Deepa S Mandlik, Satish K Mandlik
The most common tumor linked with elevated death rates is considered the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), sometimes called the malignant hepatoma. The initiation and progression of HCC are triggered by multiple factors like long term alcohol consumption, metabolic disorders, fatty liver disease, hepatitis B and C infection, age, and oxidative stress. Sorafenib is the merely US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug used to treat HCC. Several treatment methods are available for HCC therapy such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy and adjuvant therapy but they often lead to several side effects...
October 19, 2020: Nutrition and Cancer
Andre Luiz Pitanga Bastos De Souza
Although researchers have been trying to harness the immune system for over 100 years, the advent of immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) marks an era of significant clinical outcomes in various metastatic solid tumors, characterized by complete and durable responses. ICBs are monoclonal antibodies that target either of a pair of transmembrane molecules in tumors or T-cells involved in immune evasion. Currently 2 ICBs targeting the checkpoint program death 1 (PD-1), nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and one cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor (ipilimumab) are approved in gastrointestinal malignancies...
2020: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Shilpa R Raju, Sreenath Balakrishnan, Somanna Kollimada, K N Chandrashekara, Aruna Jampani
Purpose: Artemisia nilagirica (AN), which is known to have antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, and anti-asthmatic properties, has been recently shown to have anti-cancer activity. However, the mechanism responsible for the anti-cancer property and its effect on cellular properties and functions are not known. Material and methods: We have characterized the biochemical and biomechanical properties of MDA-MB-231 cells treated with the methanolic extract from AN...
October 2020: Heliyon
Simon Valayer, David Kim, Anna Fogtman, Ulrich Straube, Andrew Winnard, Nick Caplan, David A Green, Flora H P van Leeuwen, Tobias Weber
Detrimental health effects from ionizing radiation to living organisms is one of the key concerns identified and addressed by Radiation Protection institutions, nationally and internationally on Earth and for human spaceflight. Thus, new methods for mitigating the adverse effects of ionizing radiation are urgently needed for terrestrial health and deep space exploration. Caloric restriction and (intermittent-) fasting have been reported to elicit a variety of immediate and long-term physiological effects. The rapidly growing body of evidence of research studies investigating the effects of caloric restriction and dietary fasting points toward a multitude of benefits affecting numerous physiological systems...
2020: Frontiers in Nutrition
Maria Levitin, Joel Ofori, Woo Jae Shin, Jiayi Huang, Mackenzie Daly, Dengfeng Cao, Russell Pachynski
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) comprises 4.2% of all new cancer cases in the United States and 30% of cases are metastatic (mRCC) at diagnosis. Brain metastatic RCC historically has poor prognosis, but the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized their care and may be successfully combined with SBRT to improve prognosis. Here, we present a case of a patient with mRCC who had brain metastases treated with concurrent immune checkpoint inhibitors and SBRT. He continues to survive with good functional status years following his initial diagnosis...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Giuseppe Schepisi, Vincenza Conteduca, Chiara Casadei, Giorgia Gurioli, Lorena Rossi, Valentina Gallà, Maria Concetta Cursano, Nicole Brighi, Cristian Lolli, Cecilia Menna, Alberto Farolfi, Salvatore Luca Burgio, Amelia Altavilla, Giovanni Martinelli, Ugo De Giorgi
Currently, renal cell carcinoma is characterized by encouraging benefits from immunotherapy that have led to significant results in treatment outcome. The approval of nivolumab primarily as second-line monotherapy and, more recently, the approval of new combination therapies as first-line treatment have confirmed the importance of immunotherapy in this type of tumor. In this context, the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T represents a further step forward in the field of immunotherapy. Initially tested on hematological malignancies, this new therapeutic approach is also becoming a topic of great interest for solid tumors...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Liping Shan, Wei Liu, Yunhong Zhan
Although sunitinib contributes to prolonging the progression-free survival of metastatic renal cell carcinoma significantly, the universal presence of resistance limits the initial response rate and restricts durable responses. The mechanisms involved in sunitinib resistance vary and need further investigation. We found long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) colon cancer-associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) overexpressed in sunitinib-resistant cells while declined in the parental cells. Moreover, lncRNA CCAT1 increased significantly in samples with resistance to sunitinib compared with those with responses to sunitinib...
