Rodrigo A Cornejo, Jorge Montoya, Abraham I J Gajardo, Jerónimo Graf, Leyla Alegría, Romyna Baghetti, Anita Irarrázaval, César Santis, Nicolás Pavez, Sofía Leighton, Vinko Tomicic, Daniel Morales, Carolina Ruiz, Pablo Navarrete, Patricio Vargas, Roberto Gálvez, Victoria Espinosa, Marioli Lazo, Rodrigo A Pérez-Araos, Osvaldo Garay, Patrick Sepúlveda, Edgardo Martinez, Alejandro Bruhn
BACKGROUND: Prone positioning is currently applied in time-limited daily sessions up to 24 h which determines that most patients require several sessions. Although longer prone sessions have been reported, there is scarce evidence about the feasibility and safety of such approach. We analyzed feasibility and safety of a continuous prolonged prone positioning strategy implemented nationwide, in a large cohort of COVID-19 patients in Chile. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), conducted in 15 Intensive Care Units, which adhered to a national protocol of continuous prone sessions  ≥ 48 h and until PaO2 :FiO2 increased above 200 mm Hg...
November 28, 2022: Annals of Intensive Care
Nancy Elmer, Anett REIßHAUER, Katharina Brehm, Clarissa Vockeroth, Max E Liebl
INTRODUCTION: Prone positioning ventilation (PPV) is an effective treatment for patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite the benefits of PPV, different kinds of short and long-term consequences have been noted. This review summarizes long-term complications of PPV that impact treatment strategies and outcomes in acute and postacute rehabilitation. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register databases and the Google Scholar search engine were systematically searched for studies investigating long-term complications of PPV...
November 28, 2022: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Fernanda V S Castanheira, Paul Kubes
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in more than 6 million deaths worldwide. COVID-19 is a respiratory disease characterized by pulmonary dysfunction leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDs), as well as disseminated coagulation, and multi-organ dysfunction. Neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this review, we highlight key gaps in knowledge, discuss the heterogeneity of neutrophils during the evolution of the disease, how they can contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic strategies that target neutrophil-mediated inflammatory responses...
November 28, 2022: Immunological Reviews
Seyed MohammadReza Hashemian, Tayebeh Farhadi, Mohammad Varahram, Ali Akbar Velayati
INTRODUCTION: In severe COVID-19 patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-induced lung injury regularly causes a pulmonary fibrotic phase. There is no approved therapy for the COVID-19-induced pulmonary fibrosis. However, administration of an anti-fibrotic agent, in the early acute phase of the severe COVID-19 with ARDS may improve the infection outcomes. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the main characteristics of nintedanib and its usefulness to treat COVID-19-induced fibrosis were studied...
November 28, 2022: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Fang Yan, Li Yuan, Fan Yang, Guicheng Wu, Xiaobo Jiang
In spite of the great progress in the management of critical diseases in recent years, its associated prevalence and mortality of multiple organ failure still remain high. As an endocrine hormone, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) functions to maintain homeostasis in the whole body. Recent studies have proved that FGF21 has promising potential effects in critical diseases. FGF21 has also been found to have a close relationship with the progression of critical diseases and has a great predictive function for organ failure...
2022: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Prakash Sapkota, Ashish Tamang, Sadikshya Bhandari, Yadvinder Singh, Rohit Bhasink Shrestha, Robin Man Karmacharya, Satish Vaidya, Swechha Bhatt
INTRODUCTION: Moderate to severely ill patients diagnosed with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia develop a series of complications and less frequently, we might witness cases of Pulmonary Thromboembolism (PE)-refractory to the standard treatment with Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH). The aim of this case series is to report the presentation and management of pulmonary thromboembolism secondary to COVID-19 pneumonia. METHOD: We report a case series of seven cases aged 40-70 who were presented in Dhulikhel Hospital with COVID-19 symptoms in different stages...
December 2022: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Abimbola O Ajibowo, Olasunkanmi A Kolawole, Haleema Sadia, Oyovwike S Amedu, Hassan A Chaudhry, Helai Hussaini, Eloho Hambolu, Tuba Khan, Humaira Kauser, Aadil Khan
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory process in the lungs that induces non-hydrostatic protein-rich pulmonary edema. ARDS occurs in roughly half of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia patients, with most of them requiring intensive care. Oxygen saturation, partial pressure of the oxygen, and the fraction of the inspired oxygen are health indicators that may indicate a severe illness necessitating further investigation. As treatments have evolved, a typical pattern of ARDS has likewise evolved...
