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India infections

Carolina B Moraes, Gesa Witt, Maria Kuzikov, Bernhard Ellinger, Theodora Calogeropoulou, Kyriakos C Prousis, Stefano Mangani, Flavio Di Pisa, Giacomo Landi, Lucia Dello Iacono, Cecilia Pozzi, Lucio H Freitas-Junior, Bruno Dos Santos Pascoalino, Claudia P Bertolacini, Birte Behrens, Oliver Keminer, Jennifer Leu, Markus Wolf, Jeanette Reinshagen, Anabela Cordeiro-da-Silva, Nuno Santarem, Alberto Venturelli, Stephen Wrigley, Deepa Karunakaran, Bethlehem Kebede, Ina Pöhner, Wolfgang Müller, Joanna Panecka-Hofman, Rebecca C Wade, Martina Fenske, Joachim Clos, José María Alunda, María Jesús Corral, Elisa Uliassi, Maria Laura Bolognesi, Pasquale Linciano, Antonio Quotadamo, Stefania Ferrari, Matteo Santucci, Chiara Borsari, Maria Paola Costi, Sheraz Gul
According to the World Health Organization, more than 1 billion people are at risk of or are affected by neglected tropical diseases. Examples of such diseases include trypanosomiasis, which causes sleeping sickness; leishmaniasis; and Chagas disease, all of which are prevalent in Africa, South America, and India. Our aim within the New Medicines for Trypanosomatidic Infections project was to use (1) synthetic and natural product libraries, (2) screening, and (3) a preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion-toxicity (ADME-Tox) profiling platform to identify compounds that can enter the trypanosomatidic drug discovery value chain...
March 2019: SLAS Discovery
Sumin Tang, Wei Hu, Lili Hu, Jun Zhou
BACKGROUND: Debates still exist whether delayed primary incision closure (DPC) could bring more benefits to patients suffering contaminated abdominal surgery. So, we want to determine whether DPC has advantage over primary incision closure (PC) in contaminated abdominal surgery. METHODS: Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible studies from January 1, 1980 to August 6, 2017. Bibliographies of potential eligibility were also retrieved...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Ramya Uppuluri, Meena Sivasankaran, Shivani Patel, Venkateswaran Vellaichamy Swaminathan, Kesavan Melarcode Ramanan, Nikila Ravichandran, Balasubramaniam Ramakrishnan, Indira Jayakumar, Lakshman Vaidhyanathan, Revathi Raj
Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo SCT) has emerged as an acceptable alternative to matched family donor transplantation for children diagnosed to have primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDs). We present data over 4 years on the challenges and efficacy of unmanipulated T cell replete haplo SCTs with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in children diagnosed to have PIDs. We performed a retrospective study in the pediatric blood and marrow transplantation unit where all children less than 18 years of age diagnosed to have PIDs and who underwent haplo SCT with PTCy from January 2014 to February 2018 were included in the study...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Jahnavi Aluri, Mukesh Desai, Maya Gupta, Aparna Dalvi, Antony Terance, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Jennifer L Stoddard, Julie E Niemela, Vasundhara Tamankar, Snehal Mhatre, Umair Bargir, Manasi Kulkarni, Nitin Shah, Amita Aggarwal, Harsha Prasada Lashkari, Vidya Krishna, Geeta Govindaraj, Manas Kalra, Manisha Madkaikar
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents one of the most severe forms of primary immunodeficiency (PID) disorders characterized by impaired cellular and humoral immune responses. Here, we report the clinical, immunological, and molecular findings in 57 patients diagnosed with SCID from India. Majority of our patients (89%) presented within 6 months of age. The most common clinical manifestations observed were recurrent pneumonia (66%), failure to thrive (60%), chronic diarrhea (35%), gastrointestinal infection (21%), and oral candidiasis (21%)...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
K L Gupta, Navin Pattanashetti, Raja Ramachandran, Ritambhra Nada, Ritu Aggarwal, Ashsish Sharma
OBJECTIVES: Improvements in early graft survival and long-term graft function have made kidney transplant a more cost-effective alternative to dialysis. We aimed to assess renal transplant outcomes over a 9-month follow-up of recipients in a cost-limited setting (a tertiary care center in India). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included patients in this prospective observational study were those who underwent renal transplant from July 2016 to February 2017 (8 months) and followed for 9 months...