2020: Frontiers in Oncology
Elham Nazari, Amir Hossein Farzin, Mehran Aghemiri, Amir Avan, Mahmood Tara, Hamed Tabesh
By changing the lifestyle and increasing the cancer incidence, accurate diagnosis becomes a significant medical action. Today, DNA microarray is widely used in cancer diagnosis and screening since it is able to measure gene expression levels. Analyzing them by using common statistical methods is not suitable because of the high gene expression data dimensions. So, this study aims to use new techniques to diagnose acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, the leukemia microarray gene data, contenting 22283 genes, was extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus repository...
July 2020: Journal of Medicine and Life
Simone Nüssing, Joseph A Trapani, Ian A Parish
Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of cancer. Nevertheless, the majority of patients do not respond to therapy, meaning a deeper understanding of tumor immune evasion strategies is required to boost treatment efficacy. The vast majority of immunotherapy studies have focused on how treatment reinvigorates exhausted CD8+ T cells within the tumor. In contrast, how therapies influence regulatory processes within the draining lymph node is less well studied. In particular, relatively little has been done to examine how tumors may exploit peripheral CD8+ T cell tolerance, an under-studied immune checkpoint that under normal circumstances prevents detrimental autoimmune disease by blocking the initiation of T cell responses...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Annabel Meireson, Michael Devos, Lieve Brochez
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a cytosolic haem-containing enzyme involved in the degradation of tryptophan to kynurenine. Although initially thought to be solely implicated in the modulation of innate immune responses during infection, subsequent discoveries demonstrated IDO1 as a mechanism of acquired immune tolerance. In cancer, IDO1 expression/activity has been observed in tumor cells as well as in the tumor-surrounding stroma, which is composed of endothelial cells, immune cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal cells...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Kun Zhang, Yan Liu, Xiaodan Liu, Juan Du, Yuxiang Wang, Jing Yang, Yingxian Li, Congrong Liu
We investigated the clinicopathological significance of multiple molecular features in undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas (UDECs). Eighteen dedifferentiated endometrial carcinomas (DDECs) and three undifferentiated endometrial carcinomas (UECs) were collected. Polymerase-ε exonuclease domain mutations (POLE-EDM) were analysed by Sanger sequencing. SWI/SNF complex subunits, mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, p53, and PD-L1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The SWI/SNF complex was inactivated in half of the UDECs; variably combined with deficient MMR (dMMR), POLE-EDM, or p53 aberrance...
October 15, 2020: Pathology
Amandine Billaud, Louise-Marie Chevalier, Mario Campone, Alain Morel, Frédéric Bigot
Genomic instability is one of the main properties of tumour development, promoting first the acquisition of genetic alterations and thus carcinogenesis. Then, the chronic and anarchic proliferation of cancer cells also supports and contributes to this instability allowing a continuous evolution of the tumour. The accumulation of mutations resulting from that instability contributes to tumour heterogeneity that occurs in a specific environment. The resulting diversity of oncogenic drivers further complicates the characterization of the origin of cancer cells dysfunction and consequently therapeutic decision...
October 15, 2020: Bulletin du Cancer
Alison E Meyer, Quinlan Furumo, Cary Stelloh, Alex C Minella, Sridhar Rao
Fbw7 is a tumor suppressor that regulates the degradation of oncogenic substrates such as c-Jun, c-Myc, Notch1 intracellular domain (ICD), and cyclin E by functioning as the substrate recognition protein in the Skp1-Cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex. Consequently, low expression or loss of FBXW7 in breast cancer has been hypothesized to result in the accumulation of oncogenic transcription factors that are master regulators of proliferation, apoptosis, and ultimately transformation. Despite this, the direct effect of Fbw7 loss on mammary gland morphology and tumorigenesis has not been examined...
November 2020: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Le Shi, Jing Liu, Yunhua Peng, Jinfang Zhang, Xiangpeng Dai, Shuangxi Zhang, Yongyao Wang, Jiankang Liu, Jiangang Long
Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is a cytosolic protein responsible for mitochondrial fission and is essential in the initiation and development of several human diseases, including cancer. However, the regulation of Drp1, especially of its ubiquitination, remains unclear. In this study, we report that the ovarian tumor-associated protease deubiquitinase 6A (OTUD6A) deubiquitylates and stabilizes Drp1, thereby facilitating regulation of mitochondrial morphology and tumorigenesis. OTUD6A is upregulated in human patients with colorectal cancer...
