Iis Inayati Rakhmat, Yudith Yunia Kusmala, Dewi Ratih Handayani, Henny Juliastuti, Eka Noneng Nawangsih, Arief Wibowo, Michael Anthonius Lim, Raymond Pranata
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aims to synthesize evidence on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in COVID-19 patients and factors affecting it. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search from PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases from inception of databases up until 7 March 2021. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included: 1) observational studies or randomized controlled trials that report COVID-19 patients, 2) reporting DPP-4 inhibitor use, 3) mortality, and 4) mortality based on DPP-4 inhibitor use...
April 1, 2021: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Gouda H Attia, Yasmine S Moemen, Mahmoud Youns, Ammar M Ibrahim, Randa Abdou, Mohamed A El Raey
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the coronavirus (COVID-19), is the virus responsible for over 69,613,607 million infections and over 1,582,966 deaths worldwide. All treatment measures and protocols were considered to be supportive only and not curative. During this current coronavirus pandemic, searching for pharmaceutical or traditional complementary and integrative medicine to assist with prevention, treatment, and recovery has been advantageous. These phytopharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals can be more economic, available, safe and lower side effects...
March 26, 2021: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Kadir Küçükceran, Mustafa Kürşat Ayrancı, Abdullah Sadık Girişgin, Sedat Koçak, Zerrin Defne Dündar
INTRODUCTION: Due to the high mortality and spread rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are currently serious challenges in emergency department management. As such, we investigated whether the blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/albumin ratio (BAR) predicts mortality in the COVID-19 patients in the emergency department. METHODS: A total of 602 COVID-19 patients who were brought to the emergency department within the period from March to September 2020 were included in the study...
April 5, 2021: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sarah DeLozier, Lisa Bastarache, Sarah Bland, Melissa McPheeters, Quinn Wells, Eric Farber-Eger, Cosmin A Bejan, Daniel Fabbri, Trent Rosenbloom, Dan Roden, Kevin B Johnson, Wei-Qi Wei, Josh Peterson
From the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, researchers have looked to electronic health record (EHR) data as a way to study possible risk factors and outcomes. To ensure the validity and accuracy of research using these data, investigators need to be confident that the phenotypes they construct are reliable and accurate, reflecting the healthcare settings from which they are ascertained. We developed a COVID-19 registry at a single academic medical center and used data from March 1 to June 5, 2020 to assess differences in population-level characteristics in pandemic and non-pandemic years respectively...
April 7, 2021: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Ariel Kenig, Yuval Ishay, Fadi Kharouf, Limor Rubin
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infected patients, receiving background anti-CD20 therapy, were treated with convalescent plasma or plasma-based products. Eight patients were included in the study, presenting with prolonged disease course and delayed viral clearance. CP/plasma-based products were offered as an add-on therapy to standard medical treatment. All patients showed remarkable clinical and laboratory improvement. In addition, polymerase chain reaction from nasopharyngeal swabs rapidly converted to negative following plasma administration...
April 7, 2021: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Valeria Lallai, Letizia Manca, Christie D Fowler
Evidence in humans suggests a correlation between nicotine smoking and severe respiratory symptoms with COVID-19 infection. In lung tissue, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) appears to mechanistically underlie viral entry. Here, we investigated whether e-cigarette vapor inhalation alters ACE2 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression in male and female mice. In male lung, nicotine vapor inhalation induced a significant increase in ACE2 mRNA and protein, but surprisingly, these differences were not found in females...
April 7, 2021: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Zhen Zhu, Enzo Weber, Till Strohsal, Duaa Serhan
BACKGROUND: Imported COVID-19 cases, if unchecked, can jeopardize the effort of domestic containment. We aim to find out what sustainable border control options for different entities (e.g., countries, states) exist during the reopening phases, given their own choice of domestic control measures. METHODS: We propose a SUIHR model, which has built-in imported risk and (1-tier) contact tracing to study the cross-border spreading and control of COVID-19. Under plausible parameter assumptions, we examine the effectiveness of border control policies, in combination with internal measures, to confine the virus and avoid reverting back to more restrictive life styles again...
