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Biotechnology drugs

Neelakshi Mungra, Sandra Jordaan, Precious Hlongwane, Krupa Naran, Shivan Chetty, Stefan Barth
Patient-specific targeted therapy represents the holy grail of anti-cancer therapeutics, allowing potent tumor depletion without detrimental off-target toxicities. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies have been employed to bind to oncogenic cell-surface receptors, representing the earliest form of immunotherapy. Targeted drug delivery was first achieved by means of antibody-drug conjugates, which exploit the differential expression of tumor-associated antigens as a guiding mechanism for the specific delivery of chemically-conjugated chemotherapeutic agents to diseased target cells...
January 25, 2019: Oncotarget
Nuria Codina, David Hilton, Cheng Zhang, Nesrine Chakroun, Shahina S Ahmad, Stephen J Perkins, Paul A Dalby
Protein aggregation is the underlying cause of many diseases, and also limits the usefulness of many natural and engineered proteins in biotechnology. Better mechanistic understanding and characterization of aggregation-prone states, is needed to guide protein engineering, formulation, and drug-targeting strategies that prevent aggregation. While several final aggregated states - notably amyloids - have been characterized structurally, very little is known about the native structural conformers that initiate aggregation...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Molecular Biology
Xingyi Li, Wenkai Li, Min Zeng, Ruiqing Zheng, Min Li
Genes that are thought to be critical for the survival of organisms or cells are called essential genes. The prediction of essential genes and their products (essential proteins) is of great value in exploring the mechanism of complex diseases, the study of the minimal required genome for living cells and the development of new drug targets. As laboratory methods are often complicated, costly and time-consuming, a great many of computational methods have been proposed to identify essential genes/proteins from the perspective of the network level with the in-depth understanding of network biology and the rapid development of biotechnologies...
February 18, 2019: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Dimitris Sarris, Zoe Sampani, Anna Rapti, Seraphim Papanikolaou
Crude glycerol (Glol), used as substrate for screening eleven natural Yarrowia lipolytica strains in shake-flask experiments. Aim of this study was to assess the ability of the screened strains to produce biomass (dry cell weight; X), lipid (L), citric acid (Cit), mannitol (Man), arabitol (Ara) and erythritol (Ery), compounds presenting pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest, in glycerol-based nitrogen-limited media, in which initial glycerol concentration had been adjusted to 40 g/L. Citric acid may find use in biomedical engineering (i...
February 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Birthe Sandargo, Clara Chepkirui, Tian Cheng, Lillibeth Chaverra-Muñoz, Benjarong Thongbai, Marc Stadler, Stephan Hüttel
The Basidiomycota constitutes the second largest higher taxonomic group of the Fungi after the Ascomycota and comprises over 30.000 species. Mycelial cultures of Basidiomycota have already been studied since the 1950s for production of antibiotics and other beneficial secondary metabolites. Despite the fact that unique and selective compounds like pleuromutilin were obtained early on, it took several decades more until they were subjected to a systematic screening for antimicrobial and anticancer activities...
February 7, 2019: Biotechnology Advances
Simone Braga Carneiro, Fernanda Ílary Costa Duarte, Luana Heimfarth, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Valdir Florêncio da Veiga Júnior, Ádley Antonini Neves de Lima
This review aims to provide a critical review of the biological performance of natural and synthetic substances complexed with cyclodextrins, highlighting: (i) inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins and their biological studies in vitro and in vivo; (ii) Evaluation and comparison of the bioactive efficacy of complexed and non-complexed substances; (iii) Chemical and biological performance tests of inclusion complexes, aimed at the development of new pharmaceutical products. Based on the evidence presented in the review, it is clear that cyclodextrins play a vital role in the development of inclusion complexes which promote improvements in the chemical and biological properties of the complexed active principles, as well as providing improved solubility and aqueous stability...
