Harriet Mpairwe
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of allergy-related diseases (ARDs), including rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and eczema, is on the increase globally. The causes of this increase are not well established. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors associated with ARDs among schoolchildren in Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of a large asthma case-control study involving 1,700 schoolchildren, 5-17 years, in urban Uganda...
October 24, 2020: Clinical and Experimental Allergy
Zhongwen Li, Shuaishuai Niu, Baojie Guo, Tingting Gao, Lei Wang, Yukai Wang, Liu Wang, Yuanqing Tan, Jun Wu, Jie Hao
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 mainly causes damage to the lung, as well as other organs and systems such as the hearts, the immune system and so on. Although the pathogenesis of COVID-19 has been fully elucidated, there is no specific therapy for the disease at present, and most treatments are limited to supportive care. Stem cell therapy may be a potential treatment for refractory and unmanageable pulmonary illnesses, which has shown some promising results in preclinical studies...
October 24, 2020: Cell Proliferation
Jing-Xiang Yang, Ming Li, Xin Hu, Jia-Chao Lu, Qian Wang, Shi-Yue Lu, Fang Gao, Sheng-Wei Jin, Sheng-Xing Zheng
Acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury (ARDS/ALI) is histologically characterized by extensive alveolar barrier disruption and excessive fibroproliferation responses. Protectin DX (PDX) displays anti-inflammatory and potent inflammation pro-resolving actions. We sought to investigate whether PDX attenuates LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced lung injury via modulating epithelial cell injury repair, apoptosis and fibroblasts activation. In vivo, PDX was administered intraperitoneally (IP) with 200 ng/per mouse after intratracheal injection of LPS, which remarkedly stimulated proliferation of type II alveolar epithelial cells (AT II cells), reduced the apoptosis of AT II cells, which attenuated lung injury induced by LPS...
October 24, 2020: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Namrata Singh, Rebecca J Baer, Maya Swaminathan, Shireesh Saurabh, Jeffrey A Sparks, Gretchen Bandoli, Elena Flowers, Laura L Jelliffe-Pawlowski, Kelli K Ryckman
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) and bariatric surgery are each risk factors for adverse birth outcomes. To date, no study has investigated their combined impact on birth outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of bariatric surgery on pregnancy outcomes in women with an ARD. As a secondary comparison, we assessed the risk of bariatric surgery on the same outcomes in women without an ARD. SETTING: Records maintained by the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development...
September 29, 2020: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases
L V Marino, F V Valla, L N Tume, C Jotterand-Chaparro, C Moullet, L Latten, K Joosten, S C A T Verbruggen
There are reports of children COVID-19 or COVID-19 like symptoms with hyperinflammatory multisystem syndrome, ARDS, gastrointestinal and atypical Kawasaki disease presenting to PICU worldwide temporally associated with COVID-19, for which there are important nutrition support considerations. As a result, the European Society of Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care - Metabolism, Endocrine and Nutrition group (ESPNIC-MEN) and paediatric nutritionists working in PICUs are being consulted regarding nutrition management of critically ill children with COVID-19 or COVID-19 like symptoms...
October 12, 2020: Clinical Nutrition
Pranav Mahajan, Bhagwan Dass, Nila Radhakrishnan, Peter A McCullough
INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has affected >188 countries, involved >24 million people, and caused >840,000 deaths. COVID-19, in its severe form, presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), shock, and multiorgan failure. Thrombotic microangiopathy of the lungs and kidneys has been observed in these patients. Elevated D-dimer levels have been observed in people with serious COVID-19 illness, and this could be helpful in guiding treatment with anticoagulation in these patients...
October 22, 2020: Cardiorenal Medicine
Devendra Singh, Himika Wasan, K H Reeta
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to infect hundred thousands of people every day worldwide. Since it is a novel virus, research continues to update the possible therapeutic targets when new evidence regarding COVID-19 are gathered. This article presents an evidence-based hypothesis that activating the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway is a potential target for COVID-19. Interferons (IFNs) have broad-spectrum antiviral activity including against SARS-CoV-2...
