Robert M Post, Michael Rowe, Robert Findling
Background: There is a paucity of studies on treatment of childhood-onset bipolar disorder and its associated comorbidities, which leads to a wide diversity of opinion on choice and sequencing of treatment options. Methods: From December 2018 to January 2019, a graphic depiction of medications and weekly ratings of symptoms of mania, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional behavior that parents had rated on their 9-year-old child over a period of several years was sent to experts in child and adult bipolar disorder...
September 17, 2020: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Sarah K Andersen, Carmel L Montgomery, Sean M Bagshaw
PURPOSE: To describe patients who die within 24 h of ICU admission in order to better optimize care delivery. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients ≥18 years old admitted to 17 adult ICUs in Alberta, Canada from January 1, 2016 and June 30, 2017. Data were obtained from a provincial clinical information system and data repository. The primary outcome was incidence of ICU death within 24 h of admission. Secondary outcomes were patient and system factors associated with early death...
September 3, 2020: Journal of Critical Care
Navid Delgarm, Kamran Sepanloo, Ali Haghighi Shad, Darioush Masti
The current investigation presents a comprehensive program called KIANA to assess and analyze the environmental effects due to the release of radioactive materials from the stack of nuclear installations. Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant Unit One (BNPP-1) is modeled using the KIANA software and the release of radioactive materials from the BNPP-1 stack on the members of the public through the airborne pathway is evaluated during normal operation as well as in the accident conditions including Design Basis Accidents (DBA) and Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBA)...
August 20, 2020: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Douglas Rocha, Claudia K Suemoto, Itamar de Souza Santos, Paulo A Lotufo, Isabela Benseñor, Nelson Gouveia
BACKGROUND: Despite the knowledge about the deleterious effects of air pollutants and their influence on mortality and morbidity due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, little is known about the relationship between atmospheric pollutants and neurological diseases. Recently, studies from high-income countries have suggested an association between exposures to air pollutants with cognitive impairment. Thus, we investigated the association of air pollution with cognitive performance in the participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)...
September 14, 2020: Environmental Research
Javier Sabater-Abad, María Matellanes-Palacios, Laia Bou-Boluda, Juan José Campos-Dana, Pilar Alemany-Monraval, Fernando Millán-Parrilla
Pilomatrixoma is a benign adnexal tumor very common in pediatric age and in young adults that derives from follicular matrix cells. Although clinically it usually presents as a subcutaneous nodule of bluish color less than 3cm in size, multiple clinicopathological variants have been described in the literature. Among these we can find the giant pilomatrixoma, a rare clinical variant that reaches a size greater than or equal to 4cm and can simulate the clinical presentation of a malignant neoplasm. We report a 59-year-old man with an exophytic and ulcerated nodule in the left parotid region that was removed with the suspected diagnosis of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma...
August 15, 2020: Dermatology Online Journal
Holly E Syddall, Stefania D'Angelo, Georgia Ntani, Martin Stevens, E Clare Harris, Catherine H Linaker, Karen Walker-Bone
INTRODUCTION: Rapidly increasing population old age dependency ratios create a growing economic imperative for people to work to older ages. However, rates of older worker employment are only increasing slowly. Amongst a cohort of contemporary older workers, we investigated risk factors for health-related job loss (HRJL) over 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: HEAF is a population based cohort study of adults in England (aged 50-64 years at baseline) who provided information about socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work at baseline and annual follow-ups...
2020: PloS One
Anna Sanz-de-Galdeano, Anastasia Terskaya, Angie Upegui
We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and from the Health and Retirement Study to explore how the effect of individuals' genetic predisposition to higher BMI -measured by BMI polygenic scores- changes over the life-cycle for several cohorts. We find that the effect of BMI polygenic scores on BMI increases significantly as teenagers transition into adulthood (using the Add Health cohort, born 1974-83). However, this is not the case for individuals aged 55+ who were born in earlier HRS cohorts (1931-53), whose life-cycle pattern of genetic influence on BMI is remarkably stable as they move into old-age...
