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Lower GI disorders

Asad Jehangir, Henry P Parkman
GOAL: The goal of this study was to determine the relationship of reflux with gastroparesis (Gp), looking both at symptoms and objective testing. BACKGROUND: Gp patients often experience gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. How the severity of reflux correlates with the severity of Gp is not known. STUDY: Patients referred to our academic center with symptoms of Gp completed the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-15...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Elizabeth S Mearns, Aliki Taylor, Kelly J Thomas Craig, Stefanie Puglielli, Daniel A Leffler, David S Sanders, Benjamin Lebwohl, Marios Hadjivassiliou
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated gastrointestinal disorder driven by innate and adaptive immune responses to gluten. Patients with CD are at an increased risk of several neurological manifestations, frequently peripheral neuropathy and gluten ataxia. A systematic literature review of the most commonly reported neurological manifestations (neuropathy and ataxia) associated with CD was performed. MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and conference proceedings were systematically searched from January 2007 through September 2018...
February 12, 2019: Nutrients
Michael Aboud, Richard Kaplan, Johannes Lombaard, Fujie Zhang, José A Hidalgo, Elmira Mamedova, Marcelo H Losso, Ploenchan Chetchotisakd, Carlos Brites, Jörg Sievers, Dannae Brown, Judy Hopking, Mark Underwood, Maria Claudia Nascimento, Yogesh Punekar, Martin Gartland, Kimberly Smith
BACKGROUND: Doubts exist regarding optimal second-line treatment options for HIV-1-infected patients in resource-limited settings. We assessed safety and efficacy of dolutegravir compared with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in adults in whom previous first-line antiretroviral therapy with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) plus two NRTIs has failed. METHODS: DAWNING is a phase 3b, open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority, active-controlled trial done at 58 sites in 13 countries...
February 4, 2019: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Svetlana Skurtveit, Blanka Nechanská, Marte Handal, Milada Mahic, Viktor Mravčík, Roman Gabrhelík
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our understanding of the long-term safety of prenatal exposure to Opioid Maintenance Treatment (OMT) is insufficient. We compared childhood morbidity (0-3 years) between OMT-exposed and relevant comparison groups. DESIGN: Nation-wide, registry-based cohort study. Registries on reproductive health, addiction treatment, hospitalization, and death were linked using identification numbers. SETTING: The Czech Republic (2000-14)...
February 6, 2019: Addiction
Ashok K Tuteja, Nicholas J Talley, Gregory J Stoddard, Matthew H Samore, G Nicholas Verne
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its role in other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of FGIDs in Gulf War (GW) Veterans before, during, and after deployment and to determine whether gastroenteritis was a risk factor for upper and lower FGIDs. METHODS: The Veterans who served during the Persian GW were mailed validated questionnaires inquiring about their bowel habits, psychological and extra-intestinal symptoms, and quality of life (QOL)...
January 29, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Mehrnaz Nikkhah Bodagh, Iradj Maleki, Azita Hekmatdoost
Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, which is used as a spice globally has a long history of medicinal use that stimulates investigators to assess its potential roles as an adjuvant therapy or alternative medicine in a range of diseases. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, and antiulcer effects of ginger have been proven in many scientific studies, and some of the ancient applications of ginger as a home remedy has been confirmed in human. In this review, we summarized the current evidence on the effects of ginger consumption on gastrointestinal disorders based on clinical trials...
January 2019: Food Science & Nutrition
Michael Berk, Alyna Turner, Gin S Malhi, Chee Ng, Susan M Cotton, Seetal Dodd, Yuval Samuni, Michelle Tanious, Claire McAulay, Nathan Dowling, Jerome Sarris, Lauren Owen, Astrid Waterdrinker, Deidre Smith, Olivia M Dean
BACKGROUND: A phasic dysregulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics may operate in bipolar disorder, increased in mania and decreased in depression. We aimed to examine efficacy of two add-on treatments in bipolar depression: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and NAC with a combination of nutraceutical agents that may increase mitochondrial biogenesis. METHODS: A three-arm 16-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, adjunctive to usual treatment, was conducted...
