Etiopathogenesis, classification, and current trends in treatment of rosacea

Vesna Sredoja Tisma, Aleksandra Basta-Juzbasić, Ivan Dobrić, Suzana Ljubojević, Zrinka Bukvić Mokos
Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC 2003, 11 (4): 236-46
Rosacea is a common chronic dermatosis characterized by varying degrees of flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, edema, papules, pustules, ocular lesions, and phymas. Etiology and pathogenesis of rosacea are still unknown. Many possible causes have been described as inducing the disease or contributing to its manifestation, such as genetic predisposition, abnormal vascular reactivity, changes in vascular mediating mechanisms, Helicobacter pylori infection, Demodex folliculorum infestation, seborrhea, sunlight, hypertension, and psychogenic factors. However, none of these factors has been proved. Rosacea shows a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, which vary over time and with age. Successful management of rosacea requires careful patient evaluation and individualized therapy with appropriate variations and modifications, as the severity of the disorder fluctuates. In mild cases of rosacea, patients are instructed to avoid sun, to apply sun-protective creams, and to avoid facial irritants and other triggers that provoke symptoms. At later stage, drug therapy is often necessary. The disease commonly requires long-term treatment with topical or oral medicaments. Surgical correction may be required for rhinophyma and telangiectasia. We reviewed the current literature on the aspects of the pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, and treatment options for rosacea.

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