October 19, 2020: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jordan Cates, Cynthia Lucero-Obusan, Rebecca M Dahl, Patricia Schirmer, Shikha Garg, Gina Oda, Aron J Hall, Gayle Langley, Fiona P Havers, Mark Holodniy, Cristina V Cardemil
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, although increasing evidence indicates that infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can affect multiple organ systems (1). Data that examine all in-hospital complications of COVID-19 and that compare these complications with those associated with other viral respiratory pathogens, such as influenza, are lacking. To assess complications of COVID-19 and influenza, electronic health records (EHRs) from 3,948 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (March 1-May 31, 2020) and 5,453 hospitalized patients with influenza (October 1, 2018-February 1, 2020) from the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest integrated health care system in the United States,* were analyzed...
October 23, 2020: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Davide Chiumello, Mattia Busana, Silvia Coppola, Federica Romitti, Paolo Formenti, Matteo Bonifazi, Tommaso Pozzi, Maria Michela Palumbo, Massimo Cressoni, Peter Herrmann, Konrad Meissner, Michael Quintel, Luigi Camporota, John J Marini, Luciano Gattinoni
PURPOSE: To investigate whether COVID-19-ARDS differs from all-cause ARDS. METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive, mechanically ventilated COVID-19-ARDS patients were compared to two historical ARDS sub-populations 1:1 matched for PaO2 /FiO2 or for compliance of the respiratory system. Gas exchange, hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics were recorded at 5 and 15 cmH2 O PEEP. CT scan variables were measured at 5 cmH2 O PEEP. RESULTS: Anthropometric characteristics were similar in COVID-19-ARDS, PaO2 /FiO2 -matched-ARDS and Compliance-matched-ARDS...
October 21, 2020: Intensive Care Medicine
Andrew S Johnson, Rouholah Fatemi, William Winlow
The emergence of the COVID-19 virus and the subsequent pandemic have driven a great deal of research activity. The effects of COVID-19 are caused by the severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and it is the underlying actions of SARs-CoV-2 virions on the endothelial glycocalyx that we consider here. One of the key factors in COVID-19 infection is its almost unique age-related profile, with a doubling in mortality every 10 years after the age of 50. The endothelial glycocalyx layer is essential in maintaining normal fluid homeostasis, but is fragile and prone to pathophysiological damage...
2020: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Sureshbabu Ram Kumar Pandian, Sankarganesh Arunachalam, Venkataraman Deepak, Selvaraj Kunjiappan, Krishnan Sundar
The complement system is a stakeholder of the innate and adaptive immune system and has evolved as a crucial player of defense with multifaceted biological effects. Activation of three complement pathways leads to consecutive enzyme reactions resulting in complement components (C3 and C5), activation of mast cells and neutrophils by anaphylatoxins (C3a and C5a), the formation of membrane attack complex (MAC) and end up with opsonization. However, the dysregulation of complement cascade leads to unsolicited cytokine storm, inflammation, deterioration of alveolar lining cells, culminating in acquired respiratory destructive syndrome (ARDS)...
November 2020: 3 Biotech
Shun-Chin Yang, Yung-Fong Tsai, Yen-Lin Pan, Tsong-Long Hwang
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is difficult to treat and is associated with a high mortality rate. The most severe form of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also leads to life-threatening ARDS. Neutrophil counts are positively correlated with disease severity in ARDS. Neutrophil activation not only plays a significant role in immune defense against infections, but also causes tissue damage and leads to inflammatory diseases. Activated neutrophils rapidly migrate to inflamed lung tissue, releasing toxic granular contents and generating neutrophil extracellular traps...
September 10, 2020: Biomedical Journal
Feiping Xia, Chun Pan, Lihui Wang, Ling Liu, Songqiao Liu, Fengmei Guo, Yi Yang, Yingzi Huang
BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung recruitment maneuvers can recruit collapsed alveoli in gravity-dependent lung regions, improving the homogeneity of ventilation distribution. This study used electrical impedance tomography to investigate the physiological effects of different recruitment maneuvers for alveolar recruitment in a pig model of ARDS. METHODS: ARDS was induced in ten healthy male pigs with repeated bronchoalveolar lavage until the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) of fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) was < 100 mmHg and remained stable for 30 min (TARDS )...
