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Obesity Science & Practice

N Malandrino, J C Reynolds, R J Brychta, K Y Chen, S Auh, A M Gharib, M Startzell, E K Cochran, R J Brown
Objectives: Lipodystrophies are characterized by regional or generalized loss of adipose tissue and severe metabolic complications. The role of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in the development of metabolic derangements in lipodystrophy is unknown. The study aim was to investigate VAT contribution to metabolic disease in lipodystrophy versus healthy controls. Methods: Analysis of correlations between VAT volume and biomarkers of metabolic disease in 93 patients and 93 age/sex-matched healthy controls...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
L Ostrowski, P W Speiser, S Accacha, L Altshuler, I Fennoy, B Lowell, R Rapaport, W Rosenfeld, S P Shelov, S Ten, M Rosenbaum
Objective: To determine the efficacy of a 4-month school-based health, nutrition and exercise intervention on body fatness and examine possible effects of demographic and anthropometric covariates. Methods: Height, weight, waist circumference and body composition were measured in a diverse population of 644 NYC middle school students (mean ± SD age 12.7 ± 0.9 years; 46% male; 38% Hispanic, 17% East Asian, 15% South Asian, 13.5% African American, 8.5% Caucasian, 8% other) during the fall and spring semesters...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
J Lillis, J G Thomas, K Olson, R R Wing
Objective: Despite the myriad negative effects of weight self-stigma, its role in weight loss intervention has not been thoroughly examined. The aim of this study was to examine the association between weight self-stigma and weight loss. Methods: This longitudinal study examined the association between weight loss and changes in self-stigma, assessed by the Weight Self-Stigma Questionnaire, which distinguished between self-devaluation and fear of enacted stigma...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
A Lanoye, A Grenga, T M Leahey, J G LaRose
Background: Emerging adults (EAs) ages 18-25 are at high risk for overweight/obesity, but little is known about their motivations for weight loss or how these may differ from those of middle aged adults (MAs) and relate to treatment outcomes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine potential differences in weight loss motivations between EAs and MAs and determine the association between motivation and engagement/outcomes in a weight loss trial. Methods: Data were pooled from two behavioural weight loss interventions: one targeting EAs ( n  = 52) and one targeting MAs ages 40-60 ( n  = 101)...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1002/osp4.295.].
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
D Bailetti, L Bertoccini, R M Mancina, I Barchetta, D Capoccia, E Cossu, A Pujia, A Lenzi, F Leonetti, M G Cavallo, S Romeo, M G Baroni
Objective: ANGPTL4 inhibits lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue, regulating plasma triglycerides levels. In persons with obesity plasma ANGPTL4 levels have been positively correlated with body fat mass, TG levels and low HDL. A loss-of-function E40K mutation in ANGPTL4 prevents LPL inhibition, resulting in lower TGs and higher HDLc in the general population. Since obesity determines metabolic alterations and consequently is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the aim was to explore if obesity-related metabolic abnormalities are modified by the ANGPTL4 -E40K mutation...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
F Gundling, S Roggenbrod, S Schleifer, M Sohn, W Schepp
Introduction: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents a treatment option for some diseases, e.g. recurring Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. However, there is also evidence that FMT can be effective in treating obesity. This pilot study established the approval and willingness of obese patients to undergo FMT. Methods: We conducted a survey of adults with obesity using a questionnaire containing 21 both multiple choice and open questions was dispatched to a cohort of 101 persons with obesity...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
M P M Rando-Meirelles, M L R Sousa, G C Vale, V A Lages, P P Vásquez, P Jimenez, R S Villena, M A Alvarez-Paucar
Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to address the reliability, internal validity and viability of oral health methods used in the South American Youth/Child cARdiovascular and Environmental study. Methods: South American Youth/Child cARdiovascular and Environmental study was a multicentre feasibility observational study and conducted in seven South American cities. The training sessions were performed in two steps before data collection: the first verified the inter-rater reproducibility between the examiners of the six centres in relation to the gold standard, and the second one verified the inter-rater reproducibility between the examiners at each centre in relation to the main rater...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
K G Kheniser, S R Kashyap, T Kasumov
Aims: Metformin is a commonly prescribed anti-hyperglycaemic pharmacological agent, and it remains a staple in the management of type II diabetes. In addition to metformin's glucose lowering effects, research has indicated that metformin inhibits glycation-mediated and oxidative modification of lipoprotein residues. The purpose was to discuss the effects of metformin as it relates to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modification. Materials and methods: The purpose was to conduct a narrative and pragmatic review on the effects of metformin as it pertains to HDL and LDL modification...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
G C Lee, M J Platow, M Augoustinos, D Van Rooy, R Spears, D Bar-Tal
Background/Objectives: If people who hold anti-fat attitudes believe these attitudes to be true, then anti-prejudice appeals are likely to be unsuccessful, if only because the targets will not see their attitudes as in need of change. The current study examined processes that may lead people to see their anti-fat attitudes as 'truth' or as 'prejudice'. Subjects/Methods: Participants ( N  = 482) read anti-fat statements and were then presented with an interpretation of these statements as 'truth' or 'prejudice'...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
L M Arterburn, C D Coleman, J Kiel, K Kelley, L Mantilla, N Frye, K Sanoshy, C M Cook
Objective: Lifestyle interventions remain the cornerstone for obesity treatment. Commercial programs offer one weight loss approach, yet the efficacy of few such programs have been rigorously investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two commercial weight-loss programs, both utilizing pre-portioned meal replacements (MRs) and different levels of behavioural support, compared to a self-directed control diet in adults with overweight and obesity. Methods: In this 16-week study, participants were randomized to the low-calorie OPTAVIA® 5&1 Plan® with telephone coaching (OPT), the reduced-calorie Medifast® 4&2&1 self-guided plan (MED), or a self-directed, reduced-calorie control diet...
