 sessions. Symptom and endoscopic scores improved at 4 weeks after the retroflexed endoscopic multiple band ligation: bleeding, from 1.26 to 0.53 (p<0.01); prolapse, from 1.94 to 0.5 (p<0.01); pain, from 1.03 to 0.93 (p=0.67); Goligher classification, from 2.41 to 1.09 (p<0.01); range, from 3.25 to 0.56 (p<0.01); and form, from 2.81 to 0.56 (p<0.01). Long-term response (mean follow-up 12 months, range 3-40 months) was excellent for 89% of the patients, good for 9%, and poor for 2%. No major complication was noted.

CONCLUSIONS: Retroflexed endoscopic multiple band ligation is a safe and effective method for treatment for patients with symptoms caused by internal hemorrhoids.

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