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Mark F Skinner, Mykolas D Imbrasas, Chris Byra, Matthew M Skinner
OBJECTIVES: To compare relative response of enamel, dentin and bone to developmental stressors between attritional and catastrophic mortality assemblages of pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heads from 70 Sus scrofa of known sex, weight and age comprising an attritional sample of 50 sick pen (SP) pigs that died prematurely versus 20 control pigs slaughtered at 6 months (Catastrophic assemblage). Hard tissue changes (alveolar bone thinning), abnormal bone formation (Harris lines) and re-modeling (auditory bullae) were recorded...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Katsuhiko Masuda, Erick Ricardo Silva, Daniele Botticelli, Karol Alí Apaza Alccayhuaman, Samuel P Xavier
PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing after sinus floor augmentation at antrostomies prepared with either drills or a sonic instrument. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sinus mucosa elevation was performed bilaterally in 18 rabbits. The antrostomy was prepared with either drills or a sonic instrument. The elevated space was filled with a collagenated porcine bone, and the access antrostomy was covered by a collagen membrane. The animals were euthanized in groups of six after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of healing...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Serge D Rousselle, Joan A Wicks, Brian C Tabb, Armando Tellez, Maureen O'Brien
Histology of medical devices poses a variety of unique challenges. Comprehensive histologic assessment of medical devices often requires spatial context and high-quality retention of the device-tissue interface. However, the composition of many medical devices is often not amenable to traditional paraffin embedding and thus alternative specialized methodologies such as hard resin embedding must be used. Hard resin embedding requires specialized laboratory technical expertise and equipment, and the fixation techniques and resin composition used markedly impact the feasibility of immunohistochemistry...
February 14, 2019: Toxicologic Pathology
Dénes B Horváthy, Károly Schandl, Charlotte M Schwarz, Károly Renner, István Hornyák, Bence T Szabó, Eugenia Niculescu-Morzsa, Stefan Nehrer, Csaba Dobó-Nagy, Attila Doros, Zsombor Lacza
Serum albumin coated bone allografts (BoneAlbumin) have successfully supported bone regeneration in various experimental models by activating endogenous progenitors. However, the effect of tissue aging, linked to declining stem cell function, has yet to be explicitly examined within the context of BoneAlbuminꞋs regenerative capacity. Stem cell function was tested with an in vitro attachment assay, which showed that albumin coating increases stem cell attachment on demineralized bone surfaces in an aging cell population...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
J Renwick Beattie, Antonia Sophocleous, M Clare Caraher, Olive O'Driscoll, Niamh M Cummins, Steven E J Bell, Mark Towler, Alireza Rahimnejad Yazdi, Stuart H Ralston, Aymen I Idris
Pharmacological therapy of osteoporosis reduces bone loss and risk of fracture in patients. Modulation of bone mineral density cannot explain all effects. Other aspects of bone quality affecting fragility and ways to monitor them need to be better understood. Keratinous tissue acts as surrogate marker for bone protein deterioration caused by oestrogen deficiency in rats. Ovariectomised rats were treated with alendronate (ALN), parathyroid hormone (PTH) or estrogen (E2). MicroCT assessed macro structural changes...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Yutao Jian, Li Dao, Xiaodong Wang, Xinping Zhang, Michael V Swain, Ke Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To identify the conditions under which fabrication pore defects within veneering porcelain in bilayered lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDG) crowns will influence and jeopardize the mechanical integrity of the structure. METHODS: Thirty standardized molar crowns (IPS e.max Press) were fabricated and microCT scanned to 3D-analyze the size, morphology and distribution of pores in veneering porcelain, followed by in vitro fracture test and SEM fractographic observation...