January 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Ifeoma I Ulasi, Chinwuba Ijoma, Obinna Onodugo, Ejikeme Arodiwe, Julius Okoye, Ugochi Onu, Uchenna Ijoma, Ngozi Ifebunandu, Olaronke Afolabi, Ume Nwobodo
OBJECTIVES: Kidney transplantation is not readily available in low-resource settings because of poor health structure, dearth of experts, and pervading poverty. Although many centers now offer kidney transplant, patients still travel outside Nigeria for this service for many reasons and many return home without a detailed medical report. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of individuals who underwent kidney transplant in Nigeria and elsewhere and who were presently receiving posttransplant care or had received such care from 2002 to 2018 at 4 Nigerian hospitals were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed...
January 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
A Karam, K Puro, S Das, I Shakuntala, R Sanjukta, A A P Milton, S Ghatak, A Sen
Aim: This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and bluetongue (BT) in goats' population in the state of Meghalaya of Northeast India. Materials and Methods: The serosurveillance study was done from the random sampling (n=598) of blood collected from five districts (Ri-Bhoi, East Khasi Hills, West Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills and West Garo Hills) of Meghalaya. The presence of antibodies against PPR and BT in the samples was detected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for PPR and competitive ELISA for BT...
December 2018: Veterinary World
Rishikesh Kumar, Muktikant Nayak, Ganesh C Sahoo, Krishna Pandey, Mamta Chawla Sarkar, Yousuf Ansari, V N R Das, R K Topno, Bhawna, Major Madhukar, Pradeep Das
Influenza virus is a common human pathogenic agent that has caused serious respiratory illness and death over the past century and in recent year. Treatment options against pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1 are very limited and unsatisfactory. Therefore we have developed iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-NPs) with particle size in the range of 10-15 nm against pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1/Eastern India/66/PR8-H1N1. Cell viability and anti-influenza activity was measured by MTT assay, plaque inhibition and quantifying viral transcripts using quantitative real-time PCR with Iron oxide nanoparticles in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Harsimran Kaur, Jayanthi Savio, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, Atul Patel, Prakash Shastri, Umabala Pamidimukkala, Rajiv Karthik, Sanjay Bhattacharya, Anupma Jyoti Kindo, Pradip Bhattacharya, Subhash Todi, Ram Gopalakrishan, Pankaj Singh, Abhishek Pandey, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Due to limited data on invasive mould infections (IMIs) in the intensive care units (ICUs) of developing countries, we ascertain epidemiology and management of IMIs at 11 ICUs across India. METHODS: Consecutive patients with proven or probable/putative IMIs were enrolled during the study period. Subjects were categorized into classical (neutropenia, malignancy, transplant recipients on immunosuppression) and non-classical (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, liver disease and glucocorticoids) risk groups...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Critical Care
Naveen Tmu, Ashish Kumar, Praveen Sharma, Vikas Singla, Naresh Bansal, Anil Arora
Background: Sofosbuvir (SOF), a direct acting antiviral, has revolutionized the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. However, data is scarce about efficacy of SOF plus Ribavarin (RBV) in Indian patients with decompensated cirrhosis. We evaluated the efficacy of SOF plus RBV in decompensated cirrhosis, and compared the outcome with compensated cirrhosis and non-cirrhotics. Patients and methods: Consecutive decompensated cirrhotic patients of chronic HCV with detectable HCV RNA were treated with 24-week course of SOF (400 mg) plus weight based RBV...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Namrata Gangaram Adulkar, Santhi Radhakrishnan, N Vidhya, Usha Kim
OBJECTIVE: Invasive sino-orbital fungal infections in immunocompetent patients are a rare clinical entity; the diagnosis and management of which is challenging. We present a large case series of invasive sino-orbital fungal granulomas in patients without pre-existing systemic immunocomprimising condition. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty cases of invasive sino-orbital/naso-orbital fungal granulomas in immunocompetent individuals...
February 14, 2019: Eye
Nandini Malshe, Sonali Palkar, Ruta Kulkarni, Sanjay Lalwani, Akhilesh Chandra Mishra, Vidya Arankalle
BACKGROUND: Immunization of children with vaccines against Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) is practiced globally with varied recommendations. In India, measles vaccine is administered alone or as MMR at 9 months age. Varicella vaccine is not routinely used. Immunization age is a function of disappearance of maternal antibodies and natural exposure of the children to the pathogens. In view of the measles-WHO-initiative, we aimed to assess if the current immunization age for measles is still valid...
