Jiawei Li, Yue Qiu, Long Li, Jiyan Wang, Yin Celeste Cheuk, Ruirui Sang, Yichen Jia, Jina Wang, Yi Zhang, Ruiming Rong
Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after renal transplantation often leads to the loss of kidney graft function. However, there is still a lack of efficient regimens to prevent or alleviate renal IRI. Our study focused on the renoprotective effect of 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), which is a histone methylation inhibitor. We found that DZNep significantly alleviated renal IRI by suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), thus inhibiting the expression of inflammatory factors in renal tubular epithelial cells in vivo or in vitro ...
2020: Frontiers in Medicine
Christopher Hale, Jennifer Yonan, Ramsey Batarseh, Roman Chaar, Carrie R Jonak, Shaokui Ge, Devin Binder, Victor G J Rodgers
Recent findings from the ISCoPe study indicate that, after severe contusion to the spinal cord, edema originating in the spinal cord accumulates and compresses the tissue against the surrounding dura mater, despite decompressive laminectomy. It is hypothesized that this compression results in restricted flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space and central canal and ultimately collapses local vasculature, exacerbating ischemia and secondary injury. Here we developed a surgically mounted osmotic transport device (OTD) that rests on the dura and can osmotically remove excess fluid at the injury site...
2020: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Sana Riaz, Harneet Bhatti, Parth J Sampat, Amit Dhamoon
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the United States (US). Along with epidemic rates of obesity, the rate of OSA cases is also on the rise. OSA is associated with multiple chronic health conditions, including hypertension, diabetes, stroke, myocardial ischemia, and heart rhythm disturbances. OSA is commonly treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Several reports indicate that effective treatment of OSA can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation (AF)...
July 25, 2020: Curēus
Marijan Pejic, Arthur A Parsee
Afferent loop syndrome is an uncommon complication of Whipple procedure. The often vague and non-specific presentation results in difficulty and/or delay in diagnosis, which may lead to bowel ischemia or perforation. CT can demonstrate characteristic features, yield the diagnosis of afferent loop syndrome, and predict the cause before surgical intervention. We present a rare etiology of acute afferent loop syndrome in a patient 6 weeks after Whipple procedure who was reportedly recovering well, which resulted in prompt surgical intervention...
2020: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Shanshan Luo, Desheng Hu, Moran Wang, Peter F Zipfel, Yu Hu
The complement system, originally classified as part of innate immunity, is a tightly self-regulated system consisting of liquid phase, cell surface, and intracellular proteins. In the blood circulation, the complement system, platelets, coagulation system, and fibrinolysis system form a close and complex network. They activate and regulate each other and jointly mediate immune monitoring and tissue homeostasis. The dysregulation of each cascade system results in clinical manifestations and the progression of different diseases, such as sepsis, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or ischemia-reperfusion injury...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Stefanos Giannopoulos, Nicolas W Shammas, Ian Cawich, Cezar S Staniloae, George L Adams, Ehrin J Armstrong
Introduction: Previous studies have suggested that women with chroniclimb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) may have worse outcomes than men. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are sex-related differences in outcomes of patients with CLTI undergoing endovascular treatment with current endovascular technologies. Patients and Methods: Data were derived from the LIBERTY 360 study (NCT01855412). Hazard ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals were synthesized to examine the association between sex and all-cause mortality, target vessel revascularization (TVR), major amputation, major adverse event (MAE) and major amputation/death up to 3 years of follow-up...
2020: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Christian Reiterer, Barbara Kabon, Alexander Taschner, Oliver Zotti, Andrea Kurz, Edith Fleischmann
BACKGROUND: N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin T are released during myocardial wall stress and/or ischemia and are strong predictors for postoperative cardiovascular complications. However, the relative effects of goal-directed, intravenous administration of crystalloid compared to colloid solutions on NT-proBNP and troponin T, especially in relatively healthy patients undergoing moderate- to high-risk noncardiac surgery, remains unclear. Thus, we evaluated in this sub-study the effect of a goal-directed crystalloid versus a goal-directed colloid fluid regimen on postoperative maximum NT-proBNP concentration...
