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Child Development

Tiffany Yip, Yuen Mi Cheon, Yijie Wang, Heining Cham, Warren Tryon, Mona El-Sheikh
This study investigates the same-day associations between discrimination and sleep among 350 adolescents ages 13-15 (M = 14.29, SD = 0.65; Asian = 41%, Black = 22%, Latinx = 37%). Assessing sleep duration, sleep onset latency, and wake minutes after sleep onset using wrist actigraphy, Black adolescents slept 35 min less than Asian and 36 min less than Latinx youth. Black adolescents suffered the most wake minutes after sleep onset, followed by Latinx and Asian youth. Latinx youth reported the highest levels of sleep disturbance, whereas Asian youth reported the highest levels of daytime dysfunction...
April 3, 2019: Child Development
John K Rempel, Lynn A Rempel, Dinh T P Hoa, Le T Vui, Tran K Long
A multifaceted, relationally focused intervention involving group and individual pre- and postnatal counseling, print resources, and community resources encouraged 390 fathers of newborn infants in Vietnam to responsively support mothers and work with them as a parenting team. Both partners completed questionnaires prebirth and 1-, 4-, and 9-months postbirth on measures of breastfeeding support, exclusive breastfeeding duration, relationship quality, and infant development. Compared to 412 comparison group couples, intervention couples evidenced greater father support, especially in terms of helping and responsiveness to the mother's needs...
April 1, 2019: Child Development
Erin L Thompson, Krista R Mehari, Albert D Farrell
This study investigated reciprocal relations between adolescents' physical aggression and their perceptions of peers' deviant behaviors and attitudes. Analyses were conducted on four waves of data from 2,290 adolescents (ages 10-16) from three urban middle schools. Autoregression models revealed reciprocal relations between peer factors (i.e., friends' problem behavior, peer pressure for fighting, friends' support for fighting) and adolescents' reporting of their aggressive behavior. Bidirectional relations were also found between peer pressure for fighting and adolescents' frequency of physical aggression based on teacher ratings...
April 1, 2019: Child Development
Jonathan D Lane, Emily B Conder, Joshua Rottman
Individuals often develop negative biases toward unfamiliar or denigrated groups. Two experimental studies were conducted to investigate the extent to which brief negative messages about novel social groups influence children's (4- to 9-year-olds'; N = 153) intergroup attitudes. The studies examined the relative influence of messages that are provided directly to children versus messages that are overheard and examined whether the force of these messages varies with children's age. According to implicit and explicit measures of children's intergroup attitudes, children rapidly internalized messages demeaning novel groups, thus forming negative attitudes toward outgroups merely on the basis of hearsay...
March 30, 2019: Child Development
Stefanie A Nelemans, Loes Keijsers, Hilde Colpin, Karla van Leeuwen, Patricia Bijttebier, Karine Verschueren, Luc Goossens
This 4-year longitudinal multi-informant study examined between- and within-person associations between adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parenting (parental psychological control and autonomy support). A community sample of 819 adolescents (46.1% girls; Mage T1  = 13.4 years) reported annually on social anxiety symptoms and both adolescents and mothers reported on parenting. Between-person associations suggested that adolescent social anxiety symptoms were associated with higher adolescent- and mother-reported psychological control and lower mother-reported autonomy support...
March 30, 2019: Child Development
Minna Torppa, Pekka Niemi, Kati Vasalampi, Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen, Asko Tolvanen, Anna-Maija Poikkeus
This study examines associations between leisure reading and reading skills in data of 2,525 students followed from age 7 to 16. As a step further from traditional cross-lagged analysis, a random intercept cross-lagged panel model was used to identify within-person associations of leisure reading (books, magazines, newspapers, and digital reading), reading fluency, and reading comprehension. In Grades 1-3 poorer comprehension and fluency predicted less leisure reading. In later grades more frequent leisure reading, particularly of books, predicted better reading comprehension...
