Ségolène Mrozek, Julie Gobin, Jean-Michel Constantin, Olivier Fourcade, Thomas Geeraerts
Extracerebral complications, especially pulmonary and cardiovascular, are frequent in brain-injured patients and are major determinants of the outcome. Two major pathways have been described: brain-lung and brain-heart interactions. Lung injuries after acute brain damages include ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and neurogenic pulmonary œdema (NPE), whereas heart injuries can range from cardiac enzymes release, ECG abnormalities to left ventricle dysfunction or cardiogenic shock...
July 10, 2020: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Matthieu Jabaudon, Jules Audard, Bruno Pereira, Samir Jaber, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Raiko Blondonnet, Thomas Godet, Emmanuel Futier, Céline Lambert, Jean-Etienne Bazin, Julie A Bastarache, Jean-Michel Constantin, Lorraine B Ware
BACKGROUND: The Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) score has been proposed to assess the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and treatments targeted at reducing pulmonary edema such as conservative fluid management cause a reduction in RALE score over time. RESEARCH QUESTION: We assessed whether early changes in RALE score over time are associated with survival in patients with ARDS. STUDY DESIGN: and methods: Data from patients enrolled in three centers in the Lung Imaging for Ventilation sEtting in ARDS (LIVE) trial with available chest radiographs at baseline (day 0) and days 2-3 were used...
July 10, 2020: Chest
Antonio Oliviero, Fernando de Castro, Francesca Coperchini, Luca Chiovato, Mario Rotondi
COVID-19 is an ongoing viral pandemic that emerged from East Asia and quickly spread to the rest of the world. SARS-CoV-2 is the virus causing COVID-19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is definitely one of the main clinically relevant consequences in patients with COVID-19. Starting from the earliest reports of the COVID-19 pandemic, two peculiar neurological manifestations (namely, hyposmia/anosmia and dysgeusia) were reported in a relevant proportion of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2. At present, the physiopathologic mechanisms accounting for the onset of these symptoms are not yet clarified...
July 13, 2020: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Xiaoyu Fang, Shen Li, Hao Yu, Penghao Wang, Yao Zhang, Zheng Chen, Yang Li, Liqing Cheng, Wenbin Li, Hong Jia, Xiangyu Ma
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted in an attempt to systematically collect and evaluate the associations of epidemiological, comorbidity factors with the severity and prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to the guidelines proposed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Sixty nine publications met our study criteria, and 61 studies with more than 10,000 COVID-19 cases were eligible for the quantitative synthesis...
July 13, 2020: Aging
Minh Quan Le, Richard Rosales, Lauren T Shapiro, Laura Y Huang
The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a surge of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prone positioning may be used in such patients to optimize oxygenation. Severe infections may leave survivors with significant functional impairment necessitating rehabilitation. Those who have experienced prolonged prone positioning are at increased risk for complications not typically associated with critical illness. This case report describes the course and clinical findings of a survivor of ARDS due to COVID-19 who was prone positioned while in intensive care and subsequently admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation facility...
July 9, 2020: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Martin Scharffenberg, Lillian Moraes, Andreas Güldner, Robert Huhle, Anja Braune, Ines Zeidler-Rentzsch, Michael Kasper, Christiane Kunert-Keil, Thea Koch, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Thomas Kiss
BACKGROUND: Variable assisted mechanical ventilation has been shown to improve lung function and reduce lung injury. However, differences between extrinsic and intrinsic variability are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA, intrinsic variability), variable pressure support ventilation (Noisy PSV, extrinsic variability) and conventional pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) on lung and diaphragmatic function and damage in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
July 6, 2020: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Mihai Oltean, John Mackay Søfteland, Jasmine Bagge, Jan Ekelund, Marie Felldin, Andreas Schult, Jesper Magnusson, Vanda Friman, Kristjan Karason
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges from a mild illness to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan dysfunction, and death. Transplant recipients are vulnerable due to comorbidities and immunosuppressants that render them susceptible to infections. The information on COVID-19 in kidney transplant recipients remains limited to small case series. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted, and 12 case series totalling 204 kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 were identified...
July 13, 2020: Infectious Diseases
Rikinkumar S Patel, Neev Patel, Mizba Baksh, Annam Zaidi, Jaiminkumar Patel
The ongoing pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan, China, has led to 68,279 deaths due to 2019-nCoV pneumonia as of May 5, 2020. We conducted a systematic review and included 16 case reports to summarize the transmission and pathology of 2019-nCoV, and clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging findings, and treatment in 2019-nCoV pneumonia. The disease is mild in most people; in some, it may progress to severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
June 7, 2020: Curēus
Tracey L Freeman, Talia H Swartz
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus within the family Coronaviridae . It is an enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. Since December of 2019, a global expansion of the infection has occurred with widespread dissemination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 often manifests as only mild cold-like symptomatology, but severe disease with complications occurs in 15% of cases. Respiratory failure occurs in severe disease that can be accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction characterized by inflammatory cytokine release...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
J Vallés, E Diaz, J Carles Oliva, M Martínez, A Navas, J Mesquida, G Gruartmoner, C de Haro, J Mestre, C Guía, A Rodriguez, A Ochagavía
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for early mortality (EM) in the ICU in patients with community-acquired septic shock (CASS). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of patients with CASS admitted to the ICU (2003-2016). SETTING: ICU at a University Hospital in Spain. PATIENTS: All consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with CASS. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: CASS was defined according to the Sepsis-3 definitions...
