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ISRN Microbiology

Dilruba Ahmed, Abu Iftiaf Md Salah Ud-Din, Syeda Umme Habiba Wahid, Razib Mazumder, Kamrun Nahar, Anowar Hossain
Salmonellosis, an acute invasive enteric infection, is endemic in Bangladesh. We analyzed 128,312 stool samples of diarrheal patients to identify Salmonella spp. during 2005-2013. A total of 2120 (1.7%) Salmonella spp. were isolated and the prevalence of Salmonella spp. decreased significantly over time (2→1%, P < 0.001). Among the typhoidal Salmonella (TS) serogroups, S. Typhi was predominant (404, [65.1%]) followed by S. Paratyphi B (139, [22.4%]) and S. Paratyphi A (78, [12.6%]). Of the nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates, the serogroup C1 (560, [37%]) was predominant followed by B (379, [25%]), C2 (203, [14%]), E (127, [9%]), and D (94, [6%])...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Bhavna V Mohite, Satish V Patil
The present study explores the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis in Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The cellulose synthase enzyme was purified as membrane fraction and solubilized by treatment with 0.1% digitonin. The enzyme was separated by native-gel electrophoresis and β -D-glucan analysis was carried out using in vitro gel assay. The cellulose synthase has glycoprotein nature and composed two polypeptide subunits of 93 KDa and 85 KDa. The confirmation of β -1,4-glucan (cellulose) was performed in whole and hydrolyzed monomeric sugar form...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Soo-Sum Lean, Zarizal Suhaili, Salwani Ismail, Nor Iza A Rahman, Norlela Othman, Fatimah Haslina Abdullah, Zakaria Jusoh, Chew Chieng Yeo, Kwai-Lin Thong
Nosocomial infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is of great concern due to its increasing resistance to most antimicrobials. In this study, 54 nonrepeat isolates of A. baumannii from the main tertiary hospital in Terengganu, Malaysia, were analyzed for their antibiograms and genotypes. Out of the 54 isolates, 39 (72.2%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and resistant to carbapenems whereas 14 (25.9%) were categorized as extensive drug resistant (XDR) with additional resistance to polymyxin B, the drug of "last resort...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Stefan Spring
Core sets of sox genes were detected in several genome sequenced members of the environmental important OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria. However, emendation of media with thiosulfate did not result in stimulation of growth in two of these strains and cultures of Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192(T) did not oxidize thiosulfate to sulfate in concentrations of one mmol L(-1) or above. On the other hand, a significant production of sulfate was detected upon growth with the organic sulfur compounds, cysteine and glutathione...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Samira Aghamiri, Nour Amirmozafari, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi, Babak Fouladtan, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Beta-lactamase producing strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important etiological agents of hospital infections. Carbapenems are among the most effective antibiotics used against Pseudomonas infections, but they can be rendered infective by group B β -lactamase, commonly called metallo-beta lactamase. In this study, the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from 9 different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, as well as the prevalence of MBLs genes (bla- VIM and bla- IMP ) were determined...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Rinu Kooliyottil, Floyd Inman, Sivanadane Mandjiny, Len Holmes
Xenorhabdus nematophila, an entomopathogenic bacterium that symbiotically associates with the entomoparasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae, was studied to determine its physiological parameters of glucose utilization. X. nematophila was cultured in chemically defined media containing various concentrations of glucose under optimal conditions utilizing a two-liter fermentation system. Specific growth rates were obtained from each glucose batch. Specific growth rates and their associated glucose concentrations were used to determine physiological parameters...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Pratibha Sharma, Santosh Noronha
Acetoin is widely used as flavor agent and serves as a precursor for chemical synthesis. Here we focused on identifying the best physiological conditions (initial substrate concentrations, pH, temperature, and agitation) for enhanced acetoin accumulation by Bacillus subtilis 168. The optimal physiological conditions support maximum acetoin accumulation by minimizing byproduct (acetate and butanediol) synthesis and a maximum of 75% enhancement in acetoin yield could be achieved. Additionally, the effect of change in ALS (acetolactate synthase) and ALDC (acetolactate decarboxylase) activities was evaluated on acetoin accumulation...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Farhana Akram, Mark A C Pietroni, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Samira Bibi, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
We sought to evaluate the prevalence, associated factors, and outcome of under-five diarrheal children with either sex having Pseudomonas bacteremia. A retrospective chart review of under-five diarrheal children admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), from January 2011 to December 2011 was performed using an online hospital management system. Children with Pseudomonas bacteremia constituted the cases (n = 31), and the controls (n = 124), without Pseudomonas bacteremia, were randomly selected...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Radka Pribylova-Dziedzinska, Iva Slana, Jiri Lamka, Ivo Pavlik
There is no European legislation concerning paratuberculosis that requires that imported animals be kept in quarantine and commonly they are directly released into areas with other animals. In this study, detection of latent infection of paratuberculosis in healthy mouflons previously diagnosed as paratuberculosis-free, but originating from a real time quantitative PCR- (qPCR-) positive herd, occurred after their transport to a new farm. During a twelve-day quarantine period, all mouflons irregularly shed Mycobacterium avium subsp...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Kamela Charmaine S Ng, Windell L Rivera
Due to frequent antibiotic exposure, swine is now recognized as potential risk in disseminating drug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains. This study thus subjected 20 randomly selected S. enterica isolates from tonsil and jejunum with lymph node (JLN) tissues of swine slaughtered in Metro Manila, Philippines, to VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The test revealed all 20 isolates had resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent, in which highest occurrence of resistance was to amikacin (100%), cefazolin (100%), cefuroxime (100%), cefuroxime axetil (100%), cefoxitin (100%), and gentamicin (100%), followed by ampicillin (50%), and then by sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim (30%)...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Eva Spada, Daniela Proverbio, Paola Galluzzo, Alessandra Della Pepa, Giada Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Roberta Perego, Elisabetta Ferro
This study investigated the prevalence of feline haemoplasma infections in a number of stray cat colonies in Milan, Northern Italy. Blood samples from 260 stray cats were evaluated, with conventional PCR, for the presence of DNA associated with Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (CMhm). Odd ratios (OR) were calculated to identify risk factors for haemoplasma infections. PCR was positive in 86 out of 260 subjects (33.1%), with a prevalence of 10.8% (28/260 cats) for Mhf and 22...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Dariush Shanehbandi, Behzad Baradaran, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Habib Zarredar
Traditional dairy products are potential sources of a variety of microorganisms which participate in food poisoning. Staphylococcus aureus is a conspicuous example of toxigenic bacteria causative for food-borne diseases. Moreover, resistance to methicillin is a prominent index in food hygiene studies. In the present study, we have aimed at characterization and identification of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolated from traditional cheeses in Azerbaijan region in the northwest of Iran during 2012...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Rogério Schünemann, Neiva Knaak, Lidia Mariana Fiuza
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment...