October 2022: Curēus
Mathieu V Paulin, Elisabeth C Snead
A 6-year-old castrated male Labradoodle was referred in uncompensated hypovolemic shock, with a 72 - h history of lethargy, vomiting and diarrhea that had acutely worsened with subsequent development of profuse hemorrhagic diarrhea in the last 24 h after a visit to the groomer. In most respects this case was classic for a patient with a primary hypoadrenocortical crisis. After initial attempts to address hypovolemia and refractory hypotension, no clinical improvement was seen, and the respiratory rate had increased acutely to 80 bpm with crackles detected on thoracic auscultation and serosanguineous fluid began draining from the nose and mouth...
2022: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Hannah M Bernstein, Brian Paciotti, Uma N Srivatsa
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been reported to occur with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but whether it is related to myocarditis or lung injury is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare incident AF in patients with pneumonia/adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with and without COVID. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter cohort study from 17 hospitals (March 2020 to December 2021) utilizing the University of California COVID Research Data Set (CORDS) included patients aged ≥18 years with primary diagnosis of pneumonia or ARDS during hospitalization...
October 31, 2022: Heart rhythm O2
Allen Chung-Cheng Huang, Shu-Min Lin, Tzu-Hsuan Chiu, Ko-Wei Chang, Tse-Hung Huang, Tsung-Hsien Yang, Yi-Hsien Shiao, Chung-Shu Lee, Fu-Tsai Chung, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
Objective: Direct comparison of the clinical traits of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in strain D614G, which originated from Wuhan, China, and the Alpha variant, which contains 17 mutations, infected patients could help physicians distinguish between strains and make clinical decisions accordingly. This study sought to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of the D614G strain and Alpha variant of SARS-COV-2 and identify the predictors for viral RNA clearance and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19...
2022: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Daan F L Filippini, Elisa Di Gennaro, Rombout B E van Amstel, Ludo F M Beenen, Salvatore Grasso, Luigi Pisani, Lieuwe D J Bos, Marry R Smit
BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) require respiratory support with invasive mechanical ventilation and show varying responses to recruitment manoeuvres. In patients with ARDS not related to COVID-19, two pulmonary subphenotypes that differed in recruitability were identified using latent class analysis (LCA) of imaging and clinical respiratory parameters. We aimed to evaluate if similar subphenotypes are present in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS...
November 25, 2022: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Issac Cheong, Victoria Otero Castro, Raúl Alejandro Gómez, Pablo Martín Merlo, Francisco Marcelo Tamagnone
Mechanical ventilation in prone position is a strategy that increases oxygenation and reduces mortality in severe ARDS. The hemodynamic and cardiovascular assessment of these patients is essential. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a widely used tool to assess hemodynamics in critical care, but the prone position is thought to limit adequate TTE views and goal-oriented measurements. The aim of this study is to show the feasibility of the hemodynamic assessment by transthoracic echocardiography during prone position ventilation (PPV)...
November 2022: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Thomas Laumon, Elie Courvalin, Geoffrey Dagod, Pauline Deras, Mehdi Girard, Orianne Martinez, Camille Maury, Hugues Weber, Xavier Capdevila, Jonathan Charbit
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the interdependence of extracorporeal blood flow (Qec) and gas flow (GF) in predicting CO2 removal and reduction of minute mechanical ventilation under extracorporeal respiratory support. METHODS: All patients who benefited from V-V ECMO and high-flow ECCO2 R in our intensive care unit over a period of 18 months were included. CO2 removal was calculated from inlet/outlet blood port gases during the first 7 days of oxygenator use...
November 25, 2022: Artificial Organs
Yi-Tseng Tsai, Han-Chang Ku, Sujeewa Dilhani Maithreepala, Yi-Jing Tsai, Li-Fan Chen, Nai-Ying Ko, Sriyani Padmalatha Konara Mudiyanselage
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the global risk and risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) among patients with COVID-19: Design: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Hospitals or nursing homes and patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after COVID-19. METHODS: The literature review was systematically conducted on Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science, in addition to manual searches and reference list checking from 1 January 2019 to 2 March 2022...
