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Infectious Diseases*

Minu Bharati, Priyanka Rai, Dhiraj Saha
Dengue is one of the most rapidly spreading infectious diseases prevalent throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. In absence of specific medications and vaccines, the sole method of disease prevention relies on vector control mainly using insecticides. But with the advent of Insecticide resistance, worldwide vector control programs are facing failure. In this study, eleven different Ae. albopictus population from sub-Himalayan districts of West Bengal, India were investigated as per WHO protocols to find out the current status of insecticide susceptibility against DDT, permethrin and propoxur...
February 11, 2019: Acta Tropica
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Naim Mahroum
BACKGROUND: Plague is a highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis. Three major forms of the disease are known: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague. Though being strictly related to past history, plague still represents a global public health concern. Cases of plague continue, indeed, to be reported worldwide. In the last months, pneumonic plague cases have been reported in Madagascar. However, despite such long-standing and rich history, it is rather difficult to get a comprehensive overview of the general situation...
January 18, 2019: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Elena Conis
The modern era of vaccination was heralded with the licensure of the first 2 measles vaccines in 1963. This new era was distinct from the preceding era of vaccination for 4 main reasons. First, federal leadership in support of immunization at the local level grew. Second, immunization proponents championed the required vaccination of children as the best means of ensuring a protected population. Third, immunization proponents championed the idea that mass vaccination would not only help manage infectious diseases but also eradicate them...
February 14, 2019: Public Health Reports
Tan Tang, Tujun Weng, Hongxing Jia, Sida Luo, Ye Xu, Liuhe Li, Peipei Zhang
The existence of challenging diseases such as cancers, HIV and Zika requires developing new vaccines that can generate tunable and robust immune responses against the diseases. Biomaterials-based techniques have been broadly explored for designing vaccines that can produce controllable and potent immunity. Among the existing biomaterials-based strategies, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique is remarkably attractive in vaccine design due to its unique features such as programmed and versatile cargo loading, cargo protection, co-delivery, juxtaposing of immune signals, etc...
February 14, 2019: Biomaterials Science
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
This Account describes the risky proposition of organizing a multidisciplinary team to interrogate a challenging problem in chemical biology: characterizing how human milk, at the molecular level, protects infants from infectious diseases. At the outset, our initial hypothesis was that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) possess antimicrobial and antivirulence activities. Early on, we discovered that HMOs do indeed modulate bacterial growth and biofilm production for numerous bacterial pathogens. In light of this discovery, three priorities emerged for our program moving forward...
February 14, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Filiz Kaya, Ahmet Çağkan İnkaya, Ali İhsan Ertenli, Osman Abbasoğlu, Sercan Aksoy, Yakut Akyön Yılmaz, Sibel Ergüven
Background/aim: In immunosuppressed patients, strongyloidiasis can be lifethreatening because of hyperinfection or dissemination. Therefore, diagnosis of S. stercoralis is important in immunosuppressed patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. In this study, our objective was to investigate the presence of S. stercoralis antibodies by an ELISA method in immunosuppressed patients. Materials and methods: A total of 100 immunosuppressed patients’ sera were included in the study...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
A G Martov, D V Ergakov
INTRODUCTION: Numerous publications on the successful use of NefraDoz (Stada, Germany) in the metaphylaxis of urolithiasis after extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the prevention and treatment of infectious inflammatory diseases of the lower and upper urinary tracts, served as the rationale for a study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of long-term use of NefraDoz in patients after transurethral and percutaneous interventions performed for urological diseases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study analyzed results of 116 transurethral and percutaneous endoscopic operations for urolithiasis performed in 62 men and 54 women aged 21 to 84 years from November to December 2017 at the D...
