JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Minimally invasive surgical techniques in reoperative surgery for gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants and children.

American Surgeon 2002 November
Fundoplication is commonly performed in children suffering from complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Recently laparoscopic fundoplication has become a standard of care for GERD in children. Published reports show that 2.3 to 14 per cent of children require reoperation after failed fundoplication. The purpose of this study is to show the feasibility of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques to treat children after failed fundoplication. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients who underwent laparoscopic redo fundoplication at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston from July 1998 to July 2000. The patients' records were reviewed for age, diagnosis, type and time of initial operation, type and time of redo operation, operative time for redo operation, and complications. Seventeen children (age 3 months to 18 years) had operations for failed fundoplication attempted using MIS techniques. Six of these children were referred after their initial operation performed elsewhere. Nine (53%) were neurologically impaired. Ten (59%) have respiratory complications of GERD. The initial procedures were as follows: One open Nissen fundoplication, two open Thal fundoplications, 13 laparoscopic Nissen fundoplications, and one laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication. The reoperative procedures performed were revision of fundoplication and hiatal hernia repair (13) or hiatal hernia repair only (four). Two patients had concurrent gastric emptying procedures. One procedure was converted to open for technical reasons. One patient developed a pelvic abscess secondary to leakage around the gastrostomy tube. One child had erosion into the esophagus of a Dacron patch that was used to close a large hiatal defect. Thirteen patients began feeding by the first postoperative day. We conclude that MIS techniques can be applied to reoperative surgery for the treatment of GERD with an acceptable complication rate in this difficult group of patients. Reoperative patients appear to have the same benefits from MIS as patients undergoing their initial procedure.

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