2014: ISRN Microbiology
Adriana C Freitas, Ruann J S Castro, Maria A Fontenele, Antonio S Egito, Cristiane S Farinas, Gustavo A S Pinto
Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum size, and pH of the buffer used for protease extraction and activity analysis...
December 25, 2013: ISRN Microbiology
Sumon Kumar Das, Erik H Klontz, Ishrat J Azmi, Abu I M S Ud-Din, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Mohammad Abdul Malek, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Jui Das, Kaisar Ali Talukder, Mohammed Abdus Salam, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Karl C Klontz
We determined the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) infections with Shigella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 at an urban (Dhaka) and rural (Matlab) hospital in Bangladesh. We also compared sociodemographic and clinical features of patients with MDR infections to those with antibiotic-susceptible infections at both sites. Analyses were conducted using surveillance data from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), for the years 2000-2012. Compared to patients with antibiotic-susceptible for Shigella infections, those in Dhaka with MDR shigellosis were more likely to experience diarrhea for >24 hours, while, in Matlab, they were more likely to stay inhospital >24 hours...
December 22, 2013: ISRN Microbiology
K Cirone, Y Huberman, C Morsella, L Méndez, M Jorge, F Paolicchi
The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) during preparation and refrigerated storage of yogurt. Three yogurts were prepared using pasteurized commercial milk. Each yogurt was artificially contaminated with (1) MAP, (2) E. coli + S. Enteritidis, and (3) MAP + E. coli + S. Enteritidis. Samples were taken during and after the fermentation process until day 20 after inoculation...
December 16, 2013: ISRN Microbiology
Mohammed Inuwa Ja'afaru
The aim of this work is to select filamentous fungal strains isolated from saw dust, soil, and decaying wood with the potential to produce xylanase and cellulase enzymes. A total of 110 fungi were isolated. Fifty-seven (57) of these fungi were isolated from soil samples, 32 from sawdust, and 19 from decaying wood. Trichoderma and Aspergillus had the highest relative occurrence of 42.6% and 40.8%, respectively. Trichoderma viride Fd18 showed the highest specific activity of 1.30 U mg(-1) protein for xylanase, while the highest cellulase activity of 1...
2013: ISRN Microbiology
Debasish Ghosh, John M Stencel, Clair D Hicks, Fred Payne, Didem Ozevin
The detection of acoustic emission (AE) from Lactococcus lactis, ssp lactis is reported in which emission intensities are used to follow and define metabolic activity during growth in nutrient broths. Optical density (OD) data were also acquired during L. lactis growth at 32°C and provided insight into the timing of the AE signals relative to the lag, logarithmic, and stationary growth phases of the bacteria. The inclusion of a metabolic inhibitor, NaN3, into the nutrient broth eliminated bacteria metabolic activity according to the OD data, the absence of which was confirmed using AE data acquisition...
2013: ISRN Microbiology
Devanand Prakash, Ramchandra Sahai Saxena
Urinary tract infection is one of the common infections in the Indian community. Distribution and susceptibility of UTI-causing pathogens change according to time and place. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens in the Indian community as well as to determine the effect of gender and age on the etiology of bacterial uropathogens. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected from 288 patients of the age ranging from 15 to ≥48 years. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed on all isolated bacteria by Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method...
2013: ISRN Microbiology
Thivaharan Varadavenkatesan, Vytla Ramachandra Murty
Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds derived from varied microbial sources including bacteria and fungi. They are secreted extracellularly and have a wide range of exciting properties for bioremediation purposes. They also have vast applications in the food and medicine industry. With an objective of isolating microorganisms for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, the study involved screening of organisms from an oil-contaminated site. Morphological, biochemical, and 16S rRNA analysis of the most promising candidate revealed it to be Bacillus siamensis, which has been associated with biosurfactant production, for the first time...
2013: ISRN Microbiology
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