November 16, 2022: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Behnam Sadeghi, Olle Ringdén, Britt Gustafsson, Markus Castegren
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung disease. It may occur during the pancytopenia phase following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). ARDS is rare following HCT. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have strong anti-inflammatory effect and first home to the lung following intravenous infusion. MSCs are safe to infuse and have almost no side effects. During the Covid-19 pandemic many patients died from ARDS. Subsequently MSCs were evaluated as a therapy for Covid-19 induced ARDS...
2022: Frontiers in Immunology
Sodiq Kolawole Lawal, Samuel Oluwaseun Olojede, Oluwaseun Samuel Faborode, Okikioluwa Stephen Aladeyelu, Matome Nadab Matshipi, Sheu Oluwadare Sulaiman, Edwin Coleridge Stephen Naidu, Carmen Olivia Rennie, Onyemaechi Okpara Azu
Despite the development of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the neurocognitive impairments associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain challenging. The presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCFB) impedes the adequate penetration of certain antiretroviral drugs into the brain. In addition, reports have shown that some antiretroviral drugs cause neurotoxicity resulting from their interaction with nervous tissues due to long-term systemic exposure...
2022: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Gheyath K Nasarallah, Aisha D Fakhroo, Taushif Khan, Farhan S Cyprian, Fatima Al Ali, Manar M A Ata, Sara Taleb, Hadeel T Zedan, Duaa W Al-Sadeq, Fathima H Amanullah, Ali A Hssain, Ali H Eid, Laith J Abu-Raddad, Abdullatif Al-Khal, Asmaa A Al Thani, Nico Marr, Hadi M Yassine
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The heterogeneity of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) lies within its diverse symptoms and severity, ranging from mild to lethal. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a leading cause of mortality in COVID-19 patients, characterized by a hyper cytokine storm. Autoimmunity is proposed to occur as a result of COVID-19, given the high similarity of the immune responses observed in COVID-19 and autoimmune diseases. Here, we investigate the level of autoimmune antibodies in COVID-19 patients with different severities...
2022: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Meng-Meng Xu, Jia-Ying Kang, Shuang Ji, Yuan-Yuan Wei, Si-Liang Wei, Jing-Jing Ye, Yue-Guo Wang, Ji-Long Shen, Hui-Mei Wu, Guang-He Fei
Influenza virus infection is one of the strongest pathogenic factors for the development of acute lung injury (ALI)/ acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been clarified. In this study, we aim to investigate whether melatonin modulates macrophage polarization, oxidative stress, and pyroptosis via activating Apolipoprotein E/low-density lipoprotein receptor (ApoE/LDLR) pathway in influenza A-induced ALI. Here, wild-type (WT) and ApoE-/- mice were instilled intratracheally with influenza A (H3N2) and injected intraperitoneally with melatonin for 7 consecutive days...
2022: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Vignesh Balaji E, Sairaj Satarker, Tanvi V Gujaran, Jeena John, Anuranjana P V, Krupa Thankam George, Divya K P, Fathima Beegum, Anna Mathew, R J A Vibhavari, Sneha Sunil Chaudhari, K Sreedhara Ranganath Pai
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 with severe respiratory failure and organ damage that later appeared as a pandemic disease. Worldwide, people's mental and physical health and socioeconomic have been affected. Currently, with no promising treatment for COVID-19, the existing anti-viral drugs and vaccines are the only hope to boost the host immune system to reduce morbidity and mortality rate. Unfortunately, several reports show that people who are partially or fully vaccinated are still susceptible to COVID-19 infection...
November 24, 2022: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Christopher John Redmond, Moses M Kitakule, Aran Son, McKella Sylvester, Keith Sacco, Ottavia Delmonte, Francesco Licciardi, Riccardo Castagnoli, M Cecilia Poli, Yasmin Espinoza, Camila Astudillo, Sarah E Weber, Gina A Montealegre Sanchez, Karyl S Barron, Mary Magliocco, Kerry Dobbs, Yu Zhang, Helen Matthews, Cihan Oguz, Helen C Su, Luigi D Notarangelo, Pamela Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Daniella M Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 24, 2022: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
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