October 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Anna E Savage, Carly R Muletz-Wolz, Evan H Campbell Grant, Robert C Fleischer, Kevin P Mulder
Infectious diseases are causing catastrophic losses to global biodiversity. Iridoviruses in the genus Ranavirus are among the leading causes of amphibian disease-related mortality. Polymorphisms in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are significantly associated with variation in amphibian pathogen susceptibility. MHC genes encode two classes of polymorphic cell-surface molecules that can recognize and bind to diverse pathogen peptides. While MHC class I genes are the classic mediators of viral-acquired immunity, larval amphibians do not express them...
February 13, 2019: Immunogenetics
Graham Pawelec
T cell "exhaustion" describes a state of late-stage differentiation usually associated with active prevention of functionality via ligation of negative signaling receptors on the cell surface, and which can be reversed by blocking these interactions. This contrasts with T cell "senescence," which has been defined as a state that is maintained by intrinsic internal cell signaling (caused by DNA damage or other stresses) and which can be reversed pharmacologically. Interventions to alleviate these two different categories of inhibitory pathways may be desirable in immunotherapy for cancer and possibly certain infectious diseases, but reciprocally inducing and maintaining these states, or some properties thereof, may be beneficial in organ transplantation and autoimmunity...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Amanda Ardain, James Zachary Porterfield, Henrik N Kløverpris, Alasdair Leslie
The lungs represent a complex immune setting, balancing external environmental signals with a poised immune response that must protect from infection, mediate tissue repair, and maintain lung function. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in tissue repair and homeostasis, and mediate protective immunity in a variety of mucosal tissues, including the lung. All three ILC subsets are present in the airways of both mice and humans; and ILC2s shown to have pivotal roles in asthma, airway hyper-responsiveness, and parasitic worm infection...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Andrés Pizzorno, Olivier Terrier, Claire Nicolas de Lamballerie, Thomas Julien, Blandine Padey, Aurélien Traversier, Magali Roche, Marie-Eve Hamelin, Chantal Rhéaume, Séverine Croze, Vanessa Escuret, Julien Poissy, Bruno Lina, Catherine Legras-Lachuer, Julien Textoris, Guy Boivin, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava
Influenza virus infections remain a major and recurrent public health burden. The intrinsic ever-evolving nature of this virus, the suboptimal efficacy of current influenza inactivated vaccines, as well as the emergence of resistance against a limited antiviral arsenal, highlight the critical need for novel therapeutic approaches. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an innovative strategy for drug repurposing as host-targeted inhibitors of influenza viruses and the rapid evaluation of the most promising candidates in Phase II clinical trials...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Cristina Lecchi, Carlotta Catozzi, Valentina Zamarian, Gaia Poggi, Giorgia Borriello, Alessandra Martucciello, Domenico Vecchio, Esterina DeCarlo, Giorgio Galiero, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Brucella genus that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Brucellosis also causes financial losses in animal production. Ruminants are highly susceptible to brucellosis, and the causative agent water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is Brucella abortus. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are cropping up as promising biomarkers for several infectious diseases. The goals of this study were to characterize the serum miRNA signature associated with brucellosis in water buffaloes and investigate the miRNAs' potential use as biomarkers in vaginal fluids...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Miao Yu, Xingshen Sun, Scott R Tyler, Bo Liang, Anthony M Swatek, Thomas J Lynch, Nan He, Feng Yuan, Zehua Feng, Pavana G Rotti, Soon H Choi, Weam Shahin, Xiaoming Liu, Ziying Yan, John F Engelhardt
The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) has proven to be a useful species for modeling human genetic and infectious diseases of the lung and brain. However, biomedical research in ferrets has been hindered by the lack of rapid and cost-effective methods for genome engineering. Here, we utilized CRISPR/Cas9-mediated, homology-independent insertion at the ROSA26 "safe harbor" locus in ferret zygotes and created transgenic animals expressing a dual-fluorescent Cre-reporter system flanked by PhiC31 and Bxb1 integrase attP sites...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Lydia Nakiire, Ben Masiira, Christine Kihembo, Edson Katushabe, Nasan Natseri, Immaculate Nabukenya, Innocent Komakech, Issa Makumbi, Okot Charles, Francis Adatu, Miriam Nanyunja, Peter Nsubuga, Solomon Fisseha Woldetsadik, Patrick Tusiime, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Ibrahima Socé Fall, Alemu Wondimagegnehu
BACKGROUND: The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy was adopted as the framework for implementation of International Health Regulation (2005) in the African region of World Health Organisation (WHO AFRO). While earlier studies documented gains in performance of core IDSR functions, Uganda still faces challenges due to infectious diseases. IDSR revitalisation programme aimed to improve prevention, early detection, and prompt response to disease outbreaks. However, little is known about health worker's perception of the revitalised IDSR training...