March 30, 2019: Child Development
Narges Afshordi
Two experiments (total N = 195) examined third-party inferences about friendship and shared preferences from reported dyadic information. Four-year-olds (N = 48) inferred friendship between individuals based on reports of prosocial behavior, and similarity, but not based on arbitrary links. Children privileged prosocial behavior over similarity when asked to adjudicate between the two. Adults (N = 120) were tested online and showed the same overall pattern of inferences. Furthermore, 4-year-olds (N = 27) expected individuals who had engaged in prosocial behavior to be playmates as well as friends, and to share preferences for novel games, but not novel foods...
March 30, 2019: Child Development
Jamie Amemiya, Adam Fine, Ming-Te Wang
This daily diary study examined how adolescents' institutional and teacher-specific trust predicted classroom behavioral engagement the day after being disciplined by that teacher. Within mathematics classrooms, adolescents (N = 190; Mage  = 14 years) reported institutional and teacher-specific trust and then completed a 15-day diary assessing teacher discipline and behavioral engagement. The results indicated that, among adolescents with low teacher trust, discipline was unrelated to next-day behavior...
March 30, 2019: Child Development
Philipp Jugert, Lars Leszczensky, Sebastian Pink
Recent research has shown that peers influence ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development during early adolescence. Arguments based on social identity theory, however, suggest that only same-ethnic but not cross-ethnic friends are important for ERI development. Using longitudinal social network analysis, we examined peer influence of both same- and cross-ethnic friends on ERI attachment and private regard. Data were drawn from six ethnically diverse schools in Western Germany (N = 1,349; Mage  = 13.3). Our results provide empirical evidence for early adolescents' ERI being influenced by same- but less by cross-ethnic friends...
March 30, 2019: Child Development
Emily C Merz, Elaine A Maskus, Samantha A Melvin, Xiaofu He, Kimberly G Noble
The mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in children's reading skills are not well understood. This study examined associations among socioeconomic background, home linguistic input, brain structure, and reading skills in 5-to-9-year-old children (N = 94). Naturalistic home audio recordings and high-resolution, T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired. Children who experienced more adult-child conversational turns or adult words had greater left perisylvian cortical surface area. Language input mediated the association between parental education and left perisylvian cortical surface area...
March 28, 2019: Child Development
Margarita Kaushanskaya, Kimberly Crespo
This study investigated whether the effect of exposure to code-switching on bilingual children's language performance varied depending on verbal working memory (WM). A large sample of school-aged Spanish-English bilingual children (N = 174, Mage  = 7.78) was recruited, and children were administered language measures in English and Spanish. The frequency with which the children were exposed to code-switching was gathered through parent report. For children with high verbal WM, greater exposure to code-switching was associated with higher levels of language ability...
March 28, 2019: Child Development
Aiyana K Willard, Justin T A Busch, Katherine A Cullum, Susan M Letourneau, David M Sobel, Maureen Callanan, Cristine H Legare
Parents visiting a gear exhibit at a children's museum were instructed to encourage their children (N = 65; ages 4-6) to explain, explore, or engage as usual. Instructions led to different patterns of play at the exhibit: Encouragement to explain led to greater discussion of gear mechanisms, whereas encouragement to explore led to more time connecting gears. In the explain condition, parents' questions predicted their children's discussion and further testing of gears. Questions also predicted the amount of time children spent on a follow-up task...
March 13, 2019: Child Development
Lacey J Hilliard, Lynn S Liben
College students' beliefs concerning socializing children about sexism and other culturally important topics were investigated using mixed methods. In Study 1, participants (N = 71) defined sexism and explained their beliefs about addressing sexism with children. Thirty-five percent argued against childhood sexism-socialization. Emergent themes provided insights about how sexism is viewed and yielded data needed to design a closed-ended socialization-beliefs survey. In Study 2, students (N = 141) completed this survey and reported their feminist beliefs and childhood-socialization experiences...
March 7, 2019: Child Development
Katharine E Scott, Kristin Shutts, Patricia G Devine
How do parents think about and react to their children's racial biases? Across three studies (N = 519) we investigated whether and how parents' Internal Motivation to Respond without Prejudice Scale (IMS) predicted standards for their children's race-related behavior, and tested parents' affective reactions to imagining their children violating their standards. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that parents (of 4- to 12-year-old children) with high IMS set more stringent standards for their children's race-related behavior than their low IMS counterparts...
