Prosocial development in relation to children's and mothers' psychological problems

Dale F Hay, Susan Pawlby
Child Development 2003, 74 (5): 1314-27
The study tested whether children's prosocial behavior was negatively or positively related to children's and mothers' psychological problems. Participants were 149 London families when mothers were pregnant and followed up in infancy and at ages 4 and 11. Children's cooperation at 4 and general prosocial tendencies at 11 were negatively associated with externalizing problems but unrelated to internalizing problems. A subgroup of children who were more prosocial than average expressed clinically significant worries about family members. Maternal depression decreased prosocial behavior in the eyes of adults, but children of depressed mothers saw themselves to be prosocial. Early cooperation protected children against later risk for externalizing problems, even when their early behavioral problems were taken into account.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"