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Comparative Cytogenetics

Olesya G Buleu, Ilyas Y Jetybayev, Dragan P Chobanov, Alexander G Bugrov
The karyotypes and the localization of C-bands, clusters of ribosomal DNA and telomeric repeats of 10 species of the family Pamphagidae from Morocco are described for the first time. The species studied belong to the subfamilies Pamphaginae and Thrinchinae . All species have karyotypes consisting of 19 and 20 acrocentric chromosomes and X0/XX sex chromosome system in males and females, respectively (2n♂=19, NF=19; 2n♀=20, NF=20). Despite the karyotype conservatism, we revealed differences in the location and size of C-heterochromatin blocks and ribosomal DNA clusters...
2019: Comparative Cytogenetics
Michał T Kwiatek, Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska, Sylwia Mikołajczyk, Janetta Niemann, Agnieszka Tomkowiak, Dorota Weigt, Jerzy Nawracała
There are many reports describing chromosome structure, organization and evolution within goatgrasses ( Aegilops spp.). Chromosome banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques are main methods used to identify Aegilops Linnaeus, 1753 chromosomes. These data have essential value considering the close genetic and genomic relationship of goatgrasses with wheat ( Triticumaestivum Linnaeus, 1753) and triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack, 1899). A key question is whether those protocols are useful and effective for tracking Aegilops chromosomes or chromosome segments in genetic background of cultivated cereals...
2019: Comparative Cytogenetics
Greicy Ellen de Brito Ferreira, Ligia Magrinelli Barbosa, Ana Camila Prizon-Nakajima, Suzana de Paiva, Margarida Maria de Rossi Vieira, Raquel Bozini Gallo, Luciana Andreia Borin-Carvalho, Renata da Rosa, Cláudio Henrique Z Wadzki, Isabel Cristina Martins Dos Santos, Ana Luiza de Brito Portela-Castro
A cytogenetic analysis based on the integration of a number of different chromosomal methodologies, including chromosome microdissection was carried out to characterize the chromosomally polymorphic Hypostomusregani population from the Paraguay River basin, state of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. All specimens had 2n=72 (FN=116) but two distinct karyotype formulas: karyomorph A (12m+14sm+18s+28a) and karyomorph B (13m+14sm+17st+28a). Karyomorph A and B differed only for pair 19 that consisted of two subtelocentrics in karyomorph A and a large metacentric and a subtelocentric in karyomorph B...
2019: Comparative Cytogenetics
Leila Mahiddine-Aoudjit, Ouahida Boucekkine, Kafia Ladjali-Mohammedi
The Houbara bustard Chlamydotisundulata (Jacquin, 1784) is an emblematic and endangered bird of steppes and desert spaces of North Africa. This species belonging to Otidiformes is recognized as vulnerable by the International Union for Nature Conservation. The critical situation of this species and the revision of its classification on the tree of birds encouraged the authors to start accumulating chromosome data. For that, we propose the GTG- and RBG-banded karyotypes of the Houbara bustard prepared from primary fibroblast cell cultures...
2019: Comparative Cytogenetics
Vladimir A Lukhtanov
In karyotype of many organisms, chromosomes form two distinct size groups: macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. During cell divisions, the position of the macro- and microchromosomes is often ordered within metaphase plate. In many reptiles, amphibians, birds, insects of the orthopteran family Tettigoniidae and in some plants, a so called "reptilian" type organization is found, with microchromosomes situated in the center of metaphase plate and with macrochromosomes situated at the periphery. An opposite, "lepidopteran" type is known in butterflies and moths (i...