July 9, 2020: Medicina Intensiva
Shahd Horie, Bairbre McNicholas, Emanuele Rezoagli, Tài Pham, Ger Curley, Danny McAuley, Cecilia O'Kane, Alistair Nichol, Claudia Dos Santos, Patricia R M Rocco, Giacomo Bellani, John G Laffey
ARDS, first described in 1967, is the commonest form of acute severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. Despite considerable advances in our knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of ARDS, insights into the biologic mechanisms of lung injury and repair, and advances in supportive care, particularly ventilatory management, there remains no effective pharmacological therapy for this syndrome. Hospital mortality at 40% remains unacceptably high underlining the need to continue to develop and test therapies for this devastating clinical condition...
July 11, 2020: Intensive Care Medicine
Karim Bendjelid, Raphael Giraud, Stephan Von Düring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2020: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Carolyn M Hendrickson, Yuenting D Kwong, Annika G Belzer, Michael G Shlipak, Michael A Matthay, Kathleen D Liu
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C is a well-validated marker of glomerular filtration rate in chronic kidney disease. Higher plasma concentrations of cystatin C are associated with worse clinical outcomes in heterogenous populations of critically ill patients and may be superior to creatinine in identifying kidney injury in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that elevated levels of plasma cystatin C in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) would be associated with mortality risk...
July 11, 2020: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Tiao Li, Chunbin Zou
Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are characterized by an inflammatory response, alveolar edema, and hypoxemia. ARDS occurs most often in the settings of pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, or severe trauma. The prevalence of ARDS is approximately 10% in patients of intensive care. There is no effective remedy with mortality high at 30-40%. Most functional proteins are dynamic and stringently governed by ubiquitin proteasomal degradation. Protein ubiquitination is reversible, the covalently attached monoubiquitin or polyubiquitin moieties within the targeted protein can be removed by a group of enzymes called deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs)...
July 8, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rosanna Massabeti, Maria Stella Cipriani, Ivana Valenti
At the end of December 2019, the Health Commission of the city of Wuhan, China, alerted the World Health Organization (WHO) to a pneumonia cluster in the city. The cause was identified as being a new virus, later named SARS-CoV-2. We can distinguish three clinical phases of the disease with a distinct pathogenesis, manifestations and prognosis. Here, we describe the case of a 45-year-old male, successfully treated for Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The patient was feeling sick in early April 2020; he had a fever and pharyngodynia...
July 3, 2020: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Yan Leyfman, Timothy K Erick, Sandeep S Reddy, Sagar Galwankar, Prabath W B Nanayakkara, Salvatore Di Somma, Pushpa Sharma, Stanislaw P Stawicki, Irshad H Chaudry
The world is currently embroiled in a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness caused by the novel betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The severity of COVID-19 disease ranges from asymptomatic to fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In few patients, the disease undergoes phenotypic differentiation between 7-14 days of acute illness, either resulting in full recovery or symptom escalation. However, the mechanism of such variation is not clear, but the facts suggest that patient's immune status, co-morbidities, and the systemic effects of the viral infection (potentially depending on the SARS-CoV-2 strain involved) play a key role...
July 8, 2020: Shock
Xuxin Chen, Jian Tang, Weizheng Shuai, Jiguang Meng, Jian Feng, Zhihai Han
PURPOSE: Macrophages are highly plastic cells. Under different stimuli, macrophages can be polarized into several different subsets. Two main macrophage subsets have been suggested: classically activated or inflammatory (M1) macrophages and alternatively activated or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages. Macrophage polarization is governed by a highly complex set of regulatory networks. Many recent studies have shown that macrophages are key orchestrators in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and that regulation of macrophage polarization may improve the prognosis of ALI/ARDS...
July 10, 2020: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Favin S Babu, Xiaomei Liang, Garrett A Enten, Anthony J DeSantis, Brian F Volkman, Xianlong Gao, Matthias Majetschak
We compared therapeutic properties of natural and engineered chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) agonists in a rat acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) model utilizing the PaO2 /FiO2 -ratio as a clinically relevant primary outcome criterion. Ventilated rats underwent unilateral lung ischemia from t = 0-70 min plus hemorrhage to a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 30 mmHg from t = 40-70 min, followed by reperfusion/fluid resuscitation until t = 300 min. Natural CXCR4 agonists (CXCL12, ubiquitin) and engineered CXCL12 variants (CXCL121 , CXCL22 , CXCL12K27A/R41A/R47A, CXCL12 (3-68)) were administered within 5 min of fluid resuscitation...
July 9, 2020: Scientific Reports
Feng Pan, Chuansheng Zheng, Tianhe Ye, Lingli Li, Dehan Liu, Lin Li, Richard L Hesketh, Lian Yang
This study aimed to compare the chest computed tomography (CT) findings between survivors and non-survivors with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Between 12 January 2020 and 20 February 2020, the records of 124 consecutive patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were retrospectively reviewed and divided into survivor (83/124) and non-survivor (41/124) groups. Chest CT findings were qualitatively compared on admission and serial chest CT scans were semi-quantitively evaluated between two groups using curve estimations...
July 9, 2020: Scientific Reports
Bindu H Akkanti, Rahat Hussain, Manish K Patel, Jayeshkumar A Patel, Kha Dinh, Bihong Zhao, Shaimaa Elzamly, Kevin Pelicon, Klemen Petek, Ismael A Salas de Armas, Mehmet Akay, Biswajit Kar, Igor D Gregoric, L Maximilian Buja
BACKGROUND: E-cigarette and vaping use-associated acute lung injury (EVALI) has been recently recognized as a complication in individuals who use vaping devices. Another consideration is that EVALI may have an adverse influence on the outcome of intercurrent respiratory infections. We document this deadly combination in the case of a young man who had EVALI and simultaneous 41 Influenza-A infection leading to severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). CASE PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old male with a history of tobacco and vaping use was admitted to hospital after two weeks of flu-like symptoms, diarrhea and vomiting...
July 9, 2020: Diagnostic Pathology
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