Binbin Wen, Wei Xiao, Qin Mu, Dongmei Li, Xiude Chen, Hongyu Wu, Ling Li, Futian Peng
Nitrogen is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development and plays an important role in the whole life process of plants. Nitrogen is an important component of amino acids, chlorophyll, plant hormones and secondary metabolites. Nitrogen deficiency leads to early senescence in plants, which is accompanied by changes in gene expression, metabolism, growth, development, and physiological and biochemical traits, which ensures efficient nitrogen recycling and enhances the plant's tolerance to low nitrogen...
August 28, 2020: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Prem Prakash Kushwaha, Atul Kumar Singh, Kumari Sunita Prajapati, Mohd Shuaib, Shaimaa Fayez, Gerhard Bringmann, Shashank Kumar
Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the world and a major cause of mortality. Present therapeutic strategies against breast cancer have severe drawbacks such as allergies, damage to healthy tissues, reoccurrence of cancer, and emergence of drug resistance. Naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids are a group of structurally unique natural products produced by tropical lianas belonging to the plant families Dioncophyllaceae and Ancistrocladaceae indigenous to Asia and Africa. These secondary metabolites have been reported to show anti-infective activity, but they also act against leukemic and pancreatic cancer cells...
October 19, 2020: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Christopher Adamson, Motomu Kanai
Life emerges from networks of multiple chemical reactions mediated by enzymes. If abiotic chemical catalysis is implanted into the reaction network of life, such an integration would produce organisms generating unique secondary metabolites and value-added materials from feedstocks or even air, or new diagnostics and therapeutics against diseases. In this review, we introduce selected papers in this emerging field of catalysis research.
October 22, 2020: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Sitian Zhang, Yan He, Fengli Li, Shuang Lin, Beiye Yang, Shuyuan Mo, Huaqiang Li, Jianping Wang, Changxing Qi, Zhengxi Hu, Yonghui Zhang
Bioassay-directed isolation of secondary metabolites from an extract of Penicillium chrysogenum TJ403-CA4 isolated from the medicinally valuable arthropod Cryptotympana atrata afforded five new and 10 known compounds ( 1 - 15 ). All the compounds (except 14 ) belong to a minor class of highly rigid 6-5-5-5-fused tetracyclic cyclopiane-type diterpenes known to be exclusively produced by members of the Penicillium genus. The structures and absolute configurations of the new compounds ( 1 - 5 ) were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HRESIMS and 1D and 2D NMR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and comparison of the experimental electronic circular dichroism data...
October 22, 2020: Journal of Natural Products
Munendra Kumar, Prateek Kumar, Payal Das, Renu Solanki, Monisha Khanna Kapur
Consortia of Streptomyces spp. (colonies 169, 194, 165 and 130) used in this study are an efficient producer of secondary metabolites like chitinases and antifungal compounds, which may help in the protection of surplus food from spoilage. Qualitative screening for chitinase production and taxonomy of these colonies were undertaken in our previous studies. In the current study, GC-MS analysis of extract produced from the consortia of Streptomyces strains was done for the identification of antifungal compounds...
October 21, 2020: Archives of Microbiology
Kinjal V Patel, Manoj Nath, Megha D Bhatt, Anoop K Dobriyal, Deepesh Bhatt
Advancement in nanotechnology has improved ways for large-scale production and characterization of nanoparticles of physiologically important metals. The current study explores the impact of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) and Chitosan-Zinc oxide nano-bioformulation (CH-ZnO) in tissue culture raised callus of Nicotiana benthamiana . Results indicated augmented biomass in CH-ZnO treated callus, while a reduced biomass was observed in ZnO-NP treated callus, at all the concentrations tested. Higher chlorophyll and carotenoid content were recorded in callus treated with 800 ppm CH-ZnO as compared to ZnO-NP treated callus...
November 2020: 3 Biotech
Sadaf Jan, Rattandeep Singh, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad, Dhriti Kapoor
Pesticides are chemical substances intended for preventing or controlling pests. These are toxic substances which contaminate soil, water bodies and vegetative crops. Excessive use of pesticides may cause destruction of biodiversity. In plants, pesticides lead to oxidative stress, inhibition of physiological and biochemical pathways, induce toxicity, impede photosynthesis and negatively affect yield of crops. Increased production of reactive oxygen species like superoxide radicals, O- 2 hydrogen peroxide, H2 O2 ; singlet oxygen, O2 ; hydroxyl radical, OH- ; and hydroperoxyl radical HO2- , causes damage to protein, lipid, carbohydrate and DNA within plants...