April 7, 2021: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Maryam Azimi, Vahid Haddadi-Asl, Hanie Ahmadi, Mehrdad Gholamzad, Sara Ghorbanpour, Abbas Bahador
BACKGROUND: In this study, the ability of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as a treatment approach and adjuvant therapy using Curcumin-Poly (Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid) nanoparticles (Cur@PLGA-NPs) to inactivate Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in plasma was investigated. Furthermore, to verify whether the quality requirement of aPDT-treated plasma is acceptable, the differences of the levels of clotting factors, total plasma proteins, and anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies titrations in plasma of patient before and after aPDT treatment were investigated...
April 7, 2021: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Tony Succar, Hilary A Beaver, Andrew G Lee
Graduate medical education (GME) in ophthalmology has faced and overcome many challenges over the past years and 2020 has been a game-changing year. Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) pandemic disrupted medical education globally, ophthalmic educators rapidly transformed their curricula to novel and effective virtual learning formats. Thus, while the COVID-19 outbreak has been one of the most significant challenges faced in the history of medical education, it has also provided an impetus to develop innovative teaching practices, bringing with it unprecedented success in allowing medical students to continue their education in ophthalmology despite these challenges...
April 7, 2021: Survey of Ophthalmology
John Liu, Jingyi Ma, Iqbal Ik Ahmed, Devesh Varma
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a 3D-printed custom mask fitter in lieu of N95 respirators among ophthalmologists and other eye care professionals who may not be prioritized to receive N95 respirators amidst the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: This was a proof-of-concept study from a tertiary eye care center in Oakville, Canada. All participants underwent the N95 Qualitative Fit Test with a custom mask fitter secured over an American Society for Testing and Materials Level 3 face mask...
March 19, 2021: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Mahin Badakhsh, Majid Dastras, Zohreh Sarchahi, Mahboobe Doostkami, Adel Mir, Salehoddin Bouya
OBJECTIVES: Despite the high prevalence of coronavirus and various treatment approaches, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), there is still no definitive treatment for coronavirus. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CAM interventions on COVID-19 patients. CONTENT: Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE) were searched from the inception of databases until July 16, 2020. Keywords included complementary and alternative medicine therapies and Coronavirus...
April 12, 2021: Reviews on Environmental Health
Elisa Danese, Martina Montagnana, Gian Luca Salvagno, Denise Peserico, Laura Pighi, Simone De Nitto, Brandon M Henry, Stefano Porru, Giuseppe Lippi
OBJECTIVES: Since universal vaccination is a pillar against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), monitoring anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies is essential for deciphering post-vaccination immune response. METHODS: Three healthcare workers received 30 μg BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Pfizer Vaccine, followed by a second identical dose, 21 days afterwards. Venous blood was drawn at baseline and at serial intervals, up to 63 days afterwards, for assessing total immunoglobulins (Ig) anti-RBD (receptor binding domain), anti-S1/S2 and anti-RBD IgG, anti-RBD and anti-N/S1 IgM, and anti-S1 IgA...
April 12, 2021: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Nicholas B Sajjadi, William Nowlin, Ross Nowlin, David Wenger, John Martin Beal, Matt Vassar, Micah Hartwell
CONTEXT: On December 1, 2020, Drs. Wolfgang Wodarg and Micheal Yeadon petitioned to withhold emergency use authorization of the BNT162b2 messenger ribonucleic acid vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manufactured by BioNTech and Pfizer, raising concern for female infertility risks but acknowledging the lack of evidence. The European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration ultimately issued emergency use authorizations, but misinformation claiming that COVID-19 vaccines cause female infertility began circulating on social media, potentially influencing public perception and medical decision making among pregnant patients or those seeking to become pregnant...
April 12, 2021: Journal of osteopathic medicine
Zoltán Szekanecz, Krisztina Bogos, Tamás Constantin, Béla Fülesdi, Veronika Müller, Éva Rákóczi, István Várkonyi, István Vályi-Nagy
Összefoglaló. Az új típusú koronavírus-fertőzés (COVID-19) nagy terhet ró az egészségügyi ellátórendszerre és a társadalomra. A betegségnek három nagy szakasza van, melyek alapvetően meghatározzák a kezelést. Az I-IIA fázisban az antivirális, míg a IIB-III. fázisban a gyulladásgátló kezelés áll előtérben, melyhez intenzív terápiás, szupportív kezelés csatlakozik. A jelen ajánlás kizárólag a gyógyszeres kezelésre vonatkozik, és a rendelkezésre álló bizonyítékok alapján foglalja össze a terápiás lehetőségeket...
