Emily Russell, Stephen J McMahon, Ben Russell, Hibaaq Mohamud, Conor K McGarry, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise
Gadolinium is a commonly used contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The goal of this work was to determine how MRI contrast agents affect radiosensitivity for tumour cells. Using a 225kVp X-ray cabinet source, immunofluorescence and clonogenic assays were performed on six cancer cell lines: lung (H460), pancreas (MiaPaCa2), prostate (DU145), breast (MCF7), brain (U87) and liver (HEPG2). Dotarem® contrast agent, at concentrations of 0.2, 2 and 20 mM, was used to determine its effect on DNA damage and cell survival...
September 16, 2020: Radiation Research
Fang Wang, Rengan Luo, Hao Xin, Yaming Zhang, Bernardino J Córdova Wong, Weiping Wang, Jianping Lei
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess self-renewal and clonal tumor initiation capacities, which lead to drug resistance and tumor recurrence. In this work, a hypoxia-stimulated strategy based on a smart triblock vector was developed to enhance therapeutic efficacy through the inhibition of cancer stemness. The triblock precursor was designed with a fluorescence chromophore for monitoring hypoxia, a methoxy nitro-unit for biorecognition, and a poly(ethylene glycol)-folate for cancer cell targeting. As the degree of hypoxia increases, the vectors were progressively dissociated as indicated by the enhanced fluorescence intensity in hypoxic cells and compacted three-dimensional spheres...
September 10, 2020: Biomaterials
Zoltán Szekanecz, Izabella Gomez, Boglárka Soós, Levente Bodoki, Szilvia Szamosi, Csilla András, Balázs Juhász, László Váróczy, Péter Antal-Szalmás, Péter Szodoray, Nóra Bittner, Péter Árkosy, Árpád Illés, Gabriella Szűcs, Katalin Dankó, Tamás Bender, László Tamási, Éva Szekanecz
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MALIGNANCIES AND MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES: Oncorheumatology is the meeting point of tumor formation and rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases (RMD). Multiple interactions exist between these two medical specialties. One major field is the topic of malignancies associated with rheumatic diseases, while the other topic covers the development of musculoskeletal disease in cancer patients. Within the first group, secondary malignancies may be associated with rheumatic diseases. Mostly sustained inflammation is responsible for transition into cancer...
September 14, 2020: Autoimmunity Reviews
Jie Xiong, Xinxin Zhang, Yong Zhang, Bin Wu, Liang Fang, Ning Wang, Hongyu Yi, Ning Chang, Lihua Chen, Jian Zhang
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in shaping the invasive cancer phenotype by contributing to tumor initiation, metastasis, relapse, and therapeutic resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand activated transcription factor, which is well known for mediating the toxicity and tumorigenesis of a variety of environmental pollutants, has been extensively recognized as an important mediator in NSCLC development. Here, evidence showed that AhR was overexpressed in NSCLC tissues, and a high AhR protein level was associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype...
September 14, 2020: Experimental Cell Research
Fabrizio Marcucci, Cristiano Rumio
Adaptive antitumor immune responses, either cellular or humoral, aim at eliminating tumor cells expressing the cognate antigens. There are some instances, however, where these same immune responses have tumor-promoting effects. These effects can lead to the expansion of antigen-negative tumor cells, tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth, metastatic dissemination, resistance to antitumor therapy and apoptotic stimuli, acquisition of tumor-initiating potential and activation of various forms of survival mechanisms...
September 17, 2020: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Ranjan Pathak, Sarah B Goldberg, Maureen Canavan, Jeph Herrin, Jessica R Hoag, Michelle C Salazar, Marianna Papageorge, Theresa Ermer, Daniel J Boffa
Importance: Tumor size larger than 4 cm is accepted as an indication for adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with node-negative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment guidelines suggest that high-risk features are also associated with the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy among patients with early-stage NSCLC, yet this association is understudied. Objective: To assess the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and survival in the presence and absence of high-risk pathologic features in patients with node-negative early-stage NSCLC...