November 2020: 3 Biotech
Khanh Minh Chau, Dong Van Quyen, Joshua M Fraser, Andrew T Smith, Thi Thu Hao Van, Robert J Moore
The widespread occurrence of pathogenic bacteria resistant to last-line antibiotics has resulted in significant challenges in human and veterinary medicine. There is an urgent need for new antimicrobial agents that can be used to control these life threating pathogens. We report the identification of antimicrobial activities, against a broad range of bacterial pathogens, from a collection of marine-derived spore-forming bacteria. Although marine environments have been previously investigated as sources of novel antibiotics, studies on such environments are still limited and there remain opportunities for further discoveries and this study has used resources derived from an under-exploited region, the Vietnam Sea...
2020: PeerJ
Yasuhide Hiraga, Takeshi Ara, Yoshiki Nagashima, Norimoto Shimada, Nozomu Sakurai, Hideyuki Suzuki, Kota Kera
The model land plant Physcomitrella patens synthesizes flavonoids which may act as protectant of ultraviolet-B radiation. We aimed to uncover its flavonoid profile, for which metabolome analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with Ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry was performed. From the 80% methanol extracts, 661 valid peaks were detected. Prediction of the elemental compositions within a mass accuracy of 2 ppm indicated that 217 peaks had single elemental composition. A compound database search revealed 47 peaks to be annotated as secondary metabolites based on the compound database search...
September 25, 2020: Plant Biotechnology (Tokyo, Japan)
Aki Yamada, Miku Kondo-Kaneko, Kan'ichiro Ishiuchi, Toshiaki Makino, Kazuyoshi Terasaka
Anthraquinones are widely distributed in various organisms and known as bioactive ingredients. Some of the anthraquinones accumulate as glycosides in higher plants. Plant secondary product glycosyltransferases (PSPGs) are the well-characterized enzymes producing plant secondary metabolite glycosides. However, PSPGs involved in the formation of anthraquinone glycosides remains unclear. The rhizome of Rheum palmatum contains anthraquinones as laxative agents, some of which are accumulated as glucosides. We isolated a glucosyltransferase, R...
September 25, 2020: Plant Biotechnology (Tokyo, Japan)
Bhawna Sharma, Indu Singh, Somvir Bajar, Seema Gupta, Hemant Gautam, Pradeep Kumar
The biogenic tailoring of silver nanoparticles using plant extract is becoming an attractive approach in the current scenario. Manilkara zapota (MZ) is well known for its antibacterial, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-tussive, anti-fungal, anti-tumour, and free radical scavenging potential. Its plants extract is a rich source of secondary metabolites. Nowadays, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been advocated for a variety of biomedical applications. In present work, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using an aqueous extract of MZ, physicochemically characterized and finally evaluated for antimicrobial effects, catalytic reduction/degradation of organic dyes and cytotoxicity...
December 2020: Indian Journal of Microbiology
J Felipe Osorio-Tobón
Phenolic compounds are a group of secondary metabolites produced by plants under stressful conditions. Phenolic compounds play an important role in the prevention and treatment of certain illnesses and are exploited by the food and pharmaceutical industries. Conventional methods are commonly used as models to compare the efficiencies of alternative extraction methods. Among alternative extraction processes, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) are the most studied...
December 2020: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Zoltán Füssy, Kristína Záhonová, Aleš Tomčala, Juraj Krajčovič, Vyacheslav Yurchenko, Miroslav Oborník, Marek Eliáš
Most secondary nonphotosynthetic eukaryotes have retained residual plastids whose physiological role is often still unknown. One such example is Euglena longa , a close nonphotosynthetic relative of Euglena gracilis harboring a plastid organelle of enigmatic function. By mining transcriptome data from E. longa , we finally provide an overview of metabolic processes localized to its elusive plastid. The organelle plays no role in the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors and fatty acids and has a very limited repertoire of pathways concerning nitrogen-containing metabolites...