October 17, 2020: Molecular Oncology
Romain-David Seban, Jean-Baptiste Assie, Etienne Giroux-Leprieur, Marie-Ange Massiani, Michael Soussan, Gérald Bonardel, Christos Chouaid, Margot Playe, Lucas Goldfarb, Boris Duchemann, Nicolas Girard, Laurence Champion
OBJECTIVE: To determine FDG-PET biomarkers associated with long-term benefit (LTB) and survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving first-line immunotherapy. METHODS: In this multicenter study, we retrospectively analyzed advanced NSCLC patients with a PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥ 50%, who underwent FDG-PET/CT before first-line pembrolizumab, received from August 2017 to September 2019. Parameters extracted were SUVmax, SUVmean, TMTV (total metabolic tumor volume) and TLG (total lesion glycolysis)...
October 18, 2020: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Maria V Deligiorgi, Dimitrios T Trafalis
The immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi) revolutionize the cancer therapeutics, though not being devoid of toxicity. The immune-related primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare, yet potentially life-threatening, adverse event, posing diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report the first case of reversible PAI related to nivolumab (programmed cell-death 1 protein inhibitor) in a 42-year-old male with metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma. PAI manifested as profound fatigue, disorientation, hypotension, hyperpigmentation of palmar creases, and hyponatremia without hyperkalemia 16 weeks after initiation of nivolumab...
October 15, 2020: International Immunopharmacology
Cao Fang, Yibin Kang
Metastasis is responsible for a large majority of death from malignant solid tumors. Bone is one of the most frequently affected organs in cancer metastasis, especially in breast and prostate cancer. Development of bone metastasis requires cancer cells to successfully complete a number of challenging steps, including local invasion and intravasation, survival in circulation, extravasation and initial seeding, and finally, formation of metastatic colonies after a period of dormancy or indolent growth. During this process, cancer cells often undergo a series of cellular and molecular changes to gain cellular plasticity that helps them adapt to various environments they encounter along the journey of metastasis...
October 15, 2020: Bone
Zhengjun Lin, Zhihua Fan, Xianghong Zhang, Jia Wan, Tang Liu
Sarcomas, originating from mesenchymal progenitor stem cells, are a group of rare malignant tumors with poor prognosis. Wide surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are the most common sarcoma treatments. However, sarcomas' response rates to chemotherapy are quite low and sarcoma cells can have intrinsic or acquired resistance after treatment with chemotherapeutics drugs, leading to the development of multi-drug resistance (MDR). Cancer cellular plasticity plays pivotal roles in cancer initiation, progression, therapy resistance and cancer relapse...
October 15, 2020: Life Sciences
Thejus T Jayakrishnan, Veli Bakalov, Zena Chahine, John Lister, Rodney E Wegner, Santhosh Sadashiv
BACKGROUND: Disparities driven by socioeconomic factors have been shown to impact outcomes for cancer patients. We sought to explore this relationship among patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who were not considered for hematopoietic stem cell transplant in the first-line setting and how it varied over time. METHODS: We queried the National Cancer Database for patients diagnosed with MM between 2004 and 2016 and included only those who received systemic therapy as the first-line treatment...
October 10, 2020: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
Melanie MacGregor, Hanieh Safizadeh Shirazi, Kit Man Chan, Kola Ostrikov, Kym McNicholas, Alex Jay, Michael Chong, Alexander H Staudacher, Thomas D Michl, Aigerim Zhalgasbaikyzy, Michael P Brown, Moein Navvab Kashani, Adam Di Fiore, Alex Grochowski, Stephen Robb, Simon Belcher, Jordan Li, Jonathan M Gleadle, Krasimir Vasilev
Bladder cancer is common and has one of the highest recurrence rates. Cystoscopy, the current gold standard diagnosis approach, has recently benefited from the introduction of blue light assisted photodynamic diagnostic (PDD). While blue light cystoscopy improves diagnostic sensitivity, it remains a costly and invasive approach. Here, we present a microfluidic-based platform for non-invasive diagnosis which combines the principle of PDD with whole cell immunocapture technology to detect bladder cancer cells shed in patient urine ex vivo...
October 7, 2020: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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