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Yang Wu, Shutao Gao, Zhiyang Liu, Jing Zhao, Bingjing Ji, Xiangying Zeng, Zhiqiang Yu
As high-production-volume chemicals, chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have raised an increasing environmental concern in recent years. However, their accurate analysis and quantification is still a huge challenge due to the high complexity of their technical formulations and the interference from CPs congeners and other polychlorinated products. In this study, a novel method for the simultaneous analysis of short-chain (SC) and medium-chain (MC) CPs in a single injection has been developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap Fusion TMS)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. A
Xiuyan Yang, Zhiyuan Xue, Yaoyao Fang, Xiaohua Liu, Yafei Yang, Gengen Shi, Shilan Feng, Lianggong Zhao
A new, more effective and environmentally friendly method involving a complex enzyme combined with ultrasonication was employed to extract and isolate three novel polysaccharides (HPS-MCs: HPS-MC, HPS-MC (50%) and HPS-MC (80%)) of Radix Hedysari. Compared with polysaccharides obtained using a traditional extraction method (hot water extraction, HPS-R), the yields and total carbohydrate contents of HPS-MCs were significantly higher. HPS-MC (80%) exhibited relatively strong immunomodulatory activity and a concentration-dependent dose-response relationship under cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunosuppressive conditions in mice models...
February 6, 2019: Food & Function
Alon Angert, Ward Said-Ahmad, Chen Davidson, Alon Amrani
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the major long-lived sulfur bearing gas in the atmosphere, and is used to estimate the rates of regional and global (both past and current) photosynthesis. Sulfur isotope measurements (34 S/32 S ratio, δ34 S) of COS may offer a way for improved determinations of atmospheric COS sources. However, measuring the COS δ34 S at the atmospheric concentrations of ~0.5 ppb is challenging. Here we present high-accuracy δ34 S measurements of atmospheric COS done by gas chromatograph (GC) connected to a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS), after pre-concentrating from 2-liters of air...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Hyo Hyun Yoo, Sein Shin, Jun-Ki Lee
PURPOSE: The study examines changes in students' self-assessment of their general communication (GC) and medical communication (MC) competencies, as well as perceptions of MC concepts. METHODS: Participants included 108 second year medical students enrolled at a Korean medical school studying an MC curriculum. It was divided into three sections, and participants responded to questionnaires before and after completing each section. To assess perceived GC and MC competency, items based on a 7-point Likert scale were employed; a single open-ended item was used to examine students' perceptions of MC...
December 2018: Korean Journal of Medical Education
Sunil Unnikrishnan, Zhongmin Du, Galina Diakova, Alexander L Klibanov
For preparation of ligand-decorated microbubbles for targeted ultrasound contrast imaging it is important to maximize the amount of ligand associated with the bubble shell. We describe optimization of the use of a biocompatible co-surfactant in the microbubble formulation media to maximize the incorporation of targeting ligand-lipid conjugate into the microbubble shell, and thus reduce the fraction of ligand not associated with microbubbles, following amalgamation preparation. The influence of the concentration of a helper co-surfactant propyleneglycol (PG) on the efficacy of microbubble preparation by amalgamation and on the degree of association of fluorescent PEG-lipid with the microbubble shell was tested...
December 3, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Patricia Genovese, Emiliano Herrera, Victoria Riaño, Alejandro Bielli
In order to study the effect of undernutrition during gestation on the testicular development in rats and its impact on mitosis, apoptosis and the relative abundance of androgen receptor expression, twenty primiparous 3 months old Sprague-Dawley (Rattus norvegicus) rats, weighing 246 ± 4,0 grams when the experiment began, were mated by the same male. Control group (CG), n=10, fed ad libitum with water and rat chow and restricted group (RG, n=10), fed throughout pregnancy and until birth with 40% of the ad libitum maternal daily feed intake...
November 30, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Paul T J Scheepers, Martien H F Graumans, Maurice van Dael, Laurie de Werdt, Nicole Pinckaers, Gwendolyn Beckmann, Rob Anzion
A historic soil contamination of chlorinated hydrocarbons from a former dry cleaning shop caused intrusion of vapors into a building currently used as bookshop. The aim of this study was to determine the indoor air quality and the uptake of soil contaminants and their degradation products. Samples of indoor air were collected over one week in the warm and one week in the cold season. Pre-shift and post-shift samples of end-exhaled air were collected from two employees. Chlorinated hydrocarbons were analyzed in indoor air and exhaled air samples using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS)...