February 2, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Pia Savoca, Elisa Tonoli, Adeola G Atobatele, Elisabetta A M Verderio
The biocatalytic activity of transglutaminases (TGs) leads to the synthesis of new covalent isopeptide bonds (crosslinks) between peptide-bound glutamine and lysine residues, but also the transamidation of primary amines to glutamine residues, which ultimately can result into protein polymerisation. Operating with a cysteine/histidine/aspartic acid (Cys/His/Asp) catalytic triad, TGs induce the post-translational modification of proteins at both physiological and pathological conditions (e.g., accumulation of matrices in tissue fibrosis)...
October 31, 2018: Micromachines
Bruno Amorim-Carmo, Alessandra Daniele-Silva, Adriana M S Parente, Allanny A Furtado, Eneas Carvalho, Johny W F Oliveira, Elizabeth C G Santos, Marcelo S Silva, Sérgio R B Silva, Arnóbio A Silva-Júnior, Norberto K Monteiro, Matheus F Fernandes-Pedrosa
Scorpion venom constitutes a rich source of biologically active compounds with high potential for therapeutic and biotechnological applications that can be used as prototypes for the design of new drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural conformation, evaluate the antimicrobial activity, and gain insight into the possible action mechanism underlying it, for two new analog peptides of the scorpion peptide Stigmurin, named StigA25 and StigA31. The amino acid substitutions in the native sequence for lysine residues resulted in peptides with higher positive net charge and hydrophobicity, with an increase in the theoretical helical content...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wayan Wicke, Arman Ahmadzadeh, Vahid Jamali, Harald Unterweger, Christoph Alexiou, Robert Schober
The possibility to guide and control magnetic nanoparticles in a non-invasive manner has spawned various applications in biotechnology such as targeted drug delivery and sensing of biological substances. These applications are facilitated by the engineering of the size, selective chemical reactivity, and general chemical composition of the employed particles. Motivated by their widespread use and favorable properties, in this paper, we provide a theoretical study of the potential benefits of magnetic nanoparticles for the design of molecular communication systems...
January 25, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
David G Li, Sean Singer, Arash Mostaghimi
Importance: Patient advocacy organizations are nonprofit organizations that represent patients with medical conditions. Although these organizations may increase disease awareness and influence health care policy, reports have suggested financial relationships between organizations and drug, device, and biotechnology companies, which may lead to potential conflicts of interest. The extent of these conflicts has not been explored among patient advocacy organizations in dermatology. Objective: To examine potential financial conflicts of interest and characterize disclosure practices among dermatology patient advocacy organizations...
January 30, 2019: JAMA Dermatology
Jocksan I Morales-Camacho, Edgar Espinosa-Hernández, F Fátima Rosas-Cárdenas, Tamara Semería-Maitret, Silvia Luna-Suárez
Hypertension is a worldwide health problem. It is the main cardiovascular risk factor and affects about 31% of the world's adult population. The drugs used to control hypertension may cause side effects; for this reason, there are many investigations focused on searching for alternatives to control or prevent this disease through diet. For example, many peptides have demonstrated antihypertensive effects. The insertion of bioactive peptides is a biotechnological implement used to improve the nutraceutical properties of proteins...
January 28, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Chandradhish Ghosh, Paramita Sarkar, Rahaf Issa, Jayanta Haldar
As more antibiotics are rendered ineffective by drug-resistant bacteria, focus must be shifted towards alternative therapies for treating infections. Although several alternatives already exist in nature, the challenge is to implement them in clinical use. Advancements within biotechnology, genetic engineering, and synthetic chemistry have opened up new avenues towards the search for therapies that can substitute for antibiotics. This review provides an introduction to the various promising approaches that have been adopted in this regard...
January 22, 2019: Trends in Microbiology
Mohammad Jafar Molaei
Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are a member of carbon nanostructures family which have received increasing attention for their photoluminescence (PL), physical and chemical stability and low toxicity. The classical semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor particles that are able to emit fluorescence by excitation. The CQDs is mainly referred to photoluminescent carbon nanoparticles less than 10 nm, with surface modification or functionalization. Contrary to other carbon nanostructures, CQDs can be synthesized and functionalized fast and easily...
