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synthetic control

Alberto Credi
The controlled transport of molecular and ionic substrates across bilayer membranes is a fundamental task for the operation of living organisms. It is also a highly fascinating and demanding challenge for artificial molecular machines. The recent report of a synthetic transmembrane molecular shuttle that can transport potassium ions selectively down a gradient in a liposomal system makes a small but significant step towards this goal.
February 20, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Sandra S Nurttila, Riccardo Zaffaroni, Simon Mathew, Joost N H Reek
Hydrogen as a renewable fuel is viable when produced sustainably via proton reduction catalysis (PRC). Many homogeneous electrocatalysts perform PRC with high rates, but they all require a large overpotential to drive the reaction. Natural hydrogenase enzymes achieve reversible PRC with potentials close to the thermodynamic equilibrium through confinement of the active site in a well-defined protein pocket. Inspired by nature, we report a strategy that relies on the selective encapsulation of a synthetic hydrogenase mimic in a novel supramolecular cage...
February 20, 2019: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Nadine Kuhl, Saurin Raval, Ryan D Cohen
An operationally simple oxidation-cyanation method for the synthesis of cyanamides is described. The procedure utilizes inexpensive and commercially available N-chlorosuccinimide and Zn(CN)2 as reagents to avoid direct handling of toxic cyanogen halides. It is demonstrated to be amenable for the cyanation of a variety of primary and secondary amines and aniline derivatives as well as a complex synthetic intermediate en route to verubecestat (MK-8931). Additionally, kinetic measurements and other control experiments are reported to shed light onto the mechanism of this cyanation reaction...
February 20, 2019: Organic Letters
Adriana Vollaro, Maria R Catania, Maria R Iesce, Rosalia Sferruzza, Brigida D'Abrosca, Giovanna Donnarumma, Anna De Filippis, Flavio Cermola, Marina DellaGreca, Elisabetta Buommino
Antibiotic resistance and biofilm tolerance are among the principal factors involved in the persistence of chronic infections. The need for new antimicrobials is an ever-increasing challenge in clinical environments and in the control of global health. Arylfurans form a set of structures that have been identified in many natural products, e.g. lignans. Lignans are a sub-group of non-flavonoid polyphenols that play an active role in plants' defense against bacteria and fungi infections. The aim of this study was to identify novel synthetic arylfurans and lignan-like arylbenzylfurans exhibiting antimicrobial properties...
February 20, 2019: New Microbiologica
Fernando López-Gallego
Complex synthetic schemes catalyzed by multienzyme systems immobilized on solid materials are gaining momentum in chemical biomanufacturing. These systems harness the high chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity of the enzymes and the recyclability of the heterogeneous catalysts. Moreover, when the enzymes become part of a solid material, they can be easily integrated into packed-bed reactor for continuous biotransformations. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled to precisely control the spatial distribution of multienzyme systems on the surfaces of advanced materials...
2019: Methods in Enzymology
Akiyuki Taruno, Makiko Kashio
Taste sensation is initiated in sensory cells within the taste buds (taste cells), in which the cooperation of many signaling molecules leads to the coding and transmission of information on the quality and intensity of taste to the afferent gustatory nerves. Here, we describe our method for inducing foreign gene expression in taste cells of fungiform papillae in a living mouse using a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector, enabling us to study and control the function of a gene product in vivo. Among the serotypes tested to date, only AAV-DJ, a synthetic serotype, can transduce taste cells in vivo...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sandra Madalina Constantin, Frederic Buron, Sylvain Routier, Ioana Mirela Vasincu, Maria Apotrosoaei, Florentina Lupașcu, Luminița Confederat, Cristina Tuchilus, Marta Teodora Constantin, Alexandru Sava, Lenuţa Profire
In the past many research studies have focused on the thiazolidine-4-one scaffold, due to the important biological effects associated with its heterocycle. This scaffold is present in the structure of many synthetic compounds, which showed significant biological effects such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidiabetic effects. It was also identified in natural compounds, such as actithiazic acid, isolated from Streptomyces strains. Starting from this scaffold new xanthine derivatives have been synthetized and evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal effects...
