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Colon Cancer And Screening

Tiphany Coralie De Bessa, Alessandra Pagano, Ana Iochabel Soares Moretti, Percillia Victoria Santos Oliveira, Samir Andrade Mendonça, Herve Kovacic, Francisco Rafael Martins Laurindo
Protein disulfide isomerases including PDIA1 are implicated in cancer progression, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. PDIA1 is known to support vascular Nox1 NADPH oxidase expression/activation. Since deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production underlies tumor growth, we proposed that PDIA1 is an upstream regulator of tumor-associated ROS. We focused on colorectal cancer (CRC) with distinct KRas activation levels. Analysis of RNAseq databanks and direct validation indicated enhanced PDIA1 expression in CRC with constitutive high (HCT116) vs...
February 13, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Fang Xu, James M Dahlhamer, Emily P Terlizzi, Anne G Wheaton, Janet B Croft
BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggest that adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receive suboptimal preventive care. AIMS: The population-based study compared the receipt of these services by US adults with and without IBD. METHODS: Adults aged ≥ 18 years with IBD (1.2%) and without IBD were identified from the 2015 and 2016 National Health Interview Survey (n = 66,610). Age-standardized prevalence of doctor visits, receipt of medical advice, and selected preventive care was calculated for adults with and without IBD...
February 12, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
S C Toma, B S Ungureanu, S Patrascu, V Surlin, I Georgescu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most widespread malignancy, posing as a great challenge due to its high incidence and mortality in both genders. Yet, it also stands as one of the most preventable diseases because of its known malignant transformation mostly from tubular adenomas or serrated polyps, therefore offering a strong incentive to the screening programs that are being developed for this disease. Current diagnosis of CRC has surely evolved along with the evolutionary step in gastrointestinal technology of flexible endoscopy...
April 2018: Current Health Sciences Journal
Lacramioara Popovici, Roxana-Maria Amarandi, Ionel I Mangalagiu, Violeta Mangalagiu, Ramona Danac
Two new series of heterocyclic derivatives with potential anticancer activity, in which a pyrrolo[1,2-b]pyridazine or a pyrrolo[2,1-a]phthalazine moiety was introduced in place of the 3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl ring of phenstatin have been synthesised and their structure-activity relationship (SAR) was studied. Fourteen of the new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity by National Cancer Institute (NCI) against 60 human tumour cell lines panel. The best five compounds in terms of in vitro growth inhibition were screened in the second stage five dose-response studies, three of them showing a very good antiproliferative activity with GI50 <100 nM on several cell lines including colon, ovarian, renal, prostate, brain and breast cancer, melanoma and leukemia...
December 2019: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Hyemi Kwon, Kyung-Do Han, Cheol-Young Park
Obesity is a risk factor for many cancers including breast, esophageal, colon, and thyroid cancer. We aimed to evaluate the association of thyroid cancer with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and weight change. This nationwide population-based cohort study included 11,323,006 adults who joined the national health screening program. Weight change was defined as the difference between the weight of the subjects measured during the study period and the weight at the time of four years ago. For evaluating the association between the weight change and the risk of thyroid cancer, subjects without weight change for four years were defined as the reference group...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Zachary P Fricker, David R Lichtenstein
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a rare, chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by progressive idiopathic stricturing of the biliary system, typically leading to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and colonic or hepatobiliary malignancy. Its presentation is often that of asymptomatic alkaline phosphatase elevation. When symptoms are present, they typically include fatigue, pruritus, or jaundice. The diagnosis can be confirmed via cholangiography, either magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography if the former is inconclusive...
February 6, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Jie Ren, Lulu Shang, Qing Wang, Jing Li
Proteomics, the large-scale analysis of proteins, is contributing greatly to understanding gene function in the postgenomic era. However, disease protein ranking using shotgun proteomics data has not been fully evaluated. In this study, we prioritized disease-related proteins by integrating the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and protein differential expression profiles from colon and rectal cancer (CRC) or breast cancer (BC) proteomics. We applied Local Ranking (LR) and Global Ranking (GR) methods in network with three kinds of protein sets as a priori knowledge, which were known disease proteins (KDPs) that were collected from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), and the collection of KDPs and their direct neighborhood with differential expression (eKDPs)...
