Byunggeon Park, Jongmin Park, Jae Kwang Lim, Kyung Min Shin, Jaehee Lee, Hyewon Seo, Yong Hoon Lee, Jun Heo, Won Kee Lee, Jin Young Kim, Ki Beom Kim, Sungjun Moon, Sooyoung Choi
OBJECTIVE: Lung segmentation using volumetric quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis may help predict outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CT volumetric quantitative analysis and prognosis in patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT images from patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from February 18 to April 15, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. CT with a negative finding, failure of quantitative analysis, or poor image quality was excluded...
August 4, 2020: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Meng Di Jiang, Zi Yue Zu, U Joseph Schoepf, Rock H Savage, Xiao Lei Zhang, Guang Ming Lu, Long Jiang Zhang
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a transmissible respiratory disease that was initially reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. With the alarming levels of COVID-19 spread worldwide, the World Health Organization characterized COVID-19 as a pandemic. Over the past several months, chest CT has played a vital role in early identification, disease severity assessment, and dynamic disease course monitoring of COVID-19. The published data has enriched our knowledge on the etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and pathologic findings of COVID-19...
August 4, 2020: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Wu Bainv, Zhao Yun, Xu Dejing, Zhi Xiaoxu, Wang Yan, Niu Niu, Zhang Maomao, Zhu Ping, Meng Aifeng
AIM: The research aims to assess nurses' willingness to participate in care of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China, and to identify its associated factors. BACKGROUND: Along with the increasing number of infections, the world has paid widespread attention to COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a convenience sampling method that included a demographics questionnaire and the Nurses' Perceived Professional Benefits Questionnaire...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Nursing Management
Aarzoo Thakur, Shawn Pei Feng Tan, James Chun Yip Chan
Lopinavir/ritonavir, originally developed for treating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is currently undergoing clinical studies for treating the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although recent reports suggest that lopinavir exhibits in vitro efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, it is a highly protein bound drug and it remains unknown if it reaches adequate in vivo unbound (free) concentrations in lung tissue. We built a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of lopinavir/ritonavir in Caucasian and Chinese populations...
August 7, 2020: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Patrizia Straccia, Esther Diana Rossi, Maurizio Martini, Antonino Mulè, Federica Cianfrini, Mariangela Curatolo, Alessandra Cancellieri, Chiara Brunelli, Gian Franco Zannoni, Guido Fadda
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease. The spread of the infection and the severe clinical disease have led to the widespread adoption of social distancing measures. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission have been applied at all social levels, including health care operators. Hence, this reports focuses on the description of a new protocol for the safe management of cytological samples processed by liquid-based cytology (LBC) with an evaluation of the changes in terms of morphology and immunoreactivity...
August 7, 2020: Cancer Cytopathology
Mahmood S Choudhery, David T Harris
Since its eruption in China, novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has been reported in most of the countries and territories (>200) of the world with ~ 18 million confirmed cases (as of August 3, 2020). In most of the countries, Covid-19 upsurge is uncontrolled with a significant mortality rate. Currently no treatment effective for Covid-19 is available in the form of vaccines or antiviral drugs and patients are currently treated symptomatically. Although majority of the patients develop mild symptoms and recover without mechanical ventilation for respiratory management, severe respiratory illness develops in a significant portion of affected patients and may result in death...
August 7, 2020: Cell Biology International
Xiang Ren, Yu Li, Xiaokun Yang, Zhili Li, Jinzhao Cui, Aiqin Zhu, Hongting Zhao, Jianxing Yu, Taoran Nie, Minrui Ren, Shuaibing Dong, Ying Cheng, Qiulan Chen, Zhaorui Chang, Junling Sun, Liping Wang, Luzhao Feng, George F Gao, Zijian Feng, Zhongjie Li
BACKGROUND: Between mid-January and early February, provinces of mainland China outside the epicentre in Hubei province were on high alert for importations and transmission of COVID-19. Many properties of COVID-19 infection and transmission were still not yet established. METHODS: We collated and analysed data on 449 of the earliest COVID-19 cases detected outside Hubei province to make inferences about transmission dynamics and severity of infection. We analysed 64 clusters to make inferences on serial interval and potential role of pre-symptomatic transmission...
