Barret Rush, Sylvain Lother, Bojan Paunovic, Owen Mooney, Anand Kumar
BACKGROUND: The outcomes of patients with severe pulmonary blastomycosis requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) is not well understood in the modern era. Limited historical case series have reported 50-90% mortality in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) caused by blastomycosis. The objective of this large retrospective cohort study was to describe the risk factors and outcomes of patients with severe pulmonary blastomycosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2006-2014...
March 30, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Ogueri Nwaiwu, Chiugo Claret Aduba
Sequences of 105 Aeromonas species plasmids were probed for acquired anti-microbial resistance (AMR) genes using a bioinformatics approach. The plasmids showed no positive linear correlation between size and GC content and up to 55 acquired AMR genes were found in 39 (37%) plasmids after in silico screening for resistance against 15 antibiotic drug classes. Overall, potential multiple antibiotic resistance (p-MAR) index ranged from 0.07 to 0.53. Up to 18 plasmids were predicted to mediate multiple drug resistance (MDR)...
2020: AIMS Microbiology
Isaac Solaimanzadeh
Effective treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak are urgently needed. While anti-viral approaches and vaccines are being considered immediate countermeasures are unavailable. The aim of this article is to outline a perspective on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 in the context of the currently available clinical data published in the literature. This article appreciates clinical data published on COVID-19 in the context of another respiratory illness - high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE)...
March 20, 2020: Curēus
Gaetano Scaramuzzo, Lorenzo Ball, Fabio Pino, Lucia Ricci, Anders Larsson, Claude Guérin, Paolo Pelosi, Gaetano Perchiazzi
Prone position can reduce mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but several studies found variable effects on oxygenation and lung mechanics. It is unclear whether different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration techniques modify the effect of prone position. We tested, in an animal model of ARDS, if the PEEP titration method may influence the effect of prone position on oxygenation and lung protection. In a crossover study in 10 piglets with a two-hit injury ARDS model, we set the "best PEEP" according to the ARDS Network low-PEEP table (BPARDS ) or targeting the lowest transpulmonary driving pressure (BPDPL )...
2020: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrew N Rosenbaum, John K Bohman, Kent H Rehfeldt, John M Stulak, Richard C Daly, Allan M Klompas, Atta Behfar, Suraj M Yalamuri
Utilization of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is expanding, but dual VA-ECMO circuits to treat cardiogenic shock with refractory hypoxemia is unreported. We describe the case of combined cardiogenic and distributive shock due to necrotizing pulmonary blastomycosis. After initial central VA-ECMO cannulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with increasing shunt resulted in significant central hypoxemia due to progressive ventilation-perfusion mismatch. An additional circuit provided complete oxygenation of the high circulating volume...
April 2020: A&A Practice
Qing Yuan Goh, Andrew Kong
Awake endotracheal intubation is the technique of choice to secure the airway when both mask ventilation and intubation are anticipated to be difficult. We present a case of a patient with a known difficult airway, bronchopleural fistula (BPF), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who was intubated with a double-lumen endotracheal tube (DL ETT) under awake condition using a videolaryngoscope. Independent lung ventilation (ILV) was instituted because of the BPF. The patient was treated successfully for ARDS and discharged home...
April 2020: A&A Practice
Xiao Tang, Ronghui Du, Rui Wang, Tanze Cao, Lulu Guan, Chengqing Yang, Qi Zhu, Ming Hu, Xuyan Li, Ying Li, Lirong Liang, Zhaohui Tong, Bing Sun, Peng Peng, Huanzhong Shi
BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China in December 2019, considerable attention has been focused on its elucidation. However, it is also important for clinicians and epidemiologists to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases, such as influenza viruses. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of the study was to explore the different clinical presentations between COVID-19 and influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
March 26, 2020: Chest
Juliano B Alhaddad, Jerar Z Bleibel, Mayssaa Hoteit, Souad Bou Harb, Youssef B Haddad
BACKGROUND Radiotherapy is often used as an adjuvant therapy in breast cancer following surgical resection of the primary malignant tumor. It has multiple respiratory side effects, but acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rare complication. We describe here the case of a woman with breast cancer who developed ARDS 1 week after her final radiotherapy session. CASE REPORT A 69-year-old female with breast cancer presented 1 week after her final session of radiotherapy. She had developed a sudden onset of hypotension unresponsive to fluids, oxygen desaturation unresponsive to high flow oxygen, and new bilateral infiltrates had appeared on chest x-ray (CXR) predominant in the left upper lobe, which was interestingly the main area affected by the radiotherapy beams...
March 29, 2020: American Journal of Case Reports
Antoney J Ferrey, Grace Choi, Ramy M Hanna, Yongen Chang, Ekamol Tantisattamo, Kaushik Ivaturi, Elisa Park, Lawrence Nguyen, Brian Wang, Sam Tonthat, Connie M Rhee, Uttam Reddy, Wei Ling Lau, Susan S Huang, Shruti Gohil, Alpesh N Amin, Lanny Hsieh, Timmy T Cheng, Richard A Lee, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious, rapidly spreading viral disease with an alarming case fatality rate up to 5%. The risk factors for severe presentations are concentrated in patients with chronic kidney disease, particularly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are dialysis dependent. We report the first US case of a 56-year-old nondiabetic male with ESRD secondary to IgA nephropathy undergoing thrice-weekly maintenance hemodialysis for 3 years, who developed COVID-19 infection...
March 28, 2020: American Journal of Nephrology
Hao Cheng, Yan Wang, Gui-Qiang Wang
This article reviews the correlation between ACE2 and severe risk factors for COVID-19 and the possible mechanisms. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R regulatory axis and the ACE2-Ang1-7-MasR counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in maintaining homeostasis in humans. ACE2 is widely distributed in the heart, kidneys, lungs, and testes. ACE2 antagonizes the activation of the classical RAS system and protects against organ damage, protecting against hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease...
