Ahmet Sertcelik, Banu Cakir, Gokhan Metan
BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) were seriously affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is a priority to protect HCWs against COVID-19 and ensure the continuity of the health care system. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors for COVID-19 in HCWs and the effectiveness of the measures taken on protection. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in two hospitals serving on the same campus which are affiliated with a university from Turkey, between 03...
November 21, 2022: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
David Smerdon
The use of face masks has been a key response to the COVID-19 pandemic in almost every country. However, despite widespread use of masks in classrooms and offices around the world, almost nothing is known about their effects on cognitive performance. Using a natural experiment, I show that mandatory mask wearing has a negative causal effect on the cognitive performance of competitive chess players. I analyzed the quality of almost 3 million chess moves played by 8,531 individuals (ages 5-98 y) in 18 countries before and during the pandemic...
December 6, 2022: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maureen Cambier, Monique Henket, Anne Noelle Frix, Stéphanie Gofflot, Marie Thys, Sara Tomasetti, Anna Peired, Ingrid Struman, Anne-Françoise Rousseau, Benoît Misset, Gilles Darcis, Michel Moutschen, Renaud Louis, Makon-Sébastien Njock, Etienne Cavalier, Julien Guiot
BACKGROUND: The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented significant challenges and created concerns worldwide. Besides, patients who have experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection could present post-viral complications that can ultimately lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Serum levels of Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6), high molecular weight human MUC1 mucin, are increased in the most patients with various interstitial lung damage. Since its production is raised during epithelial damages, KL-6 could be a helpful non-invasive marker to monitor COVID-19 infection and predict post-infection sequelae...
2022: PloS One
Shamila Ginige, Elise Firman, Yee Sum Li, Yudish Soonarane, Nicolas Smoll, Fiona May, Ian Hunter, Brielle Pery, Bonnie Macfarlane, Tracy Bladen, Terresa Allen, Melinda Lennon, Jacina Walker, Vicki Slinko, Mark Stickley, Gulam Khandaker, Satyamurthy Anuradha, Andre Wattiaux
BACKGROUND: With the reduction in access to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and changes in testing guidelines in Australia, a reduced number of people are seeking testing for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), limiting the opportunity to monitor disease transmission. Knowledge of community transmission of COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses is essential to better predict subsequent surges in cases during the pandemic to alert health services, protect vulnerable populations and enhance public health measures...
2022: PloS One
Peerapong Kamjai, Sivaporn Hemvimol, Narisa Kengtrong Bordeerat, Potjanee Srimanote, Pornpimon Angkasekwinai
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly contagious pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly and remains a challenge to global public health. COVID-19 patients manifest various symptoms from mild to severe cases with poor clinical outcomes. Prognostic values of novel markers, including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and C-reactive protein to lymphocyte ratio (CLR) calculated from routine laboratory parameters have recently been reported to predict severe cases; however, whether this investigation can guide oxygen therapy in COVID-19 patients remains unclear...
2022: PloS One
Mika Lång, Annika Allard, Soile Blomqvist, Irmeli Iranto, Tytti Vuorinen, Antti-Heikki Tapio, Jiri Vainio
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first emerged in late 2019, and quickly spread to every continent causing the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Fast propagation of the disease presented numerous challenges to the health care industry in general and especially placed enormous pressure on laboratory testing. Throughout the pandemic, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-based nucleic acid amplification tests have been the primary technique to identify acute infections caused by SARS-CoV-2...
2022: PloS One
Ayaka Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Koami, Kota Shinada, Yuichiro Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant has a low rate of serious illness, is highly contagious, and has spread rapidly since January 2022. The number of severe cases and deaths remains problematic. Here, we aimed to elucidate the coagulation pathology of Omicron-infected patients using rotational thromboelastometry. METHODS: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019, hospitalized and treated from January 2021 to April 2022, were included...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Megan E LaMotte, Marta Elliott, Dawne M Mouzon
Black Americans have lower rates of depression and anxiety than Whites, despite greater exposure to stressors known to negatively impact mental health, characterized as the Black-White mental health paradox. This study revisited the paradox during the coronavirus pandemic. Drawing on stress process theory, minority stress theory, and the rejection-identification model of discrimination, in-group identity, and well-being, we analyzed original survey data from a quota sample of African American and White adults (N = 594)...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Caroline Asiimwe, Robin Fatch, Debbie M Cheng, Nneka I Emenyonu, Christine Ngabirano, Winnie R Muyindike, Judith A Hahn
Alcohol use is especially problematic for people living with HIV (PLWH) and was likely to be impacted by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its restrictions. In a study of PLWH with latent tuberculosis infection, we measured unhealthy alcohol use with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and bar attendance. We analyzed data collected before and after COVID-19 restrictions, and used Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression models to evaluate changes in unhealthy alcohol use...