August 4, 2020: BMC Anesthesiology
Esra Pekoglu, Belgin Buyukakilli, Cagatay Han Turkseven, Ebru Balli, Gulsen Bayrak, Burak Cimen, Senay Balci
PURPOSE: Ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury is a serious problem caused by vascular trauma, tourniquet use and/or compartment syndrome. Studies have reported that skeletal muscle function is impaired due to the lower extremity I-R injury. There are insufficient studies on the treatment methods used for the recovery of dysfunction. This study is designed to investigate the effects of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA), a volatile oil of cinnamon structure, on the contractile dysfunction due to I-R injury of rat extensor-digitorum-longus (EDL) muscle...
August 5, 2020: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Joanna W Etra, Samuel A J Fidder, Christopher M Frost, Franka Messner, Yinan Guo, Dalibor Vasilic, Sarah E Beck, Steven Bonawitz, Gerald Brandacher, Damon S Cooney
BACKGROUND: As surgical research expands in both breadth and scope, translational models become increasingly important. The accessibility, reproducibility, and clinical applicability of translational models is of vital importance to ensure adequate and accurate research. Though different flap models have been described, the literature lacks an in-depth, technical description of an easy large-animal preclinical model. We here describe the procedure for elevation of a latissimus dorsi flap in a swine...
August 5, 2020: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Maria Kovalska, Petra Hnilicova, Dagmar Kalenska, Anna Tomascova, Marian Adamkov, Jan Lehotsky
Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) represents a strong risk factor for atherosclerosis-associated diseases, like stroke, dementia or Alzheimer's disease. A methionine (Met)-rich diet leads to an elevated level of homocysteine in plasma and might cause pathological alterations across the brain. The hippocampus is being constantly studied for its selective vulnerability linked with neurodegeneration. This study explores metabolic and histo-morphological changes in the rat hippocampus after global ischemia in the hHcy conditions using a combination of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance-volumetry as well as immunohistochemical analysis...
July 30, 2020: Biomolecules
Sophia M Schmitz, Henriette Dohmeier, Christian Stoppe, Patrick H Alizai, Sandra Schipper, Ulf P Neumann, Mark Coburn, Tom F Ulmer
Organoprotective effects of noble gases are subject of current research. One important field of interest is the effect of noble gases on hepatic regenerative capacity. For the noble gas argon, promising studies demonstrated remarkable experimental effects in neuronal and renal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of argon on the regenerative capacity of the liver after ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Male, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent hepatic IRI by clamping of the hepatic artery...
July 30, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Martina Cebova, Olga Pechanova
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. It manifests as an imbalance between blood demand and blood delivery in the myocardium, which leads to cardiac ischemia and myocardial necrosis. While it is not easy to identify the first pathogenic cause of MI, the consequences are characterized by ischemia, chronic inflammation, and tissue degeneration. A poor MI prognosis is associated with extensive cardiac remodeling. A loss of viable cardiomyocytes is replaced with fibrosis, which reduces heart contractility and heart function...
July 30, 2020: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chen-Yen Chien, Ting-Jui Wen, Yu-Hsiuan Cheng, Yi-Ting Tsai, Chih-Yao Chiang, Chiang-Ting Chien
Diabetes exacerbates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury by incompletely understood mechanisms. We explored whether diabetes diminished BAG3/Bcl-2/Nrf-2/HO-1-mediated cardioprotection and overproduced oxidative stress contributing to exaggerated IR injury. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes enhanced hyperglycemia, cardiac NADPH oxidase p22/p67 expression, malondialdehyde amount and leukocyte infiltration, altered the mesenteric expression of 4-HNE, CaSR, p-eNOS and BAG3 and impaired microvascular reactivity to the vasoconstrictor/vasodilator by a wire myography...
July 29, 2020: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Han-A Park, Mary Margaret Hayden, Sydni Bannerman, Joseph Jansen, Kristi M Crowe-White
Apoptosis, programmed cell death type I, is a critical part of neurodegeneration in cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease. Apoptosis begins with activation of pro-death proteins Bax and Bak, release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases, loss of membrane integrity of intracellular organelles, and ultimately cell death. Approaches that block apoptotic pathways may prevent or delay neurodegenerative processes. Carotenoids are a group of pigments found in fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds that possess antioxidant properties...