March 27, 2020: Journal of Medical Virology
Chiara Lazzeri, Manuela Bonizzoli, Giovanni Cianchi, Stefano Batacchi, Marco Chiostri, Adriano Peris
BACKGROUNDS: The still high poor outcome of ARDS may be more consequence of circulatory failure than hypoxemia per se. For patients with circulatory failure and ARDS, hemodynamic instability is directly related to ARDS following pulmonary circulation dysfunction and its consequence - right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that in the era of protective ventilation, echocardiographic abnormalities did not parallel ARDS severity, defined by the degree of hypoxemia...
March 24, 2020: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
Juanjuan Qin, Haitao Wang, Xuan Qin, Peng Zhang, Lihua Zhu, Jingjing Cai, Yufeng Yuan, Hongliang Li
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly contagious. It may rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and result in multiorgan dysfunction or death in some cases.(1,2) Here, we report the case of a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation and experienced COVID-19 infection during the perioperative period. This case may help clinicians by alerting them to potential COVID-19 infection in transplant recipients during the outbreak.
March 27, 2020: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Piyawadee Wicha, Amnart Onsa-Ard, Waraluck Chaichompoo, Apichart Suksamrarn, Chainarong Tocharus
The present study was performed to examine the antihypertensive effect of neferine in hypertensive rats and its relaxant mechanisms in isolated rat thoracic aorta. The antihypertensive effect was evaluated by tail-cuff methods on NG -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (40 mg/kg BW) 4-week hypertensive-induced hypertensive rats. The vasorelaxant effect and its mechanisms were studied by the organ bath technique in the thoracic aorta isolated from normotensive rats. The results indicated that the treatment of neferine (1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) markedly decreased the systolic blood pressure (SBP) when compared with the hypertension group (137...
March 27, 2020: Planta Medica
Chenguang Shen, Zhaoqin Wang, Fang Zhao, Yang Yang, Jinxiu Li, Jing Yuan, Fuxiang Wang, Delin Li, Minghui Yang, Li Xing, Jinli Wei, Haixia Xiao, Yan Yang, Jiuxin Qu, Ling Qing, Li Chen, Zhixiang Xu, Ling Peng, Yanjie Li, Haixia Zheng, Feng Chen, Kun Huang, Yujing Jiang, Dongjing Liu, Zheng Zhang, Yingxia Liu, Lei Liu
Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation...
March 27, 2020: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Rui Zhang, Xuebin Wang, Leng Ni, Xiao Di, Baitao Ma, Shuai Niu, Changwei Liu, Russel J Reiter
This article summarizes the likely benefits of melatonin in the attenuation of COVID-19 based on its putative pathogenesis. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has become a pandemic with tens of thousands of infected patients. Based on clinical features, pathology, the pathogenesis of acute respiratory disorder induced by either highly homogenous coronaviruses or other pathogens, the evidence suggests that excessive inflammation, oxidation, and an exaggerated immune response very likely contribute to COVID-19 pathology...
March 23, 2020: Life Sciences
Sairam Atluri, Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Joshua A Hirsch
COVID-19 has affected the United States leading to a national emergency with health care and economic impact, propelling the country into a recession with disrupted lifestyles not seen in recent history. COVID-19 is a serious illness leading to multiple deaths in various countries including the United States. Several million Americans satisfy the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for being high risk. Unfortunately, the available supply of medical beds and equipment for mechanical ventilation are much less than is projected to be needed...
March 2020: Pain Physician
Damian Ratano, Eddy Fan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2020: Respiratory Care
Rita Jacobs, Adriaan Sablon, Herbert Spapen
Lung-protective ventilation targeting low tidal volumes and plateau pressures is the mainstay of therapy in patients with ARDS. This ventilation strategy limits pulmonary strain, inflammation, and injury, but it may be associated with profound hypercapnic acidosis. In such conditions, extracorporeal CO2 removal can attenuate or normalize hypercapnia and may even facilitate ultraprotective ventilation. Almost half of patients with ARDS develop renal failure. Pathophysiological cross-talk between the injured lung and kidney may aggravate global organ failure and weighs negatively on outcomes...
April 2020: Respiratory Care
Gustavo A Ospina-Tascón, Diego F Bautista, Humberto J Madriñán, Juan D Valencia, William F Bermúdez, Edgardo Quiñones, Luis Eduardo Calderón-Tapia, Glenn Hernandez, Alejandro Bruhn, Daniel De Backer
BACKGROUND: Ventilation/perfusion inequalities impair gas exchange in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although increased dead-space ventilation (VD /VT ) has been described in ARDS, its mechanism is not clearly understood. We sought to evaluate the relationships between dynamic variations in VD /VT and extra-pulmonary microcirculatory blood flow detected at sublingual mucosa hypothesizing that an altered microcirculation, which is a generalized phenomenon during severe inflammatory conditions, could influence ventilation/perfusion mismatching manifested by increases in VD /VT fraction during early stages of ARDS...
March 24, 2020: Annals of Intensive Care
D Thomas-Rüddel, J Winning, P Dickmann, D Ouart, A Kortgen, U Janssens, M Bauer
The current outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has reached Germany. The majority of people infected present with mild disease, but there are severe cases that need intensive care. Unlike other acute infectious diseases progressing to sepsis, the severe courses of COVID19 seemingly show prolonged progression from onset of first symptoms to life-threatening deterioration of (primarily) lung function. Diagnosis relies on PCR using specimens from the respiratory tract. Severe ARDS reflects the hallmark of a critical course of the disease...
March 24, 2020: Der Anaesthesist
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