January 25, 2019: BMC Medicine
Judy Nee, Saikiran Kilaru, John Kelley, Sveta S Oza, William Hirsch, Sarah Ballou, Anthony Lembo, Jacqueline Wolf
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prior studies have shown a high prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, diagnoses of functional GI diseases (FGIDs), and pelvic floor symptoms associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). It is unclear if Marfan syndrome (MFS), another common hereditary noninflammatory connective tissue disorder, is also associated these symptoms. This study evaluates the prevalence of and compares FGIDs and pelvic floor symptoms in a national cohort of EDS and MFS patients...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Heba Yasin, William T Gibson, Sylvie Langlois, Robert M Stowe, Erica S Tsang, Leora Lee, Jenny Poon, Grant Tran, Christine Tyson, Chi Kin Wong, Marco A Marra, Jan M Friedman, Farah R Zahir
A decade ago, we described novel de novo submicroscopic deletions of chromosome 14q11.2 in three children with developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and similar dysmorphic features, including widely-spaced eyes, short nose with flat nasal bridge, long philtrum, prominent Cupid's bow of the upper lip, full lower lip, and auricular anomalies. We suggested that this constituted a new multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome due to defects in CHD8 and/or SUPT16H. The three patients in our original cohort were between 2 years and 3 years of age at the time...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Human Genetics
Simeng Liu, Enyao Li, Zhenyu Sun, Dongjun Fu, Guiqin Duan, Miaomiao Jiang, Yong Yu, Lu Mei, Pingchang Yang, Youcai Tang, Pengyuan Zheng
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Several studies report a high prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in autistic individuals. Cumulative evidence reveals that the gut microbiota and its metabolites (especially short-chain fatty acids, SCFAs) play an important role in GI disorders and the pathogenesis of ASD. However, the composition of the gut microbiota and its association with fecal SCFAs and GI symptoms of autistic children remain largely unknown...
January 22, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kevin A Sonn, Stephen J Wallace, Feng Ning F Yuan, Andrew Schneider, Erin L Hsu, Robert Havey, Avinash G Patwardhan, John J Callaci
MINI: Despite known negative effects on bone health and bone healing, proton pump inhibitors are commonly prescribed to orthopaedic patients for gastrointestinal disorders. Significant rates of pseudarthrosis persist in spine surgery despite advances in techniques and instrumentation. Proton pump inhibitor administration did not negatively affect fusion rates in this rodent model. STUDY DESIGN: Rat posterolateral arthrodesis model. OBJECTIVE: Quantify the impact of administration of a proton pump inhibitor on spine fusion...
January 14, 2019: Spine
Rupak Desai, Tarang Parekh, Sandeep Singh, Upenkumar Patel, Hee Kong Fong, Dipen Zalavadia, Sejal Savani, Rajkumar Doshi, Rajesh Sachdeva, Gautam Kumar
We studied the trends and outcomes of patients with intestinal angiodysplasia-associated gastrointestinal bleeding (Heyde's syndrome [HS]) with aortic stenosis (AS) who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) versus transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The National Inpatient Sample (2007 to 2014) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify HS hospitalizations, pertinent co-morbidities, and outcomes of SAVR versus TAVI from 2011 to 2014...
January 7, 2019: American Journal of Cardiology
David P Breen, Glenda M Halliday, Anthony E Lang
Spread of α-synuclein pathology from the peripheral to central nervous system may be an important etiological factor in Parkinson's disease, although there are some unanswered questions about its correlation with neuronal loss. Experimental evidence has highlighted the gastrointestinal tract as a potential starting point for aggregated α-synuclein, with the vagus nerve acting as a "highway" by which pathology may be transmitted to the lower brain stem. This review begins by highlighting the key studies demonstrating that α-synuclein pathology has the ability to spread from certain sites in the gastrointestinal tract to the brain (and vice versa)...
January 17, 2019: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Amaranath Karunanayake, Shaman Rajindrajith, Hitanadura Asita de Silva, Sampath Gunawardena, Niranga Manjuri Devanarayana
BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) are the most common cause of recurrent abdominal pain in children. Despite its high prevalence, the underlying pathophysiology of this condition is poorly understood. AIM: To assess the role of gastric dysmotility and autonomic nervous system dysfunction in the pathophysiology of AP-FGIDs. METHODS: One hundred children, fulfilling Rome III criteria for AP-FGIDs, and 50 healthy controls, aged 5 to 12 years, were recruited after obtaining parental consent...