August 7, 2020: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Delio Tedeschi, Andrea Rizzi, Simone Biscaglia, Carlo Tumscitz
This is a case report of a 60-year-old male, without any cardiovascular risk factor and no cardiac history admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). After 7 days, the blood tests showed a significant rise of inflammatory and procoagulant markers, along with a relevant elevation of high-sensitivity Troponin I. Electrocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) were consistent with a diagnosis of infero-posterolateral acute myocardial infarction and the patient was transferred to the isolated Cath Lab for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
August 7, 2020: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Carlo Salvarani, Pamela Mancuso, Federica Gradellini, Nilla Viani, Paolo Pandolfi, Massimo Reta, Giuliano Carrozzi, Gilda Sandri, Gianluigi Bajocchi, Galli Elena, Francesco Muratore, Luigi Boiardi, Nicolò Pipitone, Giulia Cassone, Stefania Croci, Anna Maria Marata, Massimo Costantini, Paolo Giorgi Rossi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the susceptibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with autoimmune conditions treated with antimalarials in a population-based study. METHODS: All residents treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) from July through December 2019 and living in 3 provinces of Regione Emilia-Romagna were identified by drug prescription registries and matched with the registry containing all residents, living in the same areas, who have had swabs and positive swabs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)...
August 6, 2020: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Efsun Tanacan, Gulhan Aksoy Sarac, M Can Emeksiz, Didem Dincer Rota, F Gulru Erdogan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changing trends in dermatology clinical practice at a tertiary center during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients who were admitted to Ufuk University Hospital with dermatologic complaints/diseases before and during the pandemic. The patients were divided into two groups: 1) the Pre-pandemic period (March-May 2019) and 2) the Pandemic period (March-May 2020)...
August 6, 2020: Dermatologic Therapy
A De Giorgi, F Fabbian, E Di Simone, S Greco, R De Giorgio, G Zuliani, A Passaro, E Caselli, R Manfredini
OBJECTIVE: At the end of 2019, the Novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), spread rapidly from China to the whole world. Circadian rhythms can play crucial role in the complex interplay between viruses and organisms, and temporized schedules (chronotherapy) have been positively tested in several medical diseases. We aimed to compare the possible effects of a morning vs. evening antiviral administration in COVID patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all patients admitted to COVID internal medicine units with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and treated with darunavir-ritonavir (single daily dose, for seven days)...
August 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
H-W Ren, Y Wu, J-H Dong, W-M An, T Yan, Y Liu, C-C Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the CT imaging features/signs of patients with different clinical types of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) via the application of artificial intelligence (AI), thus improving the understanding of COVID-19. PANTIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data and chest CT imaging features of 58 patients confirmed with COVID-19 in the Fifth Medical Center of PLA General Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. According to the Guidelines on Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment (Provisional 6th Edition), COVID-19 patients were divided into mild type (7), common type (34), severe type (7) and critical type (10 patients)...
August 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Q Ma, D Qi, X-Y Deng, G-D Yuan, W-G Tian, Y Cui, X-F Yan, D-X Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of corticosteroid on hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, and time of viral clearance in patients with severe and critical COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with severe and critical COVID-19 who had been discharged or expired were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into corticosteroid group and non-corticosteroid group according to the systemic corticosteroid use or not. Clinical data were collected, and hospital mortality, hospital length of stay, time of viral clearance, time of mechanical ventilation, and duration from illness onset to symptom resolution were compared between the two groups...
August 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
B Orrù, J Szekeres-Bartho, M Bizzarri, A M Spiga, V Unfer
The ongoing worldwide pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), raised the urgency to address knowledge gaps and to establish evidence for improving management and control of this viral infection. Throughout a keen analysis of the World Health Organization (WHO) most updated data, a gender-specific difference in the occurrence of infection was determined, which seems to correlate with patient's vitamin D status. Therefore, our purpose is to provide insights into the nutritional importance of vitamin D for its immunomodulatory effect, in order to help counteracting the COVID-19 pandemic...