February 13, 2019: Materials
Yusuke Kato
A bio-orthogonal and unnatural substance, such as an unnatural amino acid (Uaa), is an ideal regulator to control target gene expression in a synthetic gene circuit. Genetic code expansion technology has achieved Uaa incorporation into ribosomal synthesized proteins in vivo at specific sites designated by UAG stop codons. This site-specific Uaa incorporation can be used as a controller of target gene expression at the translational level by conditional read-through of internal UAG stop codons. Recent advances in optimization of site-specific Uaa incorporation for translational regulation have enabled more precise control over a wide range of novel important applications, such as Uaa-auxotrophy-based biological containment, live-attenuated vaccine, and high-yield zero-leakage expression systems, in which Uaa translational control is exclusively used as an essential genetic element...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vincenzo Dinallo, Irene Marafini, Davide Di Fusco, Antonio Di Grazia, Federica Laudisi, Rami Dwairi, Omero A Paoluzi, Giovanni Monteleone, Ivan Monteleone
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor activated by a large number of natural and synthetic agents, modulates the activity of immune cells in the gut and represents an important link between the environment and immune-mediated pathologies. In this study, we investigated the role of AhR in celiac disease (CD), a gluten-driven enteropathy. AhR expression was evaluated in intestinal biopsies taken from patients with CD and controls by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Qingqing Liu, Jin Yang, Jun Zhang, Fanfan Zhao, Xiaojie Feng, Xue Wang, Jun Lyu
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious nosocomial infection of intensive-care units (ICUs). Accurate, timely diagnosis enables early VAP patients to receive appropriate therapies and reduce the occurrence of complication. However, so far clinical datas regarding the epidemiology and mortality of VAP are still limited. Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) database is a free, open and public resource about ICU research database. MIMIC database is a free, open, public database that collects information on more than 40,000 ICU patients who are predominantly white people...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Alessandro Ianiro, Hanglong Wu, Mark M J van Rijt, M Paula Vena, Arthur D A Keizer, A Catarina C Esteves, Remco Tuinier, Heiner Friedrich, Nico A J M Sommerdijk, Joseph P Patterson
The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules in solution is a ubiquitous process in both natural and synthetic systems. The ability to effectively control the structure and properties of these systems is essential for tuning the quality of their functionality, yet the underlying mechanisms governing the transition from molecules to assemblies have not been fully resolved. Here we describe how amphiphilic self-assembly can be preceded by liquid-liquid phase separation. The assembly of a model block co-polymer system into vesicular structures was probed through a combination of liquid-phase electron microscopy, self-consistent field computations and Gibbs free energy calculations...
February 18, 2019: Nature Chemistry
Yale S Michaels, Mike B Barnkob, Hector Barbosa, Toni A Baeumler, Mary K Thompson, Violaine Andre, Huw Colin-York, Marco Fritzsche, Uzi Gileadi, Hilary M Sheppard, David J H F Knapp, Thomas A Milne, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Tudor A Fulga
Precise, analogue regulation of gene expression is critical for cellular function in mammals. In contrast, widely employed experimental and therapeutic approaches such as knock-in/out strategies are more suitable for binary control of gene activity. Here we report on a method for precise control of gene expression levels in mammalian cells using engineered microRNA response elements (MREs). First, we measure the efficacy of thousands of synthetic MRE variants under the control of an endogenous microRNA by high-throughput sequencing...
February 18, 2019: Nature Communications
Matthew R Hauwiller, Justin C Ondry, Cindy M Chan, Prachi Khandekar, Jessica Yu, A Paul Alivisatos
Graphene liquid cell electron microscopy has the necessary temporal and spatial resolution to enable in situ observation of nanoscale dynamics in solution. However, the chemistry of the solution in the liquid cell during imaging is as yet poorly understood due to the generation of a complex mixture of radiolysis products by the electron beam. In this work, the etching trajectories of nanocrystals were used as a probe to determine the effect of the electron beam dose rate and preloaded etchant, FeCl3, on the chemistry of the liquid cell...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Satnam Singh, Mridula Gupta, Suneet Pandher, Gurmeet Kaur, Neha Goel, Pankaj Rathore, Subba Reddy Palli
BACKGROUND: Thrips tabaci is a severe pest of onion and cotton. Due to lack of information on its genome or transcriptome, not much is known about this insect at the molecular level. To initiate molecular studies in this insect, RNA was sequenced; de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis were performed. The RNAseq data was used to identify reference and RNAi pathway genes in this insect. Additionally, feeding RNAi was demonstrated in T. tabaci for the first time. RESULTS: From the assembled transcriptome, 27,836 coding sequence (CDS) with an average size of 1236 bp per CDS were identified...