2019: Comparative Cytogenetics
Boris A Anokhin, Valentina G Kuznetsova
An account is given of the karyotypes of Hydramagnipapillata Itô, 1947, H.oxycnida Schulze, 1914, and Pelmatohydraoligactis (Pallas, 1766) (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Hydridae). A number of different techniques were used: conventional karyotype characterization by standard staining, DAPI-banding and C-banding was complemented by the physical mapping of the ribosomal RNA (18S rDNA probe) and H3 histone genes, and the telomeric (TTAGGG) n sequence by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We found that the species studied had 2n = 30; constitutive heterochromatin was present in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes; the "vertebrate" telomeric (TTAGGG) n motif was located on both ends of each chromosome and no interstitial sites were detected; 18S rDNA was mapped on the largest chromosome pair in H...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Maciej Kociński, Beata Grzywacz, Dragan Chobanov, Elżbieta Archałowska-Śliwa
Five species belonging to the genus Gampsocleis Fieber, 1852 were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and telomeric probes, as well as C-banding, DAPI/CMA3 staining and silver impregnation. The studied species showed two distinct karyotypes, with 2n = 31 (male) and 2n = 23 (male) chromosomes. The drastic reduction in chromosome number observed in the latter case suggests multiple translocations and fusions as the main responsible that occurred during chromosome evolution. Two groups of rDNA distribution were found in Gampsocleis representatives analyzed...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Natalia V Golub, Viktor B Golub, Valentina G Kuznetsova
The karyotypes of 10 species from 9 genera of the family Tingidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Cimicomorpha) are described and illustrated for the first time. These species are: Agrammaatricapillum (Spinola, 1837), Catoplatuscarthusianus (Goeze, 1778), Dictylaplatyoma (Fieber, 1861), Lasiacanthahermani Vásárhelyi, 1977, Oncochilasimplex (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1830), Tingis (Neolasiotropis) pilosa Hummel, 1825, and T. (Tropidocheila) reticulata Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835, all with 2n = 12A + XY, as well as Acalyptamarginata (Wolff, 1804), Derephysia (Paraderephysia) longispina Golub, 1974, and Dictyonotastrichnocera Fieber, 1844, all with 2n = 12A + X(0)...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ilya Kirov, Marina Gilyok, Andrey Knyazev, Igor Fesenko
Satellite DNA (satDNA) constitutes a substantial part of eukaryotic genomes. In the last decade, it has been shown that satDNA is not an inert part of the genome and its function extends beyond the nuclear membrane. However, the number of model plant species suitable for studying the novel horizons of satDNA functionality is low. Here, we explored the satellitome of the model "basal" plant, Physcomitrellapatens (Hedwig, 1801) Bruch & Schimper, 1849 (moss), which has a number of advantages for deep functional and evolutionary research...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Eva Hnátková, Costas Triantaphyllidis, Catherine Ozouf-Costaz, Lukáš Choleva, Zuzana Majtánová, Joerg Bohlen, Petr Ráb
The karyotype of Greek cobitid fish Cobitisstrumicae Karaman, 1955, from Lake Volvi, Greece, a representative of one of its two major intraspecific phylogenetic lineages, was analysed by means of sequential Giemsa-staining, C-banding, silver-staining, CMA3 fluorescence banding and also by in situ hybridization (FISH) with rDNA probe. The diploid chromosome number was 2n = 50, karyotype composed of 10 pairs of metacentric to submetacentric and 15 pairs of subtelocentric to acrocentric chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) as revealed by Ag- and CMA3 staining and FISH were situated in the telomeric region of the fourth submetacentric chromosome pair...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Alexandra Avelar Silva, Marla Piumbini Rocha, Silvia das Graças Ompolo, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira Campos, Mara Garcia Tavares
Stingless bees are distributed widely in the tropics, where they are major pollinators of several plant species. In this study, the karyotype of Meliponaquinquefasciata Lepeletier, 1836 was analysed, with emphasis on the presence of B chromosomes. Post-defecating larvae were analysed using Giemsa staining, the C-banding technique, sequential staining with fluorochromes, and FISH. The chromosome number ranged from 2n = 18 to 22 (females) and from n = 9 to 13 (males) due to the presence of 0-4 B chromosomes. This result demonstrates that M...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Yasmine Kartout-Benmessaoud, Kafia Ladjali-Mohammedi
The Common quail Coturnixcoturnix Linnaeus, 1758 is a wild migratory bird which is distributed in Eurasia and North Africa, everywhere with an accelerating decline in population size. This species is protected by the Bonn and Berne conventions (1979) and by annex II/1 of the Birds Directive (2009). In Algeria, its breeding took place at the hunting centre in the west of the country. Breeding errors caused uncontrolled crosses between the Common quail and Japanese quail Coturnixjaponica Temminck & Schlegel, 1849...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Eugene Krysanov, Tatiana Demidova