November 28, 2022: AIDS and Behavior
Rodrigo A Cornejo, Jorge Montoya, Abraham I J Gajardo, Jerónimo Graf, Leyla Alegría, Romyna Baghetti, Anita Irarrázaval, César Santis, Nicolás Pavez, Sofía Leighton, Vinko Tomicic, Daniel Morales, Carolina Ruiz, Pablo Navarrete, Patricio Vargas, Roberto Gálvez, Victoria Espinosa, Marioli Lazo, Rodrigo A Pérez-Araos, Osvaldo Garay, Patrick Sepúlveda, Edgardo Martinez, Alejandro Bruhn
BACKGROUND: Prone positioning is currently applied in time-limited daily sessions up to 24 h which determines that most patients require several sessions. Although longer prone sessions have been reported, there is scarce evidence about the feasibility and safety of such approach. We analyzed feasibility and safety of a continuous prolonged prone positioning strategy implemented nationwide, in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients in Chile. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), conducted in 15 Intensive Care Units, which adhered to a national protocol of continuous prone sessions  ≥ 48 h and until PaO2 :FiO2 increased above 200 mm Hg...
November 28, 2022: Annals of Intensive Care
Dalia El Hadi, Hassan M Moukhadder, Hana Mansour, Zahi Wehbi, Alaa Bou Ghannam, Christiane Al-Haddad
PURPOSE: To study the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related lockdown on myopia progression of school-aged children, comparing across the years and within different age groups. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of school-aged children with myopia who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic at the American University of Beirut between January 2020 and December 2021 (during COVID-19 lockdown). Annual myopia progression rate (back to January 2016) was computed by dividing the absolute value of the spherical equivalent (SE) difference of two consecutive visits by the duration (in years)...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Natsuko Tokuhira, Akinori Uchiyama, Taiki Hoshino, Naoko Kubo, Suguru Ishigaki, Yusuke Enokidani, Ryota Sakaguchi, Yukiko Koyama, Yuji Fujino
BACKGROUND: Many patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia experience hyperglycemia. It is often difficult to control blood glucose (BG) levels in such patients using standard intravenous insulin infusion therapy. Therefore, we used an artificial pancreas. This study aimed to compare the BG status of artificial pancreas with that of standard therapy. METHODS: Fifteen patients were included in the study. BG values and the infusion speed of insulin and glucose by the artificial pancreas were collected...
November 28, 2022: Artificial Organs
Anthony T Reder, Olaf Stuve, Stephanie K Tankou, Thomas P Leist
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder marked by accumulating immune-mediated damage to the central nervous system. The dysregulated immune system in MS combined with immune effects of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) used in MS treatment could alter responses to infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most of the literature on immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination, in both the general population and patients with MS on DMTs, has focused on humoral immunity...
November 28, 2022: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Esmeralda Melgoza, Hiram Beltrán-Sánchez, Arturo Vargas Bustamante
INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had detrimental impacts across multiple sectors of the Mexican health care system. The prehospital care system, however, remains largely under-studied. The first objective of this study was to calculate the monthly per capita rates of injury-related 9-1-1 calls, traffic accidents, and crime at the state-level (Mexico City) during the early pandemic period (January 1 through June 30, 2020), while the second objective was to conduct these calculations at the borough-level for the same outcomes and time period...
