Karina van der Linde, Vera Göhre
Smut fungi represent a large group of biotrophic plant pathogens that cause extensive yield loss and are also model organisms for studying plant-pathogen interactions. In recent years, they have become biotechnological tools. After initial penetration of the plant epidermis, smut fungi grow intra-and intercellularly without disrupting the plant-plasma membrane. Following the colonialization step, teliospores are formed and later released. While some smuts only invade the tissues around the initial penetration site, others colonize in multiple plant organs resulting in spore formation distal from the original infection site...
February 2, 2021: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Qiaofeng Liu, Xin Wang
In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of a basidiomycetous yeast Cystobasidium sp. was assembled and obtained. The mitochondrial genome of Cystobasidium sp. contains 16 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), and 24 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The complete mitogenome of Cystobasidium sp. has a total length of 24,914 bp, with the base composition as follows: A (30.82), T (32.88%), C (18.37%) and G (17.93%). The Cystobasidium sp. mitogenome exhibited a close relationship with the mitogenome of Microbotryum cf...
June 16, 2020: Mitochondrial DNA. Part B. Resources
Emme Bruns, Laura Pierce, Janis Antonovics, Michael Hood
Vector-borne diseases threaten human and agricultural health and are a critical component of the ecology of plants and animals. While previous studies have shown that pathogen spread can be affected by vector preferences for host infection status, less attention has been paid to vector preference for host sex, despite abundant evidence of sex-specific variation in disease burden. We investigated vector preference for host infection status and sex in the sterilizing 'anther-smut' pathogen (Microbotryum) of the alpine carnation, Dianthus pavonius...
November 15, 2020: Ecology
Britta Bueker, Marco Alexandre Guerreiro, Michael E Hood, Andreas Brachmann, Sven Rahmann, Dominik Begerow
BACKGROUND: Hybridization is a central mechanism in evolution, producing new species or introducing important genetic variation into existing species. In plant-pathogenic fungi, adaptation and specialization to exploit a host species are key determinants of evolutionary success. Here, we performed experimental crosses between the two pathogenic Microbotryum species, M. lychnidis-dioicae and M. silenes-acaulis that are specialized to different hosts. The resulting offspring were analyzed on phenotypic and genomic levels to describe genomic characteristics of hybrid offspring and genetic factors likely involved in host-specialization...
September 17, 2020: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Sylvie Arnaise, Jacqui A Shykoff, Anders P Møller, Timothy A Mousseau, Tatiana Giraud
The long-term contamination that followed the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl provides a case study for the effects of chronic ionizing radiation on living organisms and on their ability to tolerate or evolve resistance to such radiation. Previously, we studied the fertility and viability of early developmental stages of a castrating plant pathogen, the anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, isolated from field sites varying over 700-fold in degree of radioactive contamination. Neither the budding rate of haploid spores following meiosis nor the karyotype structure varied with increasing radiation levels at sampling sites...
July 2020: Ecology and Evolution
Teodor T Denchev, Henning Knudsen, Cvetomir M Denchev
The first taxonomic treatment of the smut fungi in Greenland is provided. A total of 43 species in 11 genera are treated and illustrated by photographs of sori, microphotographs of spores in LM and SEM, and distribution maps. Two species, Anthracoidea pseudofoetidae and Urocystis tothii, are recorded as new from North America. Thirteen species, Anthracoidea altera, A. capillaris, A. limosa, A. liroi, A. pseudofoetidae, A. scirpoideae, A. turfosa, Microbotryum lagerheimii, M. stellariae, Schizonella elynae, Stegocintractia luzulae, Urocystis fischeri, and U...
2020: MycoKeys
Fanny E Hartmann, Alodie Snirc, Amandine Cornille, Cécile Godé, Pascal Touzet, Fabienne Van Rossum, Elisabeth Fournier, Stéphanie Le Prieur, Jacqui Shykoff, Tatiana Giraud
The study of population genetic structure congruence between hosts and pathogens gives important insights into their shared phylogeographic and coevolutionary histories. We studied the population genetic structure of castrating anther-smut fungi (Microbotryum genus) and of their host plants, the Silene nutans species complex, and the morphologically and genetically close S. italica, which can be found in sympatry. Phylogeographic population genetic structure related to persistence in separate glacial refugia has been recently revealed in the S...
