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Atherosclerosis calcium

Yoosoo Chang, Jae Heon Kim, Jin-Won Noh, Young Sam Cho, Heung Jae Park, Kwan Joong Joo, Seungho Ryu
RATIONALE: Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a tumor marker for prostate cancer, has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, studies on the association of PSA with subclinical and clinical CVD remain limited. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of total serum PSA within the reference range with coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and CVD mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 88,203 Korean men who underwent a health checkup exam including cardiac tomography estimation of CAC score...
March 19, 2019: Circulation Research
Gemma Chiva-Blanch, Teresa Padró, Rodrigo Alonso, Javier Crespo, Leopoldo Perez de Isla, Pedro Mata, Lina Badimon
Objective- Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common genetic disorder associated with premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Circulating microvesicles (cMV) are released when cells are activated. We investigated whether cMV could provide information on coronary calcification and atherosclerosis in FH patients. Approach and Results- Eighty-two patients (mean of 44±9 years old) with molecular diagnosis of heterozygous FH and asymptomatic cardiovascular disease were investigated...
March 14, 2019: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Joshua P Keller, Timothy V Larson, Elena Austin, R Graham Barr, Lianne Sheppard, Sverre Vedal, Joel D Kaufman, Adam A Szpiro
Background: Differences in traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) composition may cause heterogeneity in associations between air pollution exposure and cardiovascular health outcomes. Clustering multi-pollutant measurements allows investigation of effect modification by TRAP profiles. Methods: We measured TRAP components with fixed-site and on-road instruments for two two-week periods in Baltimore, Maryland. We created representative TRAP profiles for cold and warm seasons using predictive k -means clustering...
September 2018: Environmental Epidemiology
Ke-Xue Li, Qiong Du, Hui-Ping Wang, Hai-Jian Sun
Vascular calcification (VC) is a critical feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3) is involved in vascular remodeling in hypertension. However, it remains to be clarified whether DAPK3 controls vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic transition into an osteogenic cell phenotype, which is an important process for VC. In vivo VC was induced in rats by vitamin D3 and nicotine. VSMCs were incubated with calcifying media containing β-glycerophosphate and Ca2+ to induce VC in vitro...
March 6, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Gregor S Zimmermann, Tobias Rüther, Franz V Ziegler, Martin Greif, Christoph Becker, Alexander Becker
Coronary calcification (CAC) is an established marker for coronary atherosclerosis and has a highly specific predictive value for cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine the predictive value in the specific group of asymptomatic smokers in comparison to non-smokers. We included 1432 asymptomatic individuals (575 women, 857 men, age 59.2 ± 7.7 years.) in this study. Coronary calcification was calculated by multi-slice computed tomography following a standardized protocol including calcium score (CS)...
March 6, 2019: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
David S Schade, R Philip Eaton
CLINICAL ISSUE: Cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States despite major advances in our understanding of its pathogenesis and prevention. One reason for this continued epidemic is the poor adherence to treatment guidelines by caregivers and the lack of understanding by patients relative to its reversibility with treatment. Current guidelines are complex and often contradictory as there are at least 21 organizations publishing guidelines...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
I M Bensenor
Thyroid disorders are common diseases, both in Brazil and worldwide. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a prospective cohort study that investigates cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and associated factors, including non-classical cardiovascular risk factors such as thyroid function. Thyroid function was classified according to thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and use of medication to treat thyroid disorders, after excluding participants who reported use of any medication that could alter the results of the TSH and FT4 tests...
February 14, 2019: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
Xiaolin Zhang, Minghui Cheng, Fangnian Tong, Xue Su
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a major proinflammatory receptor and its role in atherosclerosis has only been emphasized recently. Increasing evidence has demonstrated an association between RAGE and the susceptibility to atherosclerosis development. Therefore, the role of RAGE in atherogenesis and the possible impact of genetic variations in RAGE on the atherosclerotic process in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) was investigated in the present study. The RAGE expression in carotid specimens was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and sequence variations of the RAGE gene selected from the Hapmap database were also screened...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hatice Ayan, Rabia Akilli, Bulent Kaya, Saime Paydas, Ertan Kara, Asligul Cureoglu
OBJECTIVES: In patients with advanced-stage chronic kidney disease, renal insufficiency, arterial stiffness, and vascular calcification are strong predictors of cardiovascular risk. Signal peptide-CUB-EGF-like protein-1 (SCUBE1) levels increase during platelet activation and acute ischemic events. Here, we evaluated associations between SCUBE1 levels and electrocardiographic/echocardiographic findings, epicardial adipose tissue thickness, and carotid intimamedia thickness in patients with chronic kidney disease...
January 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Zihou Liu, Shunjun Wang, Yongqiang Wang, Ningbo Zhou, Jie Shu, Christof Stamm, Meng Jiang, Fanyan Luo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Density may indicate some tissue characteristics and help reveal the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we assessed the association of EAT density with the coronary artery plaque burden in patients presenting with chest pain. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study comprised 614 patients (mean age 61 ± 9 years, 61% males) with a high cardiovascular disease risk, who underwent cardiac computed tomography angiography...