July 29, 2020: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mars G Sharapov, Ruslan G Goncharov, Gleb I Filkov, Alexander V Trofimenko, Valery V Boyarintsev, Vladimir I Novoselov
The pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injuries is based on oxidative stress caused by a sharp increase in the concentration of free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondary products of free radical oxidation of biological macromolecules during reperfusion. Application of exogenous antioxidants lowers the level of ROS in the affected tissues, suppresses or adjusts the course of oxidative stress, thereby substantially reducing the severity of I/R injury. We believe that the use of antioxidant enzymes may be the most promising line of effort since they possess higher efficiency than low molecular weight antioxidants...
July 29, 2020: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Diana R Gutsaeva, Lamiaa Shalaby, Folami L Powell, Menaka C Thounaojam, Hossameldin Abouhish, Sara A Wetzstein, Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Hang Fai Kwok, Pamela M Martin, Manuela Bartoli
Retinal ischemia contributes to visual impairment in ischemic retinopathies. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM17 is implicated in multiple vascular pathologies through its ability to regulate inflammatory signaling via ectodomain shedding. We investigated the role of endothelial ADAM17 in neuronal and vascular degeneration associated with retinal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury using mice with conditional inactivation of ADAM17 in vascular endothelium. ADAM17Cre-flox and control ADAM17flox mice were subjected to 40 min of pressure-induced retinal ischemia, with the contralateral eye serving as control...
July 29, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tom Leech, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siripong Palee, Louis A Higgins, Chayodom Maneechote, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Myocardial ischemia is the malperfusion of cardiac tissue due to a blockage in a coronary artery. Subsequent return of blood flow to the ischemic area of the heart, results in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the heart and other organs, including the brain. Besides the cardioprotective effects of metformin on the heart against cardiac I/R injury, metformin also reduced neuronal injury in a stroke model. However, the effects of metformin on the brain following cardiac I/R injury has not yet been investigated...
August 1, 2020: European Journal of Pharmacology
Alexander V Lopachev, Rogneda B Kazanskaya, Anastasiya V Khutorova, Tatiana N Fedorova
Multiple organ failure in COVID-19 patients is a serious problem which can result in a fatal outcome. Damage to organs and tissues, including general lung dysfunction, develops as a consequence of ischemia, which, in turn, is caused by thrombosis in small blood vessels and hypoxia, leading to oxidative stress and inflammation. Currently, research is underway to screen existing drugs for antioxidant, antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory properties. Having studied the available publications concerning the mechanisms of damage to tissues and organs of patients with COVID-19, as well as the available treatment strategies, we propose to investigate salicyl-carnosine as a potential drug for treating COVID-19 patients...
August 1, 2020: European Journal of Pharmacology
Luping Huang, Shan Li, Qinxue Dai, Anqi Zhang, Qimin Yu, Wenwen Du, Peiqi Zhao, Yunchang Mo, Kaiwei Xu, Sijia Chen, Junlu Wang
Astrocytic Yes-associated protein (YAP) has been implicated in astrocytic proliferation and differentiation in the developing neocortex. However, the role of astrocytic YAP in diseases of the nervous system remains poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that astrocytic YAP exerted a neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemic injury in rats by regulating signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of nuclear YAP in the astrocytes of rats increased significantly after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and its effect on cerebral ischemic injury...
August 1, 2020: Experimental Neurology
Hrishikesh S Kulkarni, Kristy Ramphal, Lina Ma, Melanie Brown, Michelle L Oyster, Kaitlyn Speckhart, Tsuyoshi Takahashi, Derek E Byers, Mary K Porteous, Laurel Kalman, Ramsey R Hachem, Melanie Rushefski, Ja'Nia McPhatter, Marlene Cano, Daniel Kreisel, Masina Scavuzzo, Brigitte Mittler, Edward Cantu, Katrine Pilely, Peter Garred, Jason D Christie, John Atkinson, Andrew E Gelman, Joshua M Diamond
BACKGROUND: The complement system plays a key role in host defense but is activated by ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a form of acute lung injury occurring predominantly due to IRI, which worsens survival after lung transplantation (LTx). Local complement activation is associated with acute lung injury, but whether it is more reflective of allograft injury compared to systemic activation remains unclear. We proposed that local complement activation would help identify those who develop PGD post-LTx...
August 4, 2020: JCI Insight
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