February 18, 2019: BMC Molecular Biology
Zongwu Niu, Xiaofeng Wang, Xin Meng, Xin Guo, Yongchao Jiang, Yiyang Xu, Qian Li, Changyu Shen
Biomimetic structures play an important role in controlling the cell behaviors of adhesion, proliferation, migration, and differentiation, which is beneficial for the regeneration of defective tissues. Scaffolds with a biomimetic structure are highly desirable in tissue engineering. In this study, we successfully fabricated three different types of tubular scaffold with randomly, circumferentially, and axially aligned structures, using synthetic bioabsorbable poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) via electrospinning...
February 18, 2019: Biomedical Materials
Ryosuke Nakamura, Tatsuya Shirahata, Naruki Konishi, Yasukazu Takanezawa, Yuka Sone, Shimpei Uraguchi, Yoshinori Kobayashi, Masako Kiyono
Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants, presenting a serious health hazard worldwide. In this study, we examined the potential of derivatives of oleanolic acid (OA), such as OA 3-glucoside, OA 28-glucoside, and OA 3,28-diglucoside, to mitigate MeHg toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that OA 3-glucoside suppressed the cellular MeHg uptake by 63.4% compared with that of the control and improved the cell viability from 75.4% to 107.9% upon exposure to cytotoxic MeHg in Caco-2 cells...
February 15, 2019: Toxicology
Jiafei Lyu, Xuan Zhang, Ken-Ichi Otake, Xingjie Wang, Peng Li, Zhanyong Li, Zhijie Chen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Megan C Wasson, Ying Yang, Peng Bai, Xianghai Guo, Timur Islamoglu, Omar K Farha
Tetratopic organic linkers have been extensively used in Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) where diverse topologies have been observed. Achieving meticulous control over the topologies to tune the pore sizes and shapes of the resulting materials, however, remains a great challenge. Herein, by introducing substituents to the backbone of tetratopic linkers to affect the linker conformation, phase-pure Zr-MOFs with different topologies and porosity were successfully obtained under the same synthetic conditions...
January 28, 2019: Chemical Science
Yiyang Lin, Manuel M Mazo, Stacey C Skaalure, Michael R Thomas, Simon R Schultz, Molly M Stevens
Spatio-temporally tailoring cell-material interactions is essential for developing smart delivery systems and intelligent biointerfaces. Here we report new photo-activatable cell-material interfacing systems that trigger cellular uptake of various cargoes and cell adhesion towards surfaces. To achieve this, we designed a novel photo-caged peptide which undergoes a structural transition from an antifouling ligand to a cell-penetrating peptide upon photo-irradiation. When the peptide is conjugated to ligands of interest, we demonstrate the photo-activated cellular uptake of a wide range of cargoes, including small fluorophores, proteins, inorganic ( e...
January 28, 2019: Chemical Science
Penghui He, Ni Wan, Dongbo Cai, Shiying Hu, Yaozhong Chen, Shunyi Li, Shouwen Chen
Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is an anionic polymer with various applications. Teichoic acid (TA) is a special component of cell wall in gram-positive bacteria, and its D-alanylation modification can change the net negative charge of cell surface, autolysin activity and cationic binding efficiency, and might further affect metabolic production. In this research, four genes ( dltA, dltB, dltC , and dltD ) of dlt operon were, respectively, deleted and overexpressed in the γ-PGA producing strain Bacillus licheniformis WX-02...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hazuki Takahashi, Harshita Sharma, Piero Carninci
Targeted-protein enhancement is of importance not only for the study of biological processes but also for therapeutic and biotechnological applications. Here, we present a method to selectively up-regulate protein expression of desired genes in cultured cells by means of synthetic antisense non-coding RNAs known as SINEUPs. This positive control of gene expression is at the post-transcriptional level and exerted by an inverted short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) repeat at the 3' end of SINEUPs that comprises its effector domain (ED)...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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