2019: BioMed Research International
Mathias Vormehr, Katharina Reinhard, Renata Blatnik, Kathrin Josef, Jan David Beck, Nadja Salomon, Martin Suchan, Abderraouf Selmi, Fulvia Vascotto, Johannes Zerweck, Holger Wenschuh, Mustafa Diken, Sebastian Kreiter, Özlem Türeci, Angelika B Riemer, Ugur Sahin
Cancer-associated mutations, mostly single nucleotide variations, can act as neoepitopes and prime targets for effective anti-cancer T-cell immunity. T cells recognizing cancer mutations are critical for the clinical activity of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and they are potent vaccine antigens. High frequencies of mutation-specific T cells are rarely spontaneously induced. Hence, therapies that broaden the tumor specific T-cell response are of interest. Here, we analyzed neoepitope-specific CD8+ T-cell responses mounted either spontaneously or after immunotherapy regimens, which induce local tumor inflammation and cell death, in mice bearing tumors of the widely used colon carcinoma cell line CT26...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Zujun Que, Bin Luo, Zhiyi Zhou, Changsheng Dong, Yi Jiang, Lin Wang, Qihui Shi, Jianhui Tian
Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been described as a population of cells that may seed metastasis, which is a reliable target for the prevention of metastases in lung cancer patients at the early stage. The culturing of CTCs in vitro can be used to study the mechanism of lung cancer metastasis and to screen antimetastasis drugs. This study aims to establish CTC cell line in vitro and explore the potential mechanism of its metastasis. Methods: A mixture of EpCAM- and EGFR-coated immunomagnetic microbeads in microfluidic Herringbone-Chip was used to capture CTCs...
2019: Cancer Cell International
Y-H Taguchi
BACKGROUND: Although in silico drug discovery is necessary for drug development, two major strategies, a structure-based and ligand-based approach, have not been completely successful. Currently, the third approach, inference of drug candidates from gene expression profiles obtained from the cells treated with the compounds under study requires the use of a training dataset. Here, the purpose was to develop a new approach that does not require any pre-existing knowledge about the drug-protein interactions, but these interactions can be inferred by means of an integrated approach using gene expression profiles obtained from the cells treated with the analysed compounds and the existing data describing gene-gene interactions...
February 4, 2019: BMC Bioinformatics
Russell Stanley, Lauren Stanley
The purpose of this study was to look at the differences in colorectal cancer screening awareness between two rural communities in Texas. In Clifton, patients have access to colonoscopies in their local hospital, while in Haskell, patients have to travel to a tertiary center. A 24-question survey pertaining to colon cancer from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) was given to patients at primary care clinics in Clifton and Haskell. To take the survey, participants had to have been patients for at least 1 year in either Clifton or Haskell clinic and be at least age 50 years or older...
February 1, 2019: Texas Medicine
Si Yi Yuan, Wei Wu, Jing Fu, Yi Xuan Lang, Ji Chi Li, Ye Guo, Ya Nan Wang, Jia Ming Qian, Jing Nan Li
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the performance of the quantitative immunochemical fecal occult blood test (qFIT), and determine the association between the fecal hemoglobin (Hb) level and the location, size of adenomas and the grades of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A total of 692 participants were included in the study. The fecal Hb level was measured using an OC-SENSA MICRO qFIT. The colonoscopy results, including the location, size, and histological features of the adenomas, as well as the relationship between the Hb level and different characteristics were analyzed...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Magali Svrcek, Olivier Lascols, Romain Cohen, Ada Collura, Vincent Jonchère, Jean-François Fléjou, Olivier Buhard, Alex Duval
Microsatellite instability (MSI), which is caused by deficiency of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system, is the molecular abnormality observed in tumors associated with Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome represents one of the most frequent conditions of cancer predisposition in human, thus requiring specific care and genetic counseling. Moreover, research has recently focused increasingly on MMR deficiency due to its positive predictive value for the efficacy of immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICKi) in metastatic tumors, regardless of their primary origin...