February 8, 2019: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Ana B Castro, Simone Cortellini, Andy Temmerman, Xin Li, Nelson Pinto, Wim Teughels, Marc Quirynen
PURPOSE: The leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin block (L-PRF block) is a composite graft that combines a xenograft that is acting as a scaffold with L-PRF membranes that serve as a bioactive nodule with osteoinductive capacity. This study evaluated the properties of the L-PRF block and its components in terms of release of growth factors, cellular content, and structure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The concentration of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) and bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) released by a L-PRF membrane (mb) and a L-PRF block were examined with ELISA for five time intervals (0 to 4 hours, 4 hours to 1 day, 1 to 3 days, 3 to 7 days, 7 to 14 days)...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Magnus Bernhardsson, Franciele Dietrich-Zagonel, Love Tätting, Pernilla Eliasson, Per Aspenberg
As cytotoxic (CD8+ ) T cells seem to impair shaft fracture healing, we hypothesized that depletion of CD8+ cells would instead improve healing of cancellous bone. Additionally, we also tested if CD8-depletion would influence the healing of ruptured Achilles tendons. Rats received a single injection of either anti-CD8 antibodies or saline and put through surgery 24 hours later. 3 different surgical interventions were performed as follows: 1) a drill hole in the proximal tibia with microCT (BV/TV) to assess bone formation; 2) a screw in the proximal tibia with mechanical evaluation (pull-out force) to assess fracture healing; 3) Achilles tendon transection with mechanical evaluation (force-at-failure) to assess tendon healing...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
F Comini, M Palanca, L Cristofolini, E Dall'Ara
Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) is used to measure internal displacements and strains in bone. Recent studies have shown that Synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-microCT) can improve the accuracy and precision of DVC. However, only zero-strain or virtually-moved test have been used to quantify the DVC uncertainties, leading to potential underestimation of the measurement errors. In this study, for the first time, the uncertainties of a global DVC approach have been evaluated on repeated SR-microCT scans of bovine cortical bone (voxel size: 1...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Xiao-Tao He, Xuan Li, Yu Xia, Yuan Yin, Rui-Xin Wu, Hai-Hua Sun, Fa-Ming Chen
Recently, we found that although high-stiffness matrices stimulated osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs), the macrophages (Mφs) in high-stiffness transglutaminase crosslinked gelatins (TG-gels) tended to undergo M1 polarization and hence compromised cell osteogenesis. In this study, we hypothesized that the copresentation of interleukin (IL)-4 and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α in high-stiffness TG-gels may enhance periodontal regeneration by modulating Mφ polarization and promoting endogenous stem cell recruitment...
February 5, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Stijn E Verleden, John E McDonough, Helene Schoemans, Christiane Knoop, Johny Verschakelen, Adriana Dubbeldam, Matthieu N Boone, Luc Van Hoorebeke, Erik Verbeken, Birgit Weynand, Dirk Van Raemdonck, Geert M Verleden, Robin Vos, Bart M Vanaudenaerde
Pulmonary graft vs. host disease is a diverse and underestimated complication following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We aimed to compare the airway architecture with chronic lung allograft dysfunction post lung transplantation. Inflated explant lungs from graft vs. host disease patients were compared with lungs with chronic lung allograft dysfunction following lung transplantation, and control lungs using a combination of CT, microCT, and histology (n = 6 per group) and pathology in the (small) airways was further quantified and analyzed...
February 5, 2019: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Emrah Aydin, Brittany Levy, Marc Oria, Hussam Nachabe, Foong-Yen Lim, Jose L Peiro
Comparative, functional, developmental, and some morphological studies on animal anatomy require accurate visualization of three-dimensional structures. Nowadays, several widely applicable methods exist for non-destructive whole-mount imaging of animal tissues. The purpose of this study was to optimize specimen preparation and develop a method for quantitative analysis of the total pulmonary vasculature in fetal rats. Tissues were harvested at E21 and fetuses fixed overnight in 4% paraformaldehyde/phosphate buffered saline...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Thorsten Knipfer, Clarissa Reyes, Jeffrey Mason Earles, Z Carter Berry, Daniel Johnson, Craig R Brodersen, Andrew J McElrone
Water discharge from stem internal storage compartments is thought to minimize the risk of vessel cavitation. Based on this concept, one would expect that water storage compartments involved in the buffering of xylem tensions empty prior to the onset of vessel cavitation under drought stress, and potentially refill following soil saturation. However, scant in-vivo data exist that elucidate this localized spatiotemporal coupling. In this study on intact saplings of Castanea dentata, X-ray computed microtomography showed that the xylem matrix surrounding vessels releases stored water and becomes air-filled either concurrent to or following vessel cavitation under progressive drought stress...
February 4, 2019: Plant Physiology
J G Messer, J M Jiron, J L Mendieta Calle, E J Castillo, R Israel, E G Phillips, J F Yarrow, C Van Poznak, L Kesavalu, D B Kimmel, J I Aguirre
OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent that zoledronate (ZOL) dose and duration is associated with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) prevalence in rice rats with generalized periodontitis (PD); characterize structural and tissue-level features of BRONJ-like lesions in this model; and examine the specific anti-resorptive role of ZOL in BRONJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rice rats (n=228) consumed high-sucrose-casein diet to enhance generalized PD. Groups of rats received 0, 8, 20, 50 or 125μg/kg IV ZOL/4wks encompassing osteoporosis and oncology ZOL doses...