October 29, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jing Xu, H Steven Seifert
Many pathogenic microbes evade host immune surveillance by varying the surface antigens, a process termed antigenic variation. While the process of pilin antigenic variation has been extensively studied in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus [Gc]), relatively few studies of pilin antigenic variation have been conducted with Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus [Mc]). Mc is usually a commensal organism that colonizes the human nasopharynx, but when it translocates to the bloodstream or meninges, it results in the severe and often deadly meningococcal disease...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Yu Fang Bi, Fei Yan Guo, Liu Yang, Hao Zhong, An Ke Wang, Yu Kui Wang, Zhi Zhuang Wu, Xu Hua Du
This study is aim to illustrate Phyllostachys edulis' role in affecting air quality under hazy day and solar day. P. edulis is a crucial plants growing well at suburban area at China Southern. In this manuscript, on 2 weather conditions (hazy day; solar day), changes in atmospheric particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), associated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and PAHs in leaves and soils were measured, with PM-detection equipment and the GC-MC method, in a typical bamboo forest at suburban areas...
August 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Miki Suzuki, Yuichi Sato, Kotaro Tamura, Haruna Tamano, Atsushi Takeda
Involvement of membrane mineralocorticoid (MC) and glucocorticoid (GC) receptors in synaptic Zn2+ dynamics remains unclear. Here, we tested whether synaptic plasticity is affected by rapid intracellular Zn2+ dysregulation via membrane MC and GC receptor activation, in comparison with intracellular Ca2+ dysregulation. In anesthetized rats, extracellular Zn2+ level was increased under local perfusion of the hippocampal CA1 with 500 ng/ml corticosterone. In vivo CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was attenuated by the pre-perfusion with corticosterone prior to tetanic stimulation, and the attenuation was canceled by co-perfusion with CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn2+ chelator, suggesting that corticosterone-induced increase in extracellular Zn2+ is involved in the subsequent attenuation of LTP...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Sylvain Bouchet, Sylvain Bérail, David Amouroux
Stable Hg isotope analyses are nowadays widely employed to discriminate Hg sources and understand its biogeochemical cycle. Until now, total Hg isotopic compositions have been mainly used but Hg compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) methodologies are emerging. Online Hg-CSIA were limited to samples containing high concentrations, but in this work we overcome this limitation for the measurement of inorganic (IHg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) by gas chromatography hyphenated to multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GC/MC-ICPMS) through the use of an automated online preconcentration strategy, allowing injection volumes up to 100 times larger than usual...
July 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Bruna Celeida Silva Santos, Andressa Soares Pires, Célia Hitomi Yamamoto, Mara Rubia Costa Couri, Alex Gutterres Taranto, Maria Silvana Alves, Ana Lúcia Dos Santos de Matos Araújo, Orlando Vieira de Sousa
This study investigated the in vitro and in silico biological properties of the methyl chavicol (MC) and its analogue 2-[(4-methoxyphenyl)methyl]oxirane (MPMO), emphasizing the antioxidant and antilipase effects. MPMO was synthesized from MC that reacted with meta -chloroperbenzoic acid and, after separation and purification, was identified by 1 H and 13 C NMR and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity was investigated by DPPH, cooxidation β -carotene/linoleic acid, and thiobarbituric acid assays. With the use of colorimetric determination, the antilipase effect on the pancreatic lipase was tested, while the molecular interaction profiles were evaluated by docking molecular study...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Saira Khalid, Jong-In Han, Imran Hashmi, Ghalib Hasnain, Muhammad Ajaz Ahmed, Sher Jamal Khan, Muhammad Arshad
Bacterial cell immobilization offer considerable advantages over traditional biotreatment systems using free cells. Calcium alginate matrix usually used for bacterial immobilization is susceptible to biodegradation in harsh environment. Current study aimed to produce and characterize stable macrocapsules (MCs) of Chlorpyrifos (CP) degrading bacterial consortium using biocompatible calcium alginate matrix coupled with environmentally stable polysulfone. In current study bacterial consortium capable of CP biodegradation was immobilized using calcium alginate in a form of microcapsule (MC) reinforced by being coated with a synthetic polymer polysulfone (PSf) through phase inversion...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Surabhi Nimbalkar, Elisa Castagnola, Arvind Balasubramani, Alice Scarpellini, Soshi Samejima, Abed Khorasani, Adrien Boissenin, Sanitta Thongpang, Chet Moritz, Sam Kassegne