November 28, 2022: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Fernanda V S Castanheira, Paul Kubes
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in more than 6 million deaths worldwide. COVID-19 is a respiratory disease characterized by pulmonary dysfunction leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDs), as well as disseminated coagulation, and multi-organ dysfunction. Neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this review, we highlight key gaps in knowledge, discuss the heterogeneity of neutrophils during the evolution of the disease, how they can contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic strategies that target neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses...
November 28, 2022: Immunological Reviews
Lisanne Heijmink, Juul Tönis, Niek Gilhuis, Maartje Gerkema, Lotte Hart, Stijn Raven, Jossy van den Boogaard, Agnetha Hofhuis, Susan van den Hof, Olga Visser
During 6 weeks in February-March 2021, the Dutch municipal health service Utrecht studied the epidemiological effects on test incidence and the detection of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mass testing (MT). During MT, inhabitants of Bunschoten could repeatedly test regardless of symptoms and as often as desired at the close-by test facilities in the municipality. Data from the regular COVID-19 registration was used for analysis. In Bunschoten, MT caused a significant increase in test incidence and an immediate increase in the number of detected active infections, in contrast to a stabilisation in the rest of the province of Utrecht...
November 15, 2022: Epidemiology and Infection
Ahmad R Alsayed, Abdullah Al-Dulaimi, Mohammad Alkhatib, Mohammed Al Maqbali, Mohammad A A Al-Najjar, Mamoon M D Al-Rshaidat
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic, human-specific fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). PCP symptoms are non-specific. A patient with P. jirovecii and another lung infection faces a diagnostic challenge. It may be difficult to determine which of these agents is responsible for the clinical symptoms, preventing effective treatment. Diagnostic and treatment efforts have been made more difficult by the rising frequency with which coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) and PCP co-occur...
November 28, 2022: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Francisco Javier Ruperti-Repilado, Helmut Baumgartner, Berto Bouma, Judith Bouchardy, Werner Budts, Laurence Campens, Massimo Chessa, Maria Jesús Del Cerro Marin, Harald Gabriel, Pastora Gallego, Elvira Ana González, Annette Schophuus Jensen, Magalie Ladouceur, Christopher Lockhart, Berta Miranda-Barrio, Marielle Morissens, Eduardo Moreno Escobar, Agnès Pasquet, Joaquin Rueda Soriano, Annemien Elise van den Bosch, Heleen Berdina van der Zwaan, Daniel Tobler, Matthias Greutmann, Markus Schwerzmann
BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, professionals in charge of particularly vulnerable populations, such as adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients, were confronted with difficult decision-making. We aimed to assess changes in risk stratification and outcomes of ACHD patients suffering from COVID-19 between March 2020 and April 2021. METHODS AND RESULTS: Risk stratification among ACHD experts (before and after the first outcome data were available) was assessed by means of questionnaires...
November 21, 2022: Int J Cardiol Congenit Heart Dis
Osama A Abulseoud, Asmaa Yehia, Claudine J Egol, Victor N Nettey, Mohamed Aly, Yihuai Qu, Aaron B Skolnik, Marie F Grill, Ayan Sen, Terry D Schneekloth
We examined the effects of psychiatric comorbidity, sex, and ICU admission on serum ferritin concentration in 628 elderly patients (79.7 ± 8.5 years) with positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. Hospitalization was required in 96% of patients and 17% required ICU admission. Patients with COVID-19 and psychiatric comorbidities ( n = 212) compared to patients without psychiatric comorbidities ( n = 416) had significantly lower ferritin concentration (570.4 ± 900.1 vs. 744.1 ± 965, P = 0.029), a greater incidence of delirium (22...
2022: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Maurício Schüler Nin, Nubia Heidrich, Felipe B Almeida, Lucas R Izolan, Hilda M R M Constant, Luana Freese, Rosane Gomez, Helena M T Barros
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 has led to measures of social distancing and quarantine worldwide. This stressful period may lead to psychological problems, including changes in substance use. In addition, sociodemographic factors are linked to changed levels of drug use and abuse observed during the COVID-19 pandemic, which are also associated with increased anxiety, depression, and other disorders. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate (i) changes in drug use during the COVID-19 pandemic associated with social distancing, and (ii) to verify factors associated with those changes...
2022: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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