February 2019: Obesity Science & Practice
E Jarosz
Objective: Lifestyle behaviours are everyday activities that result from individual's values, knowledge, and norms shaped by broader cultural and socioeconomic context. These behaviours affect body weight as well as overall health and are influenced by a number of social characteristics. The aim of this paper was to examine the net effects of lifestyle behaviours and socioeconomic factors on body mass index (BMI), and how these differed by gender. Methods: This study used the 2009/2010 Hungarian Time Use Survey combining behavioural records, background information, and measures of self-reported health and weight...
December 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J C Whitley, C A Peralta, M Haan, A E Aiello, A Lee, J Ward, A Zeki Al Hazzouri, J Neuhaus, S Moyce, L López
Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the association of intergenerational educational attainment with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among US Latinos. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from the Niños Lifestyle and Diabetes Study, an offspring cohort of middle-aged Mexican-Americans whose parents participated in the Sacramento Latino Study on Aging. We collected educational attainment, demographic and health behaviours and measured systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting glucose and waist circumference...
December 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
J McGlashan, J Hayward, A Brown, B Owen, L Millar, M Johnstone, D Creighton, S Allender
Introduction: The Foresight obesity map represents an expert-developed systems map describing the complex drivers of obesity. Recently, community-led causal loop diagrams have been developed to support community-based obesity prevention interventions. This paper presents a quantitative comparison between the Foresight obesity systems map and a community-developed map of the drivers of obesity. Methods: Variables from a community-developed map were coded against the thematic clusters defined in the Foresight map to allow comparison of their sizes and strength of adjoining causal relationships...
December 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
A M Coletta, B Sanchez, A O'Connor, R Dalton, S Springer, M S Koozehchian, P S Murano, C R Woodman, C Rasmussen, R B Kreider
Objective: Genetics contribute to variability in individual response to weight-loss interventions. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a commercially available exercise and weight-loss program and whether alignment of diet to genotype related to lipid metabolism promotes greater success. Design: Sedentary women with obesity ( n  = 63) had genotype (FABP2rs1799883, PPARG2rs1801282, ADRB3rs4994C3, ADRB2rs1042713, rs1042714) determined using a direct-to-consumer genetic screening kit purported to promote greater weight-loss success through dietary recommendations based on these genes...
December 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
E Alexander, E Tseng, N Durkin, G J Jerome, A Dalcin, L J Appel, J M Clark, K A Gudzune
Objective: Minimizing program dropout is essential for weight-loss success, but factors that influence dropout among commercial programs are unclear. This study's objective was to determine factors associated with early dropout in a commercial weight-loss program. Methods: A retrospective analysis of a remotely delivered, employer-based commercial program from 2013 to 2016 was conducted. The dependent variable was 'early dropout', defined as enrollees who disengaged from telephone coaching by month 2's end...
December 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
M Zhou, C Lalani, J A Banda, T N Robinson
Objectives: Sleep disruption in laboratory studies increases adiposity and decreases glucose tolerance. However, few epidemiological studies have used objective measures of sleep. This study aims to assess associations between sleep duration, timing and regularity with measures of adiposity. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 188 children with obesity (age: 10.50 ± 1.39 years; body mass index: 29.24 ± 5.04 kg m-2 ). Nightly sleep duration, bedtime and wake time were measured by multiple-day actigraphy and parent reports...
December 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
S Bakshi, H M Schmidt, A E Baskin, C M Croniger, C L Thompson, T Bonfield, D Fletcher, N A Berger
Objective: Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) transports vitamin A (Retinol) in the blood and contributes mechanistically to the linkage between obesity, insulin resistance and associated comorbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery and neoplastic diseases. Circulating RBP4 levels have variably been associated with body mass and gender differences. Many of these differences have been demonstrated after limited dietary interventions, and/or at single unique time points...
December 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
K R Reynolds, J Stevens, J Cai, C E Lewis, A C Choh, S A Czerwinski
Objective: Numerous equation to predict percent body fat using demographics and anthropometrics have been published but external validation of these equations is limited. The objective of this study was to validate published equations that use anthropometrics for prediction of percent body fat using external data. Methods: Data were from the Visceral Fat, Metabolic Rate, and Coronary Heart Disease Risk I (VIM I) Study and the Fels Longitudinal Study (Fels). VIM I was conducted in a subset of subjects from the CARDIA study and included black and white adults 28-40 years ( n  = 392)...
December 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
B L James, E Loken, L S Roe, K Myrissa, C L Lawton, L Dye, B J Rolls
Objective: The Diet Satisfaction Questionnaire was developed to fill the need for a validated measure to evaluate satisfaction with weight-management diets. This paper further develops the questionnaire, examining the factor structure of the original questionnaire, cross-validating a revised version in a second sample and relating diet satisfaction to weight loss during a 1-year trial. Methods: The 45-item Diet Satisfaction Questionnaire (DSat-45) uses seven scales to assess characteristics that influence diet satisfaction: Healthy Lifestyle, Convenience, Cost, Family Dynamics, Preoccupation with Food, Negative Aspects, and Planning and Preparation...
December 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
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