May 1, 2019: Talanta
Azam Bolhassani
The successful intracellular delivery of biologically active proteins and peptides plays an important role for therapeutic applications. Indeed, protein/ peptide delivery could overcome some problems of gene therapy, e.g., controlling the expression levels and the integration of transgene into the host cell genome. Thus, protein/ peptide drug delivery showed a promising and safe approach for treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Due to the unique physical and chemical properties of proteins, their production (e...
January 23, 2019: Cell Biology International
Diego Tesauro, Antonella Accardo, Carlo Diaferia, Vittoria Milano, Jean Guillon, Luisa Ronga, Filomena Rossi
Peptides of natural and synthetic sources are compounds operating in a wide range of biological interactions. They play a key role in biotechnological applications as both therapeutic and diagnostic tools. They are easily synthesized thanks to solid-phase peptide devices where the amino acid sequence can be exactly selected at molecular levels, by tuning the basic units. Recently, peptides achieved resounding success in drug delivery and in nanomedicine smart applications. These applications are the most significant challenge of recent decades: they can selectively deliver drugs to only pathological tissues whilst saving the other districts of the body...
January 19, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Carolina A Contador, Vida Rodríguez, Barbara A Andrews, Juan A Asenjo
BACKGROUND: There is little published regarding metabolism of Salinispora species. In continuation with efforts performed towards this goal, this study is focused on new insights into the metabolism of the three-identified species of Salinispora using constraints-based modeling. At present, only one manually curated genome-scale metabolic model (GSM) for Salinispora tropica strain CNB-440T has been built despite the role of Salinispora strains in drug discovery. RESULTS: Here, we updated, and expanded the scope of the model of Salinispora tropica CNB-440T , and GSMs were constructed for two sequenced type strains covering the three-identified species...
January 21, 2019: BMC Systems Biology
Meghna Manjunath, Sinosh Skariyachan
Cryptococcosis is one of the major invasive fungal infections distributed worldwide with high mortality rate. C. neoformans and C. gattii are the major organisms that cause various types of infections. Anti-fungal resistances exhibited by the mentioned species of Cryptococcus threaten their effective prevention and treatment. There is limited information is available on the human to human transmission of the pathogen and virulent factors that are responsible for Cryptococcus mediated infections. Hence, there is high scope for understanding the mechanism, probable drug targets and scope of developing natural therapeutic agents that possess high relevance to pharmaceutical biotechnology and medicinal chemistry...
January 19, 2019: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Diogo A Fonseca, Inês Amaral, Ana Catarina Pinto, Maria Dulce Cotrim
Biotechnology has provided powerful tools to assist in research and development (R&D) for rare diseases. However, orphan drug development presents several major challenges and obstacles, such as low disease prevalence, disease severity, small and heterogeneous patient populations, difficulties in patient recruitment, and limited knowledge of the natural history of disease, among others. Several strategies can be used to plan for and overcome these clinical and regulatory challenges, namely improved clinical trial design, improved patient recruitment, and closer collaboration with the regulatory authorities and with patient associations...
January 15, 2019: Drug Discovery Today
Besik Kankia
One of the most stable quadruplexes is formed by G3T sequence (GGGTGGGTGGGTGGG) that folds into a parallel quadruplex with three G-tetrads and chain-reversal T-loops. For example, in 1 mM K+ it unfolds at 75 °C and at physiological conditions it unfolds above 100 °C. The RNA analog, ggguggguggguggg (g3u), which employs exactly same folding topology, demonstrates even higher thermal stability. Here, we performed melting experiments of G3T, g3u and more than 30 chimeric constructs (G3T with RNA nucleotides at certain positions)...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Matteo Aldeghi, Vytautas Gapsys, Bert L de Groot
The design of proteins with novel ligand-binding functions holds great potential for application in biomedicine and biotechnology. However, our ability to engineer ligand-binding proteins is still limited, and current approaches rely primarily on experimentation. Computation could reduce the cost of the development process and would allow rigorous testing of our understanding of the principles governing molecular recognition. While computational methods have proven successful in the early stages of the discovery process, optimization approaches that can quantitatively predict ligand affinity changes upon protein mutation are still lacking...
December 26, 2018: ACS Central Science
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