October 21, 2020: MSphere
Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh, Nguyen Thi Thu Ha, Nguyen Thanh Tra, Le Thi Tu Anh, Nguyen Van Tuyen, Ninh The Son
BACKGROUND: Centipeda minima (the family Asteraceae) is an annual herbaceous plant native to the tropical regions, especially in eastern tropical Asia. C. minima is well-known in the list of medicinal plants with capacities in treatment of whooping cough, nasal allergy, malaria, and asthma. More than sixty reports on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of this plant are now available, but a supportive review is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: The current review aims to make a compilation of almost of isolated compounds from the title plant together with their pharmacological activities...
October 21, 2020: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Elham Kamyab, Sven Rohde, Matthias Y Kellermann, Peter J Schupp
Sea cucumbers are slow-moving organisms that use morphological, but also a diverse combination of chemical defenses to improve their overall fitness and chances of survival. Since chemical defense compounds are also of great pharmaceutical interest, we pinpoint the importance of biological screenings that are a relatively fast, informative and inexpensive way to identify the most bioactive organisms prior to further costly and elaborate pharmacological screenings. In this study, we investigated the presence and absence of chemical defenses of 14 different sea cucumber species from three families (Holothuriidae, Stichopodidae and Synaptidae) against ecological factors such as predation and pathogenic attacks...
October 19, 2020: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiang-Rong Cheng, Wei Zhao, Wen-le Dong, Guo-Wei Le
The edible and medicinal part of Inula nervosa Wall. ( Xiaoheiyao ) is confined to its root without sufficient phytochemical and biological investigation. In this study, the secondary metabolites of root, stem, leaf, and flower of I. nervosa Wall. were visualized using Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS), MolNetEnhancer, XCMS( analysis, and `ili mapping based on high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) data to reveal their chemical differences...
October 19, 2020: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Pengyang Li, Jiang Sun, Xiaocan Xie, Zhifang Li, Baoyong Huang, Guoguang Zhang, Jiuyi Li, Zhiyong Xiao
Comprehensive understanding of stress response and tolerance to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in plants at physiological, biochemical and molecular levels is scarce. Here, lettuce was cultivated in hydroponic media, to investigate the cross-talk among reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative damage, antioxidative defense and metabolic regulation in different parts of plants. Under exposure to 5 and 50 μg/L PFOS for 10 days, 8.8 and 82.5 ng/g dry weight (dw) PFOS were accumulated in leaves, respectively, and 150...
October 7, 2020: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Li Meng, Shaoyan Zhang, Bingzhi Chen, Xiaoran Bai, Yefan Li, Jie Yang, Wei Wang, Changtian Li, Yu Li, Zhuang Li
MADS-box transcription factors play crucial roles in regulating development processes and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in eukaryotes. However, the role of MADS-box transcription factors vary among fungal species, and their function remains unclear in the medicinally and economically important fungus Ganoderma lucidum . In this study, we characterized a MADS-box gene, GlMADS1 , in G. lucidum . Analyses using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that GlMADS1 expression levels were up-regulated from the mycelia to the primordia stage...
October 21, 2020: Mycologia
Shanhui Xu, Curtis Chen, Yanran Li
As essential structural molecules for plant plasma membranes, phytosterols are key intermediates for the synthesis of many downstream specialized metabolites of pharmaceutical or agricultural significance, such as brassinosteroids and withanolides. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used as an alternative producer for plant secondary metabolites. Establishment of heterologous sterol pathways in yeast, however, has been challenging due to either low efficiency or structural diversity, likely a result of crosstalk between the heterologous phytosterol and the endogenous ergosterol biosynthesis...
October 21, 2020: ACS Synthetic Biology
Dong Li, Jonathan O Sharp, Jörg E Drewes
Water infiltration into the subsurface can result in pronounced biogeochemical depth gradients. In this study, we assess metabolic potential and properties of the subsurface microbiome during water infiltration by analyzing sediments from spatially-segmented columns. Past work in these laboratory set-ups demonstrated that removal efficiencies of trace organic pollutants were enhanced by limited availability of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) associated with higher humic ratios and deeper sediment regions...
October 1, 2020: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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