February 3, 2019: Oral Diseases
Serge D Rousselle, Yuval Ramot, Abraham Nyska, Nicolette D Jackson
Bioabsorbable implants can be advantageous for certain surgical tissue bioengineering applications and implant-assisted tissue repair. They offer the obvious benefits of nonpermanence and eventual restoration of the native tissue's biomechanical and immunological properties, while providing a structural scaffold for healing and a route for additional therapies (i.e., drug elution). They present unique developmental, imaging, and histopathological challenges in the conduct of preclinical animal studies and in interpretation of pathology data...
January 30, 2019: Toxicologic Pathology
Xueqin Gao, Ying Tang, Sarah Amra, Xuying Sun, Yan Cui, Haizi Cheng, Bing Wang, Johnny Huard
The dystrophin-/-/utrophin-/- double knockout (dKO-Hom) mouse is a murine model of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This study investigated the bone and muscle abnormalities of dKO-Hom mouse and mechanisms. We collected bone and skeletal muscle samples from control mice and three muscular dystrophic mouse models at different ages, and performed MicroCT and histological analyses of both bone and skeletal muscle tissues. Serum RANKL and SOST levels, osteoclastogenesis and serum proteomics were also analyzed...
January 28, 2019: Human Molecular Genetics
Wolfgang Eder, Julia Woeger, Shunichi Kinoshita, Johann Hohenegger, Antonino Briguglio
In Heterostegina depressa , the flagship species of laboratory investigations of larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) since the 70's, the timing of reproduction, longevity and natural chamber building rates are still understudied. A recently developed method, the natural laboratory (sensu Hohenegger), has been applied on H. depressa populations from Sesoko Jima, NW Okinawa, Japan. An averaged chamber building rate and longevity of H. depressa were calculated based on 17 monthly samplings at fixed stations. All samples were collected at 20 and 50 m water depths using SCUBA...
2019: PeerJ
Alex C Scibetta, Elizabeth R Morris, Andrea B Liebowitz, Xueqin Gao, Aiping Lu, Marc J Philippon, Johnny Huard
People of all backgrounds are susceptible to bone and cartilage damage, and these injuries can be debilitating. Current treatments for bone and cartilage injuries are less than optimal, and we are interested in developing new approaches to treat these diseases, specifically using human muscle-derived stem cells (hMDSCs). Our lab previously demonstrated that sex differences exist between male and female murine MDSCs; thus, this paper sought to investigate whether sex differences also exist in hMDSCs. In the present study, we characterized the chondrogenic and osteogenic sex differences of hMDSCs in vitro and in vivo...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Veronica Ulici, Kathryn L Kelley, Lara Longobardi, Margaret A McNulty, Eric W Livingston, Ted A Bateman, Cheryle A Séguin, Craig R Louer, Richard F Loeser
MAP kinases, including JNK, play an important role in the development and function of a large variety of tissues. We analyzed the skeletal phenotype of JNK1 and JNK2 double knockout (dKO) mice (JNK1fl/fl Col2-Cre/JNK2-/- ) and control genotypes, including single knockouts, at different embryonic and postnatal stages. The JNK1/2 dKO mice displayed a severe scoliotic phenotype that began during development and was grossly apparent around weaning age. Alcian blue staining of embryos (E17.5) showed abnormal fusion of the posterior spinal elements...
January 18, 2019: American Journal of Pathology
Kevin A Sonn, Stephen J Wallace, Feng Ning F Yuan, Andrew Schneider, Erin L Hsu, Robert Havey, Avinash G Patwardhan, John J Callaci
MINI: Despite known negative effects on bone health and bone healing, proton pump inhibitors are commonly prescribed to orthopaedic patients for gastrointestinal disorders. Significant rates of pseudarthrosis persist in spine surgery despite advances in techniques and instrumentation. Proton pump inhibitor administration did not negatively affect fusion rates in this rodent model. STUDY DESIGN: Rat posterolateral arthrodesis model. OBJECTIVE: Quantify the impact of administration of a proton pump inhibitor on spine fusion...
January 14, 2019: Spine
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