February 18, 2020: Molecular Ecology
Wen-Juan Ma, Fantin Carpentier, Tatiana Giraud, Michael Hood
Degenerative mutations in non-recombining regions, such as on sex chromosomes, may lead to differential expression between alleles if mutations occur stochastically in one or the other allele. Reduced allelic expression due to degeneration has indeed been suggested to occur in various sex-chromosome systems. However, whether an association occurs between specific signatures of degeneration and differential expression between alleles has not been extensively tested, and sexual antagonism can also cause differential expression on sex chromosomes...
February 14, 2020: Genome Biology and Evolution
William C Beckerson, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Fanny E Hartmann, Marine Duhamel, Tatiana Giraud, Michael H Perlin
Plant pathogens utilize a portfolio of secreted effectors to successfully infect and manipulate their hosts. It is, however, still unclear whether changes in secretomes leading to host specialization involve mostly effector gene gains/losses or changes in their sequences. To test these hypotheses, we compared the secretomes of three host-specific castrating anther smut fungi ( Microbotryum ), two being sister species. To address within-species evolution, which might involve coevolution and local adaptation, we compared the secretomes of strains from differentiated populations...
November 5, 2019: MBio
Fanny E Hartmann, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Pierre Gladieux, Wen-Juan Ma, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Non-recombining sex chromosomes are widely found to be more differentiated than autosomes among closely related species, due to smaller effective population size and/or to a disproportionaly large X-effect in reproductive isolation. While fungal mating-type chromosomes can also display large non-recombining regions, their levels of differentiation compared to autosomes have been little studied. Anther-smut fungi from the Microbotryum genus are castrating pathogens of Caryophyllaceae plants with largely non-recombining mating-type chromosomes...
October 25, 2019: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Hiroki Kawamoto, Kaori Yamanaka, Ayako Koizumi, Kotaro Ishii, Yusuke Kazama, Tomoko Abe, Shigeyuki Kawano
Silene latifolia is a dioecious flowering plant with sex chromosomes in the family Caryophyllaceae. Development of a gynoecium and stamens are suppressed in the male and female flowers of S. latifolia, respectively. Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae promotes stamen development when it infects the female flower. If suppression of the stamen and gynoecium development is regulated by the same mechanism, suppression of gynoecium and stamen development is released simultaneously with the infection by M. lychnidis-dioicae...
2019: PloS One
Barry J Saville, Michael H Perlin
From the evening of March 12, till dinner on March 13, 2017, the 1st International Ustilago/Smut Convergence took place as a workshop prior to the start of the 29th Fungal Genetics Conference, in Asilomar, California. The overall goals of the meeting were to expand the smut model systems being used and to expand participation by the next generations of scientists with these fungi. These goals were implemented through a combination of emphasis on student and post-doc presentations, mentoring of such individuals, and active recruitment of participation by groups under-represented at such meetings in recent years in the US, especially those from Latin America and other Spanish-speaking countries...
August 5, 2019: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG&B
Fanny E Hartmann, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Fantin Carpentier, Pierre Gladieux, Amandine Cornille, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Anther-smut fungi provide a powerful system to study host-pathogen specialization and coevolution, with hundreds of Microbotryum species specialized on diverse Caryophyllaceae plants, castrating their hosts through manipulation of the hosts' reproductive organs to facilitate disease transmission. Microbotryum fungi have exceptional genomic characteristics, including dimorphic mating-type chromosomes, that make this genus an excellent model for studying the evolution of mating systems and their influence on population genetics structure and adaptive potential...
July 23, 2019: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Michael E Hood, Janis Antonovics, Monroe Wolf, Zachariah L Stern, Tatiana Giraud, Jessica L Abbate
The impact of infectious diseases in natural ecosystems is strongly influenced by the degree of pathogen specialization and by the local assemblies of potential host species. This study investigated anther-smut disease, caused by fungi in the genus Microbotryum , among natural populations of plants in the Caryophyllaceae. A broad geographic survey focused on sites of the disease on multiple host species in sympatry. Analysis of molecular identities for the pathogens revealed that sympatric disease was most often due to co-occurrence of distinct, host-specific anther-smut fungi, rather than localized cross-species disease transmission...