October 21, 2020: BMC Anesthesiology
Cristobal Anez, Ángel Becerra-Bolaños, Ariadna Vives-Lopez, Aurelio Rodríguez-Pérez
The prone position is commonly used in certain surgical procedures and to improve oxygenation in mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Cardiorespiratory Arrest (CRA) in this position may be more challenging to treat because care providers trained in conventional CPR may not be familiar with CPR in the prone position. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of current evidence regarding the methodology, efficacy and experience of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in the prone position, in patients with the airway already secured...
October 15, 2020: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Syeda Kashfi Qadri, Priscilla Ng, Theresa Shu Wen Toh, Sin Wee Loh, Herng Lee Tan, Cheryl Bin Lin, Eddy Fan, Jan Hau Lee
INTRODUCTION: Prone position is known to improve mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The impact of prone position in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) remains to be determined. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of action of prone position, systematically appraise the current experience of prone position in COVID-19 patients, and highlight unique considerations for prone position practices during this pandemic...
October 21, 2020: Pulmonary Therapy
Aurélien Mazeraud, Chiara Robba, Paola Rebora, Carolina Iaquaniello, Alessia Vargiolu, Verena Rass, Elisa Gouvea Bogossian, Raimund Helbok, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Giuseppe Citerio
BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications are frequently reported after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), even if their association with outcome remains controversial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most severe pulmonary complications after aSAH, with a reported incidence ranging from 11 to 50%. This study aims to assess in a large cohort of aSAH patients, during the first week after an intensive care unit (ICU) admission, the incidence of ARDS defined according to the Berlin criteria and its effect on outcome...
October 20, 2020: Neurocritical Care
Enric Monreal, Susana Sainz de la Maza, Elena Natera-Villalba, Álvaro Beltrán-Corbellini, Fernando Rodríguez-Jorge, Jose Ignacio Fernández-Velasco, Paulette Walo-Delgado, Alfonso Muriel, Javier Zamora, Araceli Alonso-Canovas, Jesús Fortún, Luis Manzano, Beatriz Montero-Errasquín, Lucienne Costa-Frossard, Jaime Masjuan, Luisa María Villar
Despite the increasing evidence of the benefit of corticosteroids for the treatment of moderate-severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, no data are available about the potential role of high doses of steroids for these patients. We evaluated the mortality, the risk of need for mechanical ventilation (MV), or death and the risk of developing a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) between high (HD) and standard doses (SD) among patients with a severe COVID-19. All consecutive confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to a single center were selected, including those treated with steroids and an ARDS...
October 20, 2020: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Michele Fiorentino, Franchesca Hwang, Sri Ram Pentakota, David H Livingston, Anne C Mosenthal
Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasingly prevalent in the range of 2% to 24% in the US population. OSA is a well-described predictor of pulmonary complications after elective operation. Yet, data are lacking on its effect after operations for trauma. We hypothesized that OSA is an independent predictor of pulmonary complications in patients undergoing operations for traumatic pelvic/lower limb injuries (PLLI). Methods: Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2009-2013) was queried for International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for PLLI requiring operation...
2020: Trauma Surgery & Acute Care Open
Joseph V Moran, Sara A Godil, Breanna Goldner, Kareem Godil, Jonaid Aslam
Post-extubation stridor is a known complication of mechanical ventilation that affects a substantial number of all critical care patients and leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Common risk factors for the development of post-extubation stridor include female gender, older age, and prolonged length of mechanical ventilation. There may be an increased incidence of post-extubation stridor in patients who require mechanical ventilation to manage the respiratory complications of COVID-19. In this case series, we analyzed nine patients from across our institution who were intubated to manage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to COVID-19 and subsequently developed post-extubation stridor...
September 16, 2020: Curēus
Vorakamol Phoophiboon, Thitiwat Sriprasart
A 35-year-old Thai women (gravida 3, para 0) at 36 weeks and five days of gestation was admitted to a delivery room due to premature rupture of membrane. She was diagnosed with Escherichia coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) chorioamnionitis and septic shock leading to signs of fetal distress. She underwent emergency caesarean section. Post-operatively, the patient developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), massive pulmonary haemorrhage, and intra-abdominal bleeding...
November 2020: Respirology Case Reports
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