February 13, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Albert Persaud, Geraint Day, Susham Gupta, Antonio Ventriglio, Roxanna Ruiz, Egor Chumakov, Geetha Desai, Joao Castaldelli-Maia, Julio Torales, Edgardo Juan Tolentino, Kamaldeep Bhui, Dinesh Bhugra
Natural and man-made disasters carry with them major burden and very often the focus is on immediate survival and management of resulting infectious diseases. The impact of disasters directly and indirectly on the well-being and mental health of those affected often gets ignored. The reasons are often stigma and lack of attention to mental health consequences. In addition, often the focus is on preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as waterborne or airborne diseases. This is further complicated by the fact that often aid agencies in offering aid tend to focus on communicable diseases and not on mental health of populations...
December 2018: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Harshada Ketkar, Daniella Herman, Penghua Wang
Mosquito-borne diseases constitute a large portion of infectious diseases, causing more than 700,000 deaths annually. Mosquito-transmitted viruses, such as yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, chikungunya, and Zika viruses, have re-emerged recently and remain a public health threat worldwide. Global climate change, rapid urbanization, burgeoning international travel, expansion of mosquito populations, vector competence, and host and viral genetics may all together contribute to the re-emergence of arboviruses. In this brief review, we summarize the host and viral genetic determinants that may enhance infectivity in the host, viral fitness in mosquitoes and viral transmission by mosquitoes...
February 12, 2019: Viruses
G Evers, M Thrull, H Wittkowski, L H Schmidt, M Mohr
Clinical manifestations of primary immunodeficiency are heterogeneous, and early diagnosis is challenging. Leading symptoms are recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Response to antibiotic therapy is often reduced. Beside infectious complications autoimmunity, autoinflammation and malignant diseases occur frequently. About 50 % of all PID patients are diagnosed after childhood, and the main group are patients with primary antibody deficiencies. Treatment of choice is the immunoglobulin substitution and the prophylactic or therapeutic use of antibiotics...
February 2019: Pneumologie
Thomas Mertens
The epidemiological effect of vaccination is that it primarily reduces the incidence and prevalence of infectious agents and diseases, providing ideal conditions (also from an economic point of view) for prevention. Goal of vaccination is first the individual protection. Other goals may be "herd immunity", regional repression and global extinction. The STIKO provides recommendations for the implementation of vaccinations and for the implementation of other measures for the specific prevention of communicable diseases and develops criteria for the differentiation of a customary vaccination reaction and damage to health beyond the usual extent of a vaccination reaction...
February 2019: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Yangchun Frank Chen, Yu Xia
An important goal of systems medicine is to study disease in the context of genetic and environmental perturbations to the human interactome network. For diseases with both genetic and infectious contributors, a key postulate is that similar perturbations of the human interactome by either disease mutations or pathogens can have similar disease consequences. This postulate has so far only been tested for a few viral species at the level of whole proteins. Here, we expand the scope of viral species examined, and test this postulate more rigorously at the higher resolution of protein domains...
February 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Fernanda de Oliveira Demitto, Flavia Marinho Sant'Anna, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla
BACKGROUND: Rifamycins are a group of antibiotics mainly used in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB), however they interact with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rifabutin allows more regimens options for concomitant imunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment compared to rifampicin. OBJECTIVE: Compare the outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected patients who used rifampicin or rifabutin. METHODS: We analysed data from a prospective cohort study at National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil...
February 11, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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