April 10, 2021: Orvosi Hetilap
Mohammed Tahir
The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causing a global pandemic with devastating effects on healthcare and social-economic systems, has no special antiviral therapies available for human coronaviruses (CoVs). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) possesses a non-structural protein (nsp14), with amino terminal domain coding for a proofreading exoribonuclease (ExoN) that is required for high-fidelity replication. The ability of CoVs during genome replication and transcription to proofread and exclude mismatched nucleotides has long hindered the development of anti-CoV drugs...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Medical Virology
Hazem Abbas Al-Bustany, Selami Ercan, Ebru Ince, Necmettin Pirinccioglu
The emerged Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes severe or even fatal respiratory tract infection, and to date there is no FDA-approved therapeutics or effective treatment available to effectively combat this viral infection. This urgent situation is an attractive research area in the field of drug design and development. One of the most important targets of SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS Cov-2) is the main protease (3CLpro). Actinomycetes are important resources for drug discovery. The angucylines that are mainly produced by Streptomyces genus of actinomycetes exhibit a broad range of biological activities such as anticancer, antibacterial and antiviral...
April 10, 2021: Molecular Diversity
Mozaffar Aznab, Narges Eskandari Roozbahani, Homa Moazen
BACKGROUND: According to the recommendation of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), getting influenza vaccines during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemics is especially important for people with certain underlying medical conditions, like cancer. Due to the similarities between the symptoms of influenza and COVID-19, receiving the flu vaccine in suspicious cases can be helpful because it will make it easier to request a medical test and diagnosis. In this study, the value of influenza vaccination in the cancer population was investigated...
April 10, 2021: Supportive Care in Cancer
Mattis Bertlich, Clemens Stihl, Enzo Lüsebrink, Johannes C Hellmuth, Clemens Scherer, Saskia Freytag, Jennifer Lee Spiegel, Ivelina Stoycheva, Martin Canis, Bernhard G Weiss, Friedrich Ihler, Frank Haubner
PURPOSE: It has been established that the infection with SARS-CoV-2 may cause an impairment of chemosensory function. However, there is little data on the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on chemosensory function. METHODS: Twenty three SARS-CoV-2-positive patients diagnosed in spring 2020 with subjective hyposmia (out of 57 positive patients, 40.3%) were compared to SARS-CoV-2-positive patients without hyposmia (n = 19) and SARS-CoV-2-negative patients (n = 14)...
April 10, 2021: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Christian Irsara, Alexander E Egger, Wolfgang Prokop, Manfred Nairz, Lorin Loacker, Sabina Sahanic, Alex Pizzini, Thomas Sonnweber, Barbara Holzer, Wolfgang Mayer, Harald Schennach, Judith Loeffler-Ragg, Rosa Bellmann-Weiler, Boris Hartmann, Ivan Tancevski, Günter Weiss, Christoph J Binder, Markus Anliker, Andrea Griesmacher, Gregor Hoermann
OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and induce a specific antibody response. Serological assays detecting IgG against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein are useful to monitor the immune response after infection or vaccination. The objective of our study was to evaluate the clinical performance of the Siemens SARS-CoV-2 IgG (sCOVG) assay. METHODS: Sensitivity and specificity of the Siemens sCOVG test were evaluated on 178 patients with SARS-CoV-2-infection and 160 pre-pandemic samples in comparison with its predecessor test COV2G...
April 9, 2021: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Jasmin D Haslbauer, Alexandar Tzankov, Kirsten D Mertz, Nathalie Schwab, Ronny Nienhold, Raphael Twerenbold, Gregor Leibundgut, Anna K Stalder, Matthias Matter, Katharina Glatz
While coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily affects the respiratory tract, pathophysiological changes of the cardiovascular system remain to be elucidated. We performed a retrospective cardiopathological analysis of the heart and vasculature from 23 autopsies of COVID-19 patients, comparing the findings with control tissue. Myocardium from autopsies of COVID-19 patients was categorised into severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive (n = 14) or negative (n = 9) based on the presence of viral RNA as determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
April 9, 2021: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
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