February 11, 2019: Vaccine
Shivendra Sangar, Varun Dutt, Ramna Thakur
Background: The economic costs associated with morbidity pose a great financial risk on the population. Household's over-dependence on out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure and their inability to cope up with the economic costs associated with illness often push them into poverty. The current paper aims to measure the economic burden and resultant impoverishment associated with OOP health expenditure for a diverse set of ailments in India. Methods: Cross-sectional data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) 71st Round on "Key Indicators of Social Consumption: Health" has been employed in the study...
2019: Frontiers in Public Health
Sonia Jain, Rukhsana Chowdhury, Mousumi Datta, Goutam Chowdhury, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay
BACKGROUND: To analyze the molecular epidemiology and to compare between the major methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biotypes for association with patient characteristics who had an implant for closed fracture and developed early post-operative wound infections (POWI) in a tertiary care hospital of India. METHODS: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antimicrobial resistance, accessory gene regulator (agr) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types, Paton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, toxin gene profiling, biofilm formation and patient demographics were correlated with MLST clonal complexes (CC)...
February 13, 2019: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Verónica Perez-Cabezas, Carmen Ruiz-Molinero, Bernardo Nuñez-Moraleda, José Jesús Jimenez-Rejano, Raquel Chillón-Martinez, Jose A Moral-Munoz
Zika virus (Zikv) infection implies a significant public health issue due to the different syndromes associated. It is related to several central nervous system problems, such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. In this way, the first document about the relation of Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Zika indexed in Web of Science was published in 2014. Therefore, the primary goal of the present study is to analyze the leading scientific producers, the relative specialization of the countries, and the collaboration network in the research area...
February 13, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Letters
M K Khan, M N Islam, J Ferdous, M M Alam
Tuberculosis (TB) is a progressive granulomatous infectious disease caused by the gram positive, acid fast bacilli classified under the genus Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis in human is mostly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects lungs causing pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones, joints, lymph nodes, skin and other tissues of the body causing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Human TB is transmitted mainly through droplet infection and droplet nuclei. Infection of human with M...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Ashutosh Singh, Pradeep K Singh, Theun de Groot, Anil Kumar, Purva Mathur, Bansidhar Tarai, Neelam Sachdeva, Gargi Upadhyaya, Smita Sarma, Jacques F Meis, Anuradha Chowdhary
Objectives: The emergence of fluconazole resistance in Candida parapsilosis healthcare-associated infections has recently been increasingly reported. Antifungal susceptibility profiles and mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in C. parapsilosis (n = 199) from nine hospitals in India collected over a period of 3 years were studied. Further, clonal transmission of fluconazole-resistant isolates in different hospitals was investigated. Methods: Antifungal susceptibility testing of five azoles, amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine was performed by the CLSI microbroth dilution method...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Theun de Groot, Anuradha Chowdhary, Jacques F Meis, Andreas Voss
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging yeast, causing severe infections in patients with underlying diseases. This yeast is responsible for several outbreaks within healthcare facilities, where it can be found on hospital surfaces and patient care devices. Spread from these fomites may be prevented by improving the decontamination of hospital surfaces. UV-C decontamination may constitute an effective adjunct to routine room cleaning. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the effect of different UV-C exposure times and distance in killing C...
February 12, 2019: Mycoses
Jun Wang, Liying Zhu, Xinwei Chen, Ruofei Huang, Shili Wang, Pin Dong
Hypopharyngeal carcinoma is a common malignant tumor of the head and neck with a very poor prognosis; the median survival time for curatively treated patients was 17.2 months in India. However, cell-based gene therapy holds promise to improve patient outcomes. In this study, we investigated whether human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) possess potential homing capacity for hypopharyngeal carcinoma. To monitor the efficiency of BMSC transplantation therapy via reporter gene imaging, we employed a hybrid baculovirus vector containing the Luc-P2A-eGFP fusion or sodium iodide symporter (NIS) sequence under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter...
February 12, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Bharat R Sontakke, Prafulla S Ambulkar, Shweta Talhar, Poonam Varma Shivkumar, M S Bharambe, Asoke Pal
Background: Carcinoma cervix of uterus (CaCx) is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is an established fact that infection of specific types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is essential for the development of cervical cancer. The present study reports the high-risk viruses (HPV 16 and 18) type distribution in rural central India, which has unique climatic condition. To our knowledge, no molecular study on HPV prevalence has been done in this region of rural population, this intended us do such study...
January 2019: Journal of Cytology
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