September 17, 2020: JAMA Oncology
Srikala S Sridhar, Normand Blais, Ben Tran, M Neil Reaume, Scott A North, Martin R Stockler, Kim N Chi, Neil E Fleshner, Geoffrey Liu, John W Robinson, Som D Mukherjee, Yasmin Rahim, Eric Winquist, Christopher M Booth, Nghia Trung Nguyen, Emma K Beardsley, Nimira S Alimohamed, Gail T McDonald, Keyue Ding, Wendy R Parulekar
Importance: Treatment options for platinum-refractory metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) are limited, and outcomes remain poor. Nab-paclitaxel is an albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel showing promising activity and tolerability in a prior single-arm trial. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel in platinum-refractory mUC. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this investigator-initiated, open-label, phase 2 randomized clinical trial conducted across Canada and Australia from January 2014 to April 2017, eligible patients had histologically confirmed, radiologically evident mUC of the urinary tract...
September 17, 2020: JAMA Oncology
Jennifer Le-Rademacher, Camden Lopez, Eric Wolfe, Nathan R Foster, Sumithra J Mandrekar, Xiaofei Wang, Rajiv Kumar, Alex Adjei, Aminah Jatoi
BACKGROUND: Eligibility criteria and endpoints for cancer cachexia trials-and whether weight loss should be included-remain controversial. Although most cachexia trials enrol patients after initial cancer diagnosis, few studies have addressed whether weight loss well after a cancer diagnosis is prognostic. METHODS: We pooled data from non-small cell lung cancer patients from prospectively conducted trials within the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology (1998-2008), a nationally funded infrastructure...
September 17, 2020: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Nadège Gouignard, Christian Rouvière, Eric Theveneau
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) converts coherent epithelial structures into single cells. EMT is a dynamic cellular process that is not systematically completed (not all EMTs lead to single cells) and reversible (cells can re-epithelialize). EMT is orchestrated at multiple levels from transcription, to posttranslational modifications, to protein turnover. It involves remodeling of polarity and adhesion and enhances migratory capabilities. During physiological events such as embryogenesis or wound healing EMT is used to initiate cell migration, but EMT can also occur in pathological settings...
2021: Methods in Molecular Biology
Massimo Claudio Fantini, Agnese Favale, Sara Onali, Federica Facciotti
Regulatory T cells represent a class of specialized T lymphocytes that suppress unwanted immune responses and size the activation of the immune system whereby limiting collateral damages in tissues involved by inflammation. In cancer, the accumulation of Tregs is generally associated with poor prognosis. Many lines of evidence indicate that Tregs accumulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME) suppresses the immune response against tumor-associated antigens (TAA), thus promoting tumor progression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSLC), breast carcinoma and melanoma...
September 14, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lim Tian En, Mark F H Brougham, William Hamish B Wallace, Rod T Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Children with cancer often face infertility as a long-term complication of their treatment. For boys, compromised testicular function is common after chemotherapy and currently there are no well-established options to prevent this damage. Platinum-based agents are used to treat a wide variety of childhood cancers. However, platinum agents are not currently included in the cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED), which is used clinically to assess the risks to fertility posed by combination chemotherapy in children with cancer...
September 16, 2020: Human Reproduction Update
Jill Koshiol, Vanessa Van De Wyngard, Emma E McGee, Paz Cook, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Noldy Mardones, Karie Medina, Vanessa Olivo, Karen Pettit, Sarah S Jackson, Fabio Paredes, Raúl Sanchez, Andrea Huidobro, Miguel Villaseca, Enrique Bellolio, Hector Losada, Juan Carlos Roa, Allan Hildesheim, Juan Carlos Araya, Catterina Ferreccio
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly fatal cancer that can be cured through cholecystectomy if identified early. The presence of gallstones is the primary risk factor for GBC, but few individuals with gallstones develop GBC. A key question is what drives the development of GBC among individuals with gallstones. We initiated the Chile Biliary Longitudinal Study (Chile BiLS) to address this question. From 2016-2019, Chile BiLS enrolled 4,726 women aged 50-74 with ultrasound-detected gallstones from Southern-central Chile, accounting for an estimated 36% of eligible women with gallstones in the study area...
September 16, 2020: American Journal of Epidemiology
Lina Wang, Ping Sun, Yuzhang Wu, Li Wang
Obesity-induced low-grade chronic inflammation in the metabolic tissues, such as adipose tissue (AT) and liver tissue, in individuals with obesity is a major etiological factor for several diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular problems, as well as cancer and autoimmune diseases. Previous studies have revealed that tissue-resident macrophages play a crucial role in this process. However, the mechanisms responsible for recruiting and activating macrophages and initiating chronic inflammation in the metabolic tissues have not yet been clearly elucidated...