March 2, 2019: Child Development
Lydia Laninga-Wijnen, Zeena Harakeh, Claire F Garandeau, Jan K Dijkstra, René Veenstra, Wilma A M Vollebergh
This study examined the coevolution of prosocial and aggressive popularity norms with popularity hierarchy (asymmetries in students' popularity). Cross-lagged-panel analyses were conducted on 2,843 secondary school students (Nclassrooms  = 120; Mage  = 13.18; 51.3% girls). Popularity hierarchy predicted relative change in popularity norms over time, but not vice versa. Specifically, classrooms with few highly popular and many unpopular students increased in aggressive popularity norms at the beginning of the school year and decreased in prosocial popularity norms at the end of the year...
March 2, 2019: Child Development
Teresa Lind, Kristin Bernard, Heather A Yarger, Mary Dozier
Early experiences of maltreatment have long-term negative effects on children's compliance. This randomized clinical trial examined whether a brief preventative intervention (Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up; ABC) was effective in enhancing compliance in children who had been referred to Child Protective Services. Participants included 101 parent-child dyads who received either ABC or a control intervention when children were infants (M = 9.4 months old, SD = 6.1). When children were approximately 36 months old (M = 38...
February 27, 2019: Child Development
Sebastian Ludyga, Manuel Mücke, Keita Kamijo, Christian Andrä, Uwe Pühse, Markus Gerber, Christian Herrmann
The purpose of the study was the examination of the longitudinal association between motor competences and changes in preparatory processing during a task requiring working memory maintenance. At baseline, 52 Caucasian children aged 10-12 years completed the MOBAK-5 test battery and a Sternberg task, whereas the cue-P300 and the initial contingent negative variation (iCNV) were recorded via electroencephalography. After 9 months, the Sternberg task was administered again to assess changes in these neurophysiological indices and behavioral performance...
February 21, 2019: Child Development
Theodore E A Waters, Christopher R Facompré, Adinda Dujardin, Magali Van De Walle, Martine Verhees, Najda Bodner, Lea J Boldt, Guy Bosmans
Taxometric investigation of scripted attachment representations in lateadolescence and adulthood suggests that variations in secure base script knowledge consist of differences in degree (dimensional latent structure) rather than differences in kind (categorical latent structure). However, the latent structure of secure base script knowledge in younger cohorts has gone unexplored. This study presents a downward extension of prior taxometric work using the middle childhood version of the Attachment Script Assessment in a cross-sectional sample of 639 normative-risk children (age 8 to 13 years; M = 10...
February 21, 2019: Child Development
Anna Jones, Joanna Atkinson, Chloe Marshall, Nicola Botting, Michelle C St Clair, Gary Morgan
Numerous studies suggest an association between language and executive function (EF), but evidence of a developmental relationship remains inconclusive. Data were collected from 75 deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) children and 82 hearing age-matched controls. Children were 6-11 years old at first time of testing and completed a battery of nonverbal EF tasks and a test of expressive vocabulary. These tasks were completed again 2 years later. Both groups improved their scores on all tasks over this period. DHH children performed significantly less well than hearing peers on some EF tasks and the vocabulary test at both time points...
February 11, 2019: Child Development
Susan S Woodhouse, Julie R Scott, Allison D Hepworth, Jude Cassidy
This observational study addressed a critical gap in the understanding of the precursors of infant attachment by examining whether a new conceptualization of maternal caregiving behavior, secure base provision (SBP), explained variance in attachment above and beyond variance explained by sensitivity. Participants included 83 low-socioeconomic status (SES), 4.5-month-old infants (56% male) and their mothers. Infant-mother dyads completed laboratory tasks at 4.5 months and three 30-min home visits between 7 and 9 months, then returned to the laboratory at 12 months for an attachment assessment...
February 11, 2019: Child Development
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