2020: PloS One
Eveline P van Poelgeest, Lina El Houssein, JanWillem Kallewaard, Markus W Hollmann, Monique A H Steegers, Hans C H Wartenberg
CASE DESCRIPTION: A frail 85-year-old woman with chronic neuropathic pain after hip surgery, not responding to treatment with acetaminophen and morphine patches. Should she be prescribed a gabapentinoid? DISCUSSION: Gabapentinoids and antidepressants are considered first-line therapies. They achieve clinically relevant (i.e. ≥ 50%) pain reduction in approximately one-third of patients with postherpetic neuralgia and peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Evidence for other types of neuropathic pain is limited...
August 27, 2020: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Dongdong Xu, Tasuku Yoshino, Marcelo Bello Cioffi, Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, Yasuko Ino, Ryosuke Yazawa, Samyra Maria Santos Nassif Lacerda, Yutaka Takeuchi
In animals, spermatogonial transplantation in sterile adult males is widely developed; however, despite its utility, ovarian germ-cell transplantation is not well developed. We previously showed that the interspecific hybrid offspring of sciaenid was a suitable model for germ-cell transplantation studies as they have germ cell-less gonads. However, all these gonads have testis-like characteristics. Here, we tested whether triploidization in hybrid embryos could result in germ cell-less ovary development. Gonadal structure dimorphism and sex-specific gene expression patterns were examined in 6-mo-old triploid hybrids (3nHybs)...
September 17, 2020: Biology of Reproduction
Gerry McKenna, George Tsakos, Francis Burke, Paul Brocklehurst
Global population projections indicate that the proportion of older people is increasing and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Many countries are already experiencing the challenges of managing an ageing population, including increased pension contributions from workers, rises to national retirement ages, and spiralling healthcare costs. In oral health terms, in addition to simply an ageing population, epidemiological studies have demonstrated significant changes in the oral health of older adults in recent years...
September 2020: Primary Dental Journal
Yongna Li, Xinyue Jiao, Yi Liu, Chi-Shing Tse, Yan Dong
Multiple facial cues such as facial expression and face gender simultaneously influence facial trustworthiness judgement in adults. The current work was to examine the effect of multiple facial cues on trustworthiness judgement across age groups. Eight-, 10-year-olds, and adults detect trustworthiness from happy and neutral adult faces (female and male faces) in Experiment 1. Experiment 2 included both adult and child faces wearing happy, angry, and neutral expressions. Nine-, 11-, 13-year-olds, and adults had to rate facial trustworthiness with a 7-point Likert scale...
September 17, 2020: British Journal of Psychology
D Dumuid, J A Martín-Fernández, S Ellul, R S Kenett, M Wake, P Simm, L Baur, T Olds
Human body composition is made up of mutually exclusive and exhaustive parts (e.g. %truncal fat, %non-truncal fat and %fat-free mass) which are constrained to sum to the same total (100%). In statistical analyses, individual parts of body composition (e.g. %truncal fat or %fat-free mass) have traditionally been used as proxies for body composition, and have been linked with a range of health outcomes. But analysis of individual parts omits information about the other parts, which are intrinsically co-dependent because of the constant sum constraint of 100%...
September 17, 2020: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
J Trent Magruder, Alexandra Sperry, Pavan Atluri, Christian Bermudez, Edward Cantu, Gerald Broniec, Chloe Choi, Michael A Acker, Marisa Cevasco
PURPOSE: We sought to assess the relationship of intraoperative perfusion parameters while on cardiopulmonary bypass, including oxygen delivery (DO2 ), to the need for ECMO following orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). METHODS: We included all adult (>18 years old) OHTs performed at our institution since implementation of an electronic perfusion record (March 2019-February 2020). Multi-organ transplants were excluded. The primary outcome was the need for immediate venoarterial ECMO in the OR following OHT...