May 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Anna Liza Bazzicalupo, Fantin Carpentier, Sarah Perin Otto, Tatiana Giraud
Recombination suppression on sex chromosomes often extends in a stepwise manner, generating evolutionary strata of differentiation between sex chromosomes. Sexual antagonism is a widely accepted explanation for evolutionary strata, postulating that sets of genes beneficial in only one sex are successively linked to the sex-determining locus. The anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae has mating-type chromosomes with evolutionary strata, only some of which link mating-type genes. Male and female roles are non-existent in this fungus, but mating-type antagonistic selection can also generate evolutionary strata, although the life cycle of the fungus suggests it should be restricted to few traits...
April 23, 2019: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Naoko Fujita, Yusuke Kazama, Noriko Yamagishi, Kyoko Watanabe, Saki Ando, Hiroyuki Tsuji, Shigeyuki Kawano, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa, Ken Komatsu
(1) Background: Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant, whose sex is determined by XY-type sex chromosomes. Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is a smut fungus that infects S. latifolia plants and causes masculinization in female flowers, as if Microbotryum were acting as a sex-determining gene. Recent large-scale sequencing efforts have promised to provide candidate genes that are involved in the sex determination machinery in plants. These candidate genes are to be analyzed for functional characterization. A virus vector can be a tool for functional gene analyses; (2) Methods: To develop a viral vector system in S...
February 27, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hui Tang, Michael E Hood, Zong-Xin Ren, Hai-Dong Li, Yan-Hui Zhao, Lorne M Wolfe, De-Zhu Li, Hong Wang
Host sympatry provides opportunities for cross-species disease transmission and compounded disease effects on host population and community structure. Using the Silene-Microbotryum interaction (the castrating "anther-smut" disease), eleven Himalayan Silene species were assessed in regions of high host diversity to ascertain levels of pathogen specificity. We also investigated disease prevalence, seasonal dynamics of infection and flowering patterns in five co-blooming Silene species. We identified several new Microbotryum lineages with varying degrees of specialization that is likely influenced by degrees of host divergence and ecological similarities (i...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Leandro A N N Agra, Claudine D S Seixas, José C Dianese
Identification of the "bean smut" reported in 1998 in abstracts from two conferences was later disseminated by a Plant Disease Note; citations in books, papers, and blogs; and in several official sites, including databases curated by the United States Department of Agriculture and Embrapa-Brazil. After seeing the illustration of the syndrome in 2002, the need became clear for a review of the so-called bean smut. Field collections indicated that it is common in no-till bean and soybean farming in Brazil...
March 2018: Plant Disease
Emily L Bruns, Ian Miller, Michael E Hood, Valentina Carasso, Janis Antonovics
In flowering plants, the evolution of females is widely hypothesized to be the first step in the evolutionary pathway to separate male and female sexes, or dioecy. Natural enemies have the potential to drive this evolution if they preferentially attack hermaphrodites over females. We studied sex-based differences in exposure to anther-smut (Microbotryum), a sterilizing pollinator-transmitted disease, in Dianthus pavonius, a gynodioecious perennial herb. We found that within a heavily diseased population, females consistently had lower levels of Microbotryum spore deposition relative to hermaphrodites and that this difference was driven by rapid floral closing in females following successful pollination...
November 8, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Taiadjana M Fortuna, Alice Namias, Alodie Snirc, Antoine Branca, Michael E Hood, Christian Raquin, Jacqui A Shykoff, Tatiana Giraud
Multiple infections (co-occurrence of multiple pathogen genotypes within an individual host) can have important impacts on diseases. Relatedness among pathogens can affect the likelihood of multiple infections and their consequences through kin selection. Previous studies on the castrating anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae have shown that multiple infections occur in its host plant Silene latifolia. Relatedness was high among fungal genotypes within plants, which could result from competitive exclusion between unrelated fungal genotypes, from population structure or from interactions between plant and fungal genotypes for infection ability...
October 29, 2018: Molecular Ecology
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