January 31, 2019: Bulletin du Cancer
Anand Venugopal, Elena M Stoffel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Routine screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults > 50 years of age has led to overall reductions in CRC incidence and CRC-related mortality. Yet CRC incidence among young adults age < 50 continues to increase without a clear explanation. This review examines the changing epidemiology of CRC and emerging evidence regarding the influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on risk for colorectal neoplasia. RECENT FINDINGS: Young-onset CRC (yCRC), defined as CRC diagnosed in individuals younger than age 50, is a heterogeneous disease...
February 2, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Winifred Lo, Maria R Parkhurst, Paul F Robbins, Eric Tran, Yong-Chen Lu, Li Jia, Jared J Gartner, Anna Pasetto, Drew C Deniger, Parisa Malekzadeh, Thomas Shelton, Todd D Prickett, Satyajit Ray, Scott Kivitz, Biman C Paria, Isaac R Kriley, David S Schrump, Steven A Rosenberg
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with T cells targeting neoantigens can mediate durable responses in patients with metastatic cancer. Cell therapies targeting common shared antigens for epithelial cancers are not yet broadly available. Here we report the identification and characterization in one patient of T cell receptors (TCRs) recognizing mutated p53 p.R175H, which is shared among a subset of patients with cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were screened for recognition of mutated neoantigens in a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer...
February 1, 2019: Cancer Immunology Research
Mourad A M Aboul-Soud, Mohammed Z Al-Amri, Ashok Kumar, Yazeed A Al-Sheikh, Abdelkader E Ashour, Talat A El-Kersh
Currently, global efforts are being intensified towards the discovery of local Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates with unique anticancer properties. Parasporins (PS) are a group of Bt non-insecticidal crystal proteins with potential and specific in vitro anticancer activity. However, despite the significant therapeutic potential of PS-producing Bt strains, our current knowledge on the effects of these proteins is limited. Hence, the main objective of this study was to screen Bt-derived parasporal toxins for cytotoxic activities against colon (HT-29) and cervical (HeLa) cancerous cell lines...
January 31, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nikerson Geneve, Daniel Kairys, Bralin Bean, Tyler Provost, Ron Mathew, Nergess Taheri
This article focuses on programmatic and opportunistic colorectal cancer screening. The pathogenesis and risk factors for colon cancer are discussed. Specific screening tests, screening in high-risk groups, and surveillance recommendations are reviewed. Important considerations for office practice, including improving screening implementation and cost issues, are addressed.
March 2019: Primary Care
Ran Marciano, Manu Prasad, Tal Ievy, Sapir Tzadok, Gabriel Leprivier, Moshe Elkabets, Barak Rotblat
Tumor cells utilize glucose to fuel their anabolic needs, including rapid proliferation. However, due to defective vasculature and increased glucose uptake, tumor cells must overcome glucose deprivation. Accordingly, tumor cells depend on cellular pathways promoting survival under such conditions. Targeting these survival mechanisms can thus serve as a new therapeutic strategy in oncology. As such, we sought to identify small-molecule inhibitors which sensitize tumor cells to glucose starvation by high-throughput drug screening in vitro...
January 30, 2019: Cancers
Jian Cai, Lei Wang
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors, and its incidence and mortality are increasing year by year in China. In 2018, for the first time, the FIT-DNA test was written into the expert consensus as the recommended screening technology in China. As the core technology of colorectal cancer screening, colonoscopy for right colon cancer is further supported. With the application of artificial intelligence technology in colonoscopy, the efficiency and accuracy of screening will be greatly improved...
January 25, 2019: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Jianling Liu, Dan Wang, Chaoqi Zhang, Zhen Zhang, Xinfeng Chen, Jingyao Lian, Jinbo Liu, Guixian Wang, Weitang Yuan, Zhenqiang Sun, Weijia Wang, Mengjia Song, Yaping Wang, Qian Wu, Ling Cao, Dong Wang, Yi Zhang
Objective: Liver metastasis, which contributes substantially to high mortality, is the most common recurrent mode of colon carcinoma. Thus, it is necessary to identify genes implicated in metastatic colonization of the liver in colon carcinoma. Methods: We compared mRNA profiling in 18 normal colon mucosa (N), 20 primary tumors (T) and 19 liver metastases (M) samples from the dataset GSE49355 and GSE62321 of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Gene ontology (GO) and pathways of the identified genes were analyzed...
December 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
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