January 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Glenda M Beaman, Adrian S Woolf, Raimondo M Cervellione, David Keene, Imran Mushtaq, Jill E Urquhart, Helen M Stuart, William G Newman
The bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC) comprises of a spectrum of anterior midline defects, all affecting the lower urinary tract, the external genitalia, and the bony pelvis. In extreme cases, the gastrointestinal tract is also affected. The pathogenesis of BEEC is unclear but chromosomal aberrations have been reported. In particular, duplications of 22q11.2 have been identified in eight unrelated individuals with BEEC. The current study aimed to identify chromosomal copy number variants in BEEC. Analyses was performed using the Affymetrix Genome-wide SNP6...
January 9, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Valerie F Williams, Gi-Taik Oh, Shauna Stahlman
During 2002-2017, the most common incident adrenal gland disorder among male and female service members was adrenal insufficiency and the least common was adrenomedullary hyperfunction. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed among 267 females (crude overall incidence rate: 8.2 cases per 100,000 person-years [p-yrs]) and 729 males (3.9 per 100,000 p-yrs). In both sexes, overall rates of other disorders of adrenal gland and Cushing's syndrome were lower than for adrenal insufficiency but higher than for hyperaldosteronism, adrenogenital disorders, and adrenomedullary hyperfunction...
December 2018: MSMR
Anu Ruusunen, Tetyana Rocks, Felice Jacka, Amy Loughman
Rapidly accumulating evidence supports the important role of gut microbiome in the regulation of mood, behaviour, appetite, gastrointestinal symptomology, and nutrient metabolism. These are all core features frequently altered in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). Current treatment recommendations for AN support the use of high-calorie diets as an essential part of nutritional rehabilitation, commonly achieved by elevating the fat content of the diet. However, in contrast to this approach, there is accumulating evidence suggesting the importance of balanced, high-fibre diets on the gut microbiome...
January 5, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Florian Hentschel, Stefan Lüth
The global incidence and prevalence of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases is rising. Clinically, acute eosinophilic esophagitis cannot be distinguished from other causes of esophagitis. Endoscopic findings like rings, webs or furrows have a lower sensitivity than previously assumed. An improvement of symptoms by proton-pump inhibitors also doesn't rule out the diagnosis - it has to be confirmed histologically. Early therapy will prevent later complications like strictures and motility disorders. The presentation of eosinophilic gastroenteritris/colitis is even less specific...
January 2019: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Chuan-Quan Lin, Li-Hui Wang, Long Yang, Xiang-Hong Qiu, Dong-Xu Wang, Xue-Dan Liang, Long-Hui Chen, Hai-Mei Xie, Shuang-Shuang Wang, Ru-Liu Li
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Salivary characteristics are altered in gastrointestinal diseases and related to oral taste disorder. However, specific salivary biochemical characteristics and their relationships with oral taste disturbances in chronic non-atrophy gastritis (CNAG) remain uncertain. METHODS: 70 patients with CNAG and 70 subjects in healthy control group (HCG) were enrolled in our study. The levels of salivary flow rate (SFR), pH, salivary α-amylase (sAA) activity, total protein density (TPD), chloride concentration and calcium concentration were determined before and after citric acid stimulation, and compared between CNAG with and without oral taste disturbances...
December 29, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Edgar Cambaza, Shigenobu Koseki, Shuso Kawamura
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a well-known mycotoxin, responsible for outbreaks of gastrointestinal disorders in Japan. Fusarium graminearum , a parasite of cereal crops, produces this toxin and this is one of the reasons why it is important to understand its metabolism. It is possible to predict the mold's color change and the quantity of DON synthesized throughout its lifecycle. Furthermore, aw has been found to affect the amount of DON. This study aimed to analyze the potential of F. graminearum surface color as a predictor of DON concentration at aw = 0...
December 23, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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