Karyotypes of 65 species of the genus Nothobranchius Peters, 1868 were reviewed and of those 35 examined first time. The results of present study have shown that fishes of the genus Nothobranchius possessed highly diverse karyotypes. The diploid chromosome number (2n) ranged from 16 to 50. The most frequent 2n was 2n = 36 (in 35 species) while the second one 2n = 38 (in 13 species). Proportion of biarmed chromosomes varied from 0 to 95% between species. Diploid chromosome number variability apparently exists as a result of chromosomal fusions or fissions and extensive karyotypic formula alterations promoting by inversions...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Svetlana Galkina, Maria Vishnevskaya
In memory of Ingemar Gustavsson 23rd International Colloquium on Animal Cytogenetics and Genomics (23 ICACG) took place in June 9-12, 2018 in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. Organized biennially, the Colloquium runs from 1970. From its very start this meeting is associated with the name of Ingemar Gustavsson to whom we dedicated the Colloquium 2018. The long and productive career of Ingemar Gustavsson had focused on chromosomes and their fundamental role in animal physiology, fertility, health and production in the context of agriculture and veterinary medicine...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ilya A Gavrilov-Zimin
The karyotype of Psoraleococcusmultipori (Morrison, 1921) was studied for the first time, based on material from Indonesia (Sulawesi). The diploid chromosome number was found to be 18 in both males and females, but some cells contained also additional small chromosomal elements, probably B chromosomes. About 50 % of the studied embryos demonstrated paternal genome heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes (PGH) suggesting presence of a Lecanoid genetic system. The embryos with PGH are known to be always the male embryos in scale insects and so, bisexual reproduction may be presumed for P...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Marcela Baer Pucci, Viviane Nogaroto, Luiz Antonio Carlos Bertollo, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Marcelo Ricardo Vicari
Available data on cytotaxonomy of the genus Characidium Reinhardt, 1867, which contains the greatest number of species in the Characidiinae (Crenuchidae), with 64 species widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region, were summarized and reviewed. Most Characidium species have uniform diploid chromosome number (2n) = 50 and karyotype with 32 metacentric (m) and 18 submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. The maintenance of the 2n and karyotypic formula in Characidium implies that their genomes did not experience large chromosomal rearrangements during species diversification...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Petra Macháčková, Ľuboš Majeský, Michal Hroneš, Eva Hřibová, Bohumil Trávníček, Radim J Vašut
The species-rich and widespread genus Taraxacum F. H. Wiggers, 1780 (Asteraceae subfamily Cichorioideae) is one of the most taxonomically complex plant genera in the world, mainly due to its combination of different sexual and asexual reproduction strategies. Polyploidy is usually confined to apomictic microspecies, varying from 3x to 6x (rarely 10x). In this study, we focused on Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum (= T.sect.Ruderalia; T.officinale group), i.e., the largest group within the genus. We counted chromosome numbers and measured the DNA content for species sampled in Central Europe, mainly in Czechia...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Jin-Hai Wang, Xiao-Dong Zheng
To provide markers to identify chromosomes in the genome of octopods, chromosomes of three octopus species were subjected to NOR/C-banding. In addition, we examined their genome size ( C value) to submit it to the Animal Genome Size Database. Silver staining revealed that the number of Ag-nucleoli was 2 ( Octopusminor (Sasaki, 1920)), 2 ( Amphioctopusfangsiao (d'Orbigny, 1839)) and 1 ( Cistopuschinensis Zheng et al., 2012), respectively, and the number of Ag-nucleoli visible was the same as that of Ag-NORs on metaphase plates in the same species...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Svetlana V Pavlova, Larisa S Biltueva, Svetlana A Romanenko, Natalya A Lemskaya, Anton V Shchinov, Alexei V Abramov, Viatcheslav V Rozhnov
Gymnures are an ancient group of small insectivorous mammals and are characterized by a controversial taxonomic status and the lack of a description of karyotypes for certain species. In this study, conventional cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa, CBG- and GTG-banding, Ag-NOR), CMA3 -DAPI staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric DNA probes were used to examine for the first time the karyotypes of lesser gymnures of group Hylomyssuillus Müller, 1840 from northern and southern Vietnam...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Ivanny Coelho da Fonseca, Luan Aércio Melo Maciel, Frank Raynner Vasconcelos Ribeiro, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro Rodrigues
The genus Pimelodus LaCépède, 1803 comprises 35 formally recognized species distributed along the major neotropical river basins. Despite conservatism in diploid number with 2n=56, an intense variation of chromosomal morphology (karyotypic formula) has been documented in Pimelodus species. In the present study, we analyzed karyotypes of 20 specimens, identified as Pimelodusblochii Valenciennes, 1840 and collected from the lower courses of the Tapajós, Amazonas and Trombetas Rivers. The karyotypes were characterized by Giemsa conventional staining, C-banding, silver staining (Ag-NOR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
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