August 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
G-F Chen, Y-R Cheng, L Ye, M-W Wang, M-Y Zhou, F Zhang, J Chen, Z-H Feng
The World Health Organization reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown cause detected on December 31, 2019 in China. Unfortunately, a 34-year-old Italian nurse has committed suicide after testing positive for coronavirus. It was the second case of suicide by a nurse in an Italian hospital and occurred only a few days after the first suicide. These consecutive suicides have aroused concern, and it is necessary to investigate the psychological issues of the medical staff in Italy regarding the COVID-19...
August 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Meng Tian, Cong-Cong Liu, Lu Long, Qiu-Xia Wang
The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which first occurred in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. These days, in China, chest CT is used for diagnosis of COVID-19, as an important complement to the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Because of contacting with a large number of suspected or probable cases closely during chest CT examination, radiographers are easily infected with COVID-19. This article included the rearrangement of CT examination room in fever clinic, the rearrangement of human resources in radiology department, and the drafting of new operating procedures for radiologists who carry out CT examination on COVID-19 patients...
August 7, 2020: Current Medical Science
Ze-Gang Wu, Hong-Yun Zheng, Jian Gu, Feng Li, Rui-Long Lv, Ya-Yun Deng, Wan-Zhou Xu, Yong-Qing Tong
The novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei province of China in January 2020. This study aims to investigate the effects of different temperature and time durations of virus inactivation on the results of PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2. Twelve patients at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 were selected on February 13, 2020 and throat swabs were taken. The swabs were stored at room temperature (20-25°C), then divided into aliquots and subjected to different temperature for different periods in order to inactivate the viruses (56°C for 30, 45, 60 min; 65, 70, 80°C for 10, 15, 20 min)...
August 7, 2020: Current Medical Science
Maria Elena Cavicchiolo, Daniele Trevisanuto, Elisabetta Lolli, Veronica Mardegan, Anna Maria Saieva, Elisa Franchin, Mario Plebani, Daniele Donato, Eugenio Baraldi
Since February 21, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread exponentially worldwide. Neonatal patients needing intensive care are considered a vulnerable population. To report the results of a policy based on multi-timepoint surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 of all neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), their parents, and all healthcare providers in a part of Italy with a high prevalence of the infection. Observational study conducted from 21 February to 21 April 2020. Intervention consisted of (a) parental triage on arrival at the neonatal ward; (b) universal testing with nasopharyngeal swabs and blood testing for SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies; (c) use of continuous personal protective equipment at the NICU by parents and staff...
August 7, 2020: European Journal of Pediatrics
Santosh Shenoy
BACKGROUND: Decline in mitochondrial function occurs with aging and may increase mortality. We discuss mitochondrial contribution to Covid-19 sepsis, specifically the complex interaction of innate immune function, viral replication, hyper-inflammatory state, and HIF-α/Sirtuin pathways. METHODS: Articles from PubMed/Medline searches were reviewed using the combination of terms "SARS-CoV-2, Covid-19, sepsis, mitochondria, aging, and immunometabolism". RESULTS: Evidence indicates that mitochondria in senescent cells may be dysfunctional and unable to keep up with hypermetabolic demands associated with Covid-19 sepsis...
August 7, 2020: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Alessandro Orsini, Martina Corsi, Andrea Santangelo, Antonella Riva, Diego Peroni, Thomas Foiadelli, Salvatore Savasta, Pasquale Striano
COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by human coronavirus (HCoV) SARS-CoV-2, which originated in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and spread globally during 2020. Due to the difficulty of clinical decision-making during this period, our study group reviewed current literature focusing on the neurological and psychiatric aspects of COVID-19. Despite the knowledge on this newly discovered virus which is constantly evolving, different pieces of evidence reported an association between COVID-19 and neurological symptoms like headache, dizziness, taste and smell disorders and complications involving the nervous system eventually triggered by the pathologic processes elicited by SARS-CoV-2...
August 6, 2020: Neurological Sciences
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