September 17, 2020: Perfusion
R L Yang, H M Huang, C S Han, S J Cui, Y K Zhou, Y H Zhou
To investigate the characteristics and molecular events of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) for tissue regeneration with aging, we isolated and analyzed the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and permanent teeth of young (Y-DPSCs) and old (A-DPSCs) adults. Results showed that the stemness and osteogenic differentiation capacity of DPSCs decreased with aging. The RNA sequencing results showed that glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism was one of the most enriched gene clusters among SHED, Y-DPSCs, and A-DPSCs, according to analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes...
September 17, 2020: Journal of Dental Research
Pauline Palma, Debra Titone
Word learning is a crucial aspect of human development that depends on the formation and consolidation of novel memory traces. In this paper, we critically review the behavioural research on sleep-related lexicalization of novel words in healthy young adult speakers. We first describe human memory systems, the processes underlying memory consolidation, then we describe the complementary learning systems account of memory consolidation. We then review behavioural studies focusing on novel word learning and sleep-related lexicalization in monolingual samples, while highlighting their relevance to three main theoretical questions...
September 16, 2020: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Suvi T Itkonen, Essi Päivärinta, Tiina Pellinen, Hanna Viitakangas, Juha Risteli, Maijaliisa Erkkola, Christel Lamberg-Allardt, Anne-Maria Pajari
BACKGROUND: Plant-based diets may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, but can also lead to low calcium and vitamin D intakes, posing a risk for bone health. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether partial replacement of animal proteins with plant-based proteins using a whole-diet approach affects bone and mineral metabolism in healthy adults in 3 groups fed diets differing in protein composition. METHODS: This 12-week clinical trial was comprised of 107 women and 29 men (20-69 years old; BMI mean ± SD, 24...
September 16, 2020: Journal of Nutrition
Masahiro Ohara, Yoshihiko Saito, Mutsufusa Watanabe, Saneyuki Mizutani, Masaki Kobayashi, Aritoshi Iida, Ichizo Nishino, Hiroto Fujigasaki
Nemaline myopathy is a heterogeneous disorder of skeletal muscle, and histologically characterized by the presence of nemaline bodies in muscle fibers. Patients with typical congenital form of nemaline myopathy initially present with proximal but later also distal muscle weakness, mostly involving facial and respiratory muscle. Cardiac involvement has been rarely observed especially in nebulin-related nemaline myopathy and there have been only two reports about nebulin-related nemaline myopathy patients with cardiac involvement...
December 2020: ENeurologicalSci
Christin Hölzel, Lorenz Weidhase, Sirak Petros
BACKGROUND: Data on the influence of age and body mass index (BMI) on energy metabolism of the critically ill are heterogeneous. Due to the increasingly aging critically ill population, investigation on age- and BMI-specific energy metabolism is relevant. METHODS: A total of 394 indirect calorimetry measurements were conducted on 348 critically ill adult medical patients, including 46 repeat measurements after 3.6 ± 4.3 days. Measured resting energy expenditure (MREE) was compared for age groups, BMI, and gender...
September 16, 2020: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kohei Igarashi, Kanako Kawanami, Tetsu Yamaki, Ken-Ichiro Matsuda, Takashi Komori, Yukihiko Sonoda
Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor(DLGNT)is a rare primary neoplasm of the central nervous system, and is a condition that is newly listed in the 2016 World Health Organization(WHO)classification of tumors of the central nervous system. We report an adult case of DLGNT that was characteristically merged with subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 46-year-old woman reported persistent dizziness upon walking. MRI of the brain revealed a diffuse, infiltrating lesion with high intensity on FLAIR around the cerebellopontine angle to the lateral ventricle and in the leptomeninges of the spinal cord...
September 2020: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Trahern W Jones, Nora Fino, Jared Olson, Adam L Hersh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic allergy labels are common and are frequently inaccurate. Previous studies among adults demonstrate that β-lactam allergy labels may lead to adverse outcomes, including prescription of broader-spectrum antibiotics, increased costs, and increased lengths of stay, among others. However, data among pediatric patients are lacking, especially in the United States. In this study, we sought to determine the impact of β-lactam allergy labels in hospitalized children with regards to clinical and economic outcomes...
September 17, 2020: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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