September 15, 2020: Obesity Reviews
Ashkan Novin, Yasir Suhail, Visar Ajeti, Ruchi Goyal, Khadija Wali, Atta Seck, Alex Jackson, Kshitiz
Tumor dissemination into the surrounding stroma is the initial step in a metastatic cascade. Invasion into stroma is a non-autonomous process for cancer, and its progression depends upon the stage of cancer, as well as the cells residing in the stroma. However, a systems framework to understand how stromal fibroblasts resist, collude, or aid cancer invasion has been lacking, limiting our understanding of the role of stromal biology in cancer metastasis. We and others have shown that gene perturbation in stromal fibroblasts can modulate cancer invasion into the stroma, highlighting the active role stroma plays in regulating its own invasion...
September 16, 2020: Human Cell
Julie Le Naour, Laurence Zitvogel, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Erika Vacchelli, Guido Kroemer
Stimulator of interferon response cGAMP interactor 1 (STING1, best known as STING) is an endoplasmic reticulum-sessile protein that serves as a signaling hub, receiving input from several pattern recognition receptors, most of which sense ectopic DNA species in the cytosol. In particular, STING ensures the production of type I interferon (IFN) in response to invading DNA viruses, bacterial pathogens, as well as DNA leaking from mitochondria or the nucleus ( e.g ., in cells exposed to chemotherapy or radiotherapy)...
June 16, 2020: Oncoimmunology
Julie Le Naour, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Erika Vacchelli
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a pattern recognition receptor that senses exogenous (viral) as well as endogenous (mammalian) double-stranded RNA in endosomes. On activation, TLR3 initiates a signal transduction pathway that culminates with the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including type I interferon (IFN). The latter is essential not only for innate immune responses to infection but also for the initiation of antigen-specific immunity against viruses and malignant cells. These aspects of TLR3 biology have supported the development of various agonists for use as stand-alone agents or combined with other therapeutic modalities in cancer patients...
June 2, 2020: Oncoimmunology
Arkom Chaiwongkot, Nakarin Kitkumthorn, Ratakorn Srisuttee, Supranee Buranapraditkun
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can infect human B cells and is associated with various types of B cell lymphomas. Studies on the global alterations of the cellular pathways mediated by EBV-induced B cell transformation are limited. In the present study, microarray analysis was performed following generation of two EBV-infected B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (BLCL), in which normal B cells obtained from two healthy Thai individuals and transcriptomic profiles were compared with their respective normal B cells. The two EBV-transformed BLCL datasets exhibited a high degree of similarity between their RNA expression profiles, whereas the two normal B-cell datasets did not exhibit the same degree of similarity in their RNA expression profiles...
November 2020: Biomedical Reports
Shanshan Lyu, Jiabin Lu, Wendan Chen, Weiye Huang, Haoqi Huang, Shaoyan Xi, Shumei Yan
Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-II (eIF4A2) is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase involved in mRNA translation. Abnormal expression of eIF4A2 has been reported as a prognostic factor in different types of cancer. However, little is known regarding the function of eIF4A2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the present study, 253 samples were collected from patients diagnosed with ESCC, and the expression of eIF4A2 was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The clinicopathological and prognostic significance of eIF4A2 expression in ESCC were then statistically analyzed...
November 2020: Oncology Letters
Fei Chen, Li Zhu, Junyan Hu, Shujun Jiang, Hui Liu, Jie Zheng, Jiandong Wang, Feng Wang, Zhe Li
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the poorest prognosis among all types of breast cancer and there is yet no effective therapy. Chemotherapy is the traditional standard of care for patients with TNBC; however, treatment of TNBC with chemotherapy may lead to the enrichment of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which exhibitan enhanced capacity for self-renewal, tumor initiation and metastasis. The present study demonstrated that bufalin, a small molecular compound used in traditional Chinese medicine, exerted anticancer effects on a wide range of cancer cell lines, inhibited cell proliferation through inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest, and triggered apoptosis in the TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1937...
November 2020: Oncology Letters
Nitin Telang
Negative growth regulatory tumor suppressor genes and positive growth regulatory oncogenes serve important roles in initiation/progression of colon cancer. Germline mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene represents a primary genetic defect for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome, a predisposing factor for clinical colon cancer. Somatic mutations in the APC gene are common in sporadic colon cancer. Preclinical and clinical efficacy is documented for targeted therapy with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors for prostaglandin biosynthesis and selective inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase for polyamine biosynthesis...
November 2020: Oncology Letters
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