February 6, 2019: Atherosclerosis
Edward A Gill, Michael J Blaha, John R Guyton
Computed tomographic (CT) coronary calcium scoring has been established by large prospective, population-based studies as the single best noninvasive predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk available today. The calcium score correlates highly with the total burden of coronary atherosclerosis demonstrated at autopsy. It adds significantly to traditional risk calculators such as the Framingham Risk Calculator or the Pooled Cohort Equations. The 2018 U.S. Cholesterol Guidelines endorse the use of CT coronary calcium scoring to refine risk estimates in the intermediate range of 7...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Martin Johnson, Mohamed Trebak
Cardiorespiratory disease, which includes systemic arterial hypertension, restenosis, atherosclerosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent and devastating diseases with limited therapeutic modalities. A common pathophysiological theme to these diseases is cellular remodeling, which is contributed by changes in expression and activation of ion channels critical for either excitability or growth. Calcium (Ca2+ ) signaling and specifically ORAI Ca2+ channels have emerged as significant regulators of smooth muscle, endothelial, epithelial, platelet, and immune cell remodeling...
February 8, 2019: Cell Calcium
Olusola A Orimoloye, Mohammadhassan Mirbolouk, S M Iftekhar Uddin, Zeina A Dardari, Michael D Miedema, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Joseph Yeboah, Ron Blankstein, Khurram Nasir, Michael J Blaha
Importance: The interplay of self-rated health (SRH), coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, and cardiovascular risk is poorly described. Objectives: To assess the degree of correlation between SRH and CAC, to determine whether these measures are complementary for risk prediction, and to assess the incremental value of the addition of SRH to established risk tools. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a large population-based prospective cohort study of adults aged 45 to 84 years who were recruited from 6 US communities...
February 1, 2019: JAMA network open
Valeria Gaudieri, Wanda Acampa, Francesco Rozza, Carmela Nappi, Emilia Zampella, Roberta Assante, Teresa Mannarino, Ciro Mainolfi, Mario Petretta, Hein J Verberne, Parthiban Arumugam, Alberto Cuocolo
AIMS: Impaired myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) may occur earlier than coronary atherosclerosis and it may be an early manifestation of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with resistant hypertension (RH). We evaluated the relationship between RH and MPR in patients with systemic arterial hypertension after balancing for coronary risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 360 subjects without overt CAD and normal myocardial perfusion at stress-rest 82Rb positron emission tomography/computed tomography...
February 14, 2019: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Rüya Mutluay, Ceyla Konca Değertekin, Emel Işıktaş Sayılar, Ülver Derici, Serap Gültekin, Sevim Gönen, Selim Turgay Arınsoy, Mahmut Şükrü Sindel
Background/aim: Fetuin-A, a circulating inhibitor of calcification, is a marker of inflammatory-nutritional state. We evaluated the association between serum fetuin-A levels and vascular calcification, intima-media thickness, and nutritional and inflammatory markers in different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Materials and methods: CKD patients were sampled for calcium-phosphate parameters and nutritional and inflammatory markers [highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)], and serum fetuin-A levels...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Dong-Hwa Lee, Eun Ju Chun, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo Lim
AIM: Cilostazol is an antiplatelet agent with multiple beneficial metabolic effects via inhibition of phosphodiesterase-3 in vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, adipose tissue, and platelets. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the effect of cilostazol compared with aspirin in Korean diabetic patients with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred diabetic patients who had mild-to-moderate coronary atherosclerosis assessed by coronary computed tomographic angiography were randomly assigned to either 200 mg/day cilostazol(CTZ) or 100 mg/day aspirin(ASA) groups (n=50 each)...
February 13, 2019: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Takashi Hisamatsu, Kiang Liu, Cheeling Chan, Amy E Krefman, Akira Fujiyoshi, Matthew J Budoff, Katsuyuki Miura, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Hirotsugu Ueshima
Background The risk of coronary heart disease remains low in Japan, although distributions of several coronary risk factors have become comparable with those in the United States. We prospectively compared coronary atherosclerosis burden, measured with coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression, between men in the 2 countries. Methods In 2 population-based samples of 1712 US White, Black, Hispanic, Chinese men (baseline, 2000-2002) and 697 Japanese men in Japan (2006-2008) aged 45-74 years without clinical cardiovascular disease, we quantified CAC progression by serial computed tomography with medians of 3...
February 2019: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
L Hu, Z Chen, Y Jin, B Jiang, X Wang, H Yu, X Yang
OBJECTIVE: Artery calcification, as subclinical atherosclerosis, is attracting attention. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of artery calcification in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: 641 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus were enrolled in the study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics were collected. Calcification score was quantified from the multi-detector computed tomography scan image using the Agatston Score method...
February 10, 2019: Lupus
Sak Lee, Dae-Hyun Kim, Young-Nam Youn, Hyun Chel Joo, Kyung-Jong Yoo, Seung Hyun Lee
OBJECTIVE: There are pathophysiologic similarities between calcification and atherosclerosis because both are the product of an active inflammatory process. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of statin treatment on calcification in commercially available bioprosthetic heart valves. METHODS: Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet to induce hypercholesterolemia during 4 weeks. They were randomly divided into 2 groups according to statin intake (control, n = 10: high-fat diet/statin; n = 10: high-fat diet with statin)...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Angelica Ezeigwe, Oluwaseun E Fashanu, Di Zhao, Matthew J Budoff, James D Otvos, Isac C Thomas, Samia Mora, Martin Tibuakuu, Erin D Michos
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: GlycA is a novel composite biomarker of systemic inflammation reflecting posttranslational glycosylation of acute phase reactants. GlycA has been associated with coronary artery calcium, cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. Vascular calcifications outside of the coronary arteries are risk markers of CVD and mortality. Whether GlycA is linked to extra-coronary calcifications (ECC) is not well established. METHODS: We studied 6462 MESA participants free of clinical CVD who had plasma GlycA measured at baseline...
January 24, 2019: Atherosclerosis
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