We present a new class of carbon-based neural probes that consist of homogeneous glassy carbon (GC) microelectrodes, interconnects and bump pads. These electrodes have purely capacitive behavior with exceptionally high charge storage capacity (CSC) and are capable of sustaining more than 3.5 billion cycles of bi-phasic pulses at charge density of 0.25 mC/cm2 . These probes enable both high SNR (>16) electrical signal recording and remarkably high-resolution real-time neurotransmitter detection, on the same platform...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander Weizel, Michael P Schlüsener, Georg Dierkes, Thomas A Ternes
In the current study a high sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of 60 steroids including glucocorticoids (GC), mineralocorticoids (MC), and progestogens (PG) in WWTP effluents and surface water using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS). The limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged between 0.02 ng/L (cortisone) to 0.5 ng/L (drospirenone) in surface water and from 0.05 ng/L (betamethasone) to 5 ng/L (chlormadinone) in treated wastewater. After optimization, the developed method was applied to WWTP effluents, rivers, and streams around Germany...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Frederic Pouille, Nathan E Schoppa
Recent studies have provided evidence that corticofugal feedback (CFF) from the olfactory cortex to the olfactory bulb (OB) can significantly impact the state of excitation of output mitral cells (MCs) and tufted cells (TCs) and also modulate neural synchrony. Interpreting these effects however has been complicated by the large number of cell targets of CFF axons in the bulb. Within the granule cell layer (GCL) alone, CFF axons target both GABAergic granule cells (GCs) as well as GABAergic deep short-axon cells (dSACs) that inhibit GCs...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Guang-Zhe Huang, Mutsuo Taniguchi, Ye-Bo Zhou, Jing-Ji Zhang, Fumino Okutani, Yoshihiro Murata, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Kaba
The formation of mate recognition memory in mice is associated with neural changes at the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses between glutamatergic mitral cell (MC) projection neurons and GABAergic granule cell (GC) interneurons in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). Although noradrenaline (NA) plays a critical role in the formation of the memory, the mechanism by which it exerts this effect remains unclear. Here we used extracellular field potential and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to assess the actions of bath-applied NA (10 µM) on the glutamatergic transmission and its plasticity at the MC-to-GC synapse in the AOB...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
Ana Catarina Freitas, Ana Opinião, Sofia Fragoso, Hugo Nunes, Madalena Santos, Ana Clara, Sandra Bento, Ana Luis, Jorge Silva, Cecília Moura, Bruno Filipe, Patrícia Machado, Sidónia Santos, Saudade André, Paula Rodrigues, Joana Parreira, Fátima Vaz
Background: Hereditary breast and ovary cancer syndrome affects both genders but little is known about the uptake of genetic services by men. The objective of this study is to characterise the male population counselled through a multidisciplinary breast/ovarian program. Methods: Descriptive analysis of male patients counselled from January 2000 to December 2015. Data in this analysis include new cancer diagnoses during prospective follow up. Results: From 4,320 families registered, 362 male patients were identified: 236 (65...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Valentyn Skalskyi, Valentyn Makeev, Olena Stankevych, Roman Pavlychko
OBJECTIVE: The study aims at comparing the fracture resistance of different restorative materials used in dental endocrown restorations and respective endocrown restorations under a quasi-static compressive load using acoustic emission (AE) method. METHODS: Five restorative materials were used in this study. The restorative materials were manufactured into discs 13mm in diameter and 5mm thick, which were then divided into 5 groups and included into Type 1: Group B: zirconium dioxide (Prettau zirconia); Group C: ceramics (IPS e...
March 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Noelia Aldai, Pierluigi Delmonte, Susana P Alves, Rui J B Bessa, John K G Kramer
Incubation of DHA with sheep rumen fluid resulted in 80% disappearance in 6 h. The products were analyzed as their fatty acid (FA) methyl esters by GC-FID on SP-2560 and SLB-IL111 columns. The GC-online reduction × GC and GC-MS techniques demonstrated that all DHA metabolites retained the C22 structure (no evidence of chain-shortening). Two new transient DHA products were identified: mono-trans methylene interrupted-DHA and monoconjugated DHA (MC-DHA) isomers. Identification of MC-DHA was confirmed by their predicted elution using equivalent chain length differences from C18 FA, their molecular ions, and the 22:5 products formed which were the most abundant at 6 h...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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