Simon Noë, Marlies Corvelyn, Sarah Willems, Domiziana Costamagna, Jean-Marie Aerts, Anja Van Campenhout, Kaat Desloovere
BACKGROUND: The analysis of in vitro cultures of human adult muscle stem cells obtained from biopsies delineates the potential of skeletal muscles and may help to understand altered muscle morphology in patients. In these analyses, the fusion index is a commonly used quantitative metric to assess the myogenic potency of the muscle stem cells. Since the fusion index only partly describes myogenic potency, we developed the Myotube Analyzer tool, which combines the definition of the fusion index with extra features of myonuclei and myotubes obtained from satellite cell cultures...
June 10, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Mason Henrich, Pin Ha, Yuanyuan Wang, Kang Ting, Louis Stodieck, Chia Soo, John S Adams, Rene Chun
BACKGROUND: As the interest in manned spaceflight increases, so does the requirement to understand the transcriptomic mechanisms that underlay the detrimental physiological adaptations of skeletal muscle to microgravity. While microgravity-induced differential gene expression (DGE) has been extensively investigated, the contribution of differential alternative splicing (DAS) to the plasticity and functional status of the skeletal muscle transcriptome has not been studied in an animal model...
May 31, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Guiling Xiang, Kelu Ying, Pan Jiang, Mengping Jia, Yipeng Sun, Shanqun Li, Xiaodan Wu, Shengyu Hao
Skeletal muscle wasting is a clinically remarkable phenotypic feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that increases the risk of mortality. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), centrally involved in PAH pathogenesis, has an inhibitory effect on skeletal muscle growth in other conditions. However, whether GDF11 is involved in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle wasting in PAH remains unknown. We showed that serum GDF11 levels in patients were increased following PAH. Skeletal muscle wasting in the MCT-treated PAH model is accompanied by an increase in circulating GDF11 levels and local catabolic markers (Fbx32, Trim63, Foxo1, and protease activity)...
May 6, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Stamatia Gioftsidi, Frederic Relaix, Philippos Mourikis
Skeletal muscle stem cells have a central role in muscle growth and regeneration. They reside as quiescent cells in resting muscle and in response to damage they transiently amplify and fuse to produce new myofibers or self-renew to replenish the stem cell pool. A signaling pathway that is critical in the regulation of all these processes is Notch. Despite the major differences in the anatomical and cellular niches between the embryonic myotome, the adult sarcolemma/basement-membrane interphase, and the regenerating muscle, Notch signaling has evolved to support the context-specific requirements of the muscle cells...
April 22, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Thomas N O'Connor, Jacob G Kallenbach, Haley M Orciuoli, Nicole D Paris, John F Bachman, Carl J Johnston, Eric Hernady, Jacqueline P Williams, Robert T Dirksen, Joe V Chakkalakal
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is commonly used to treat childhood cancers and can have adverse effects on muscle function, but the underlying mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesized that endurance exercise following radiation treatment would improve skeletal muscle function. METHODS: We utilized the Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) to irradiate juvenile male mice with a clinically relevant fractionated dose of 3× (every other day over 5 days) 8...
April 12, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Se-Jin Lee, Adam Lehar, Renata Rydzik, Daniel W Youngstrom, Shalender Bhasin, Yewei Liu, Emily L Germain-Lee
BACKGROUND: Myostatin (MSTN) is a transforming growth factor-ß superfamily member that acts as a major regulator of skeletal muscle mass. GDF-11, which is highly related to MSTN, plays multiple roles during embryonic development, including regulating development of the axial skeleton, kidneys, nervous system, and pancreas. As MSTN and GDF-11 share a high degree of amino acid sequence identity, behave virtually identically in cell culture assays, and utilize similar regulatory and signaling components, a critical question is whether their distinct biological functions result from inherent differences in their abilities to interact with specific regulatory and signaling components or whether their distinct biological functions mainly reflect their differing temporal and spatial patterns of expression...
March 15, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Maria Vittoria Gugliuzza, Colin Crist
BACKGROUND: Lifelong regeneration of the skeletal muscle is dependent on a rare population of resident skeletal muscle stem cells, also named 'satellite cells' for their anatomical position on the outside of the myofibre and underneath the basal lamina. Muscle stem cells maintain prolonged quiescence, but activate the myogenic programme and the cell cycle in response to injury to expand a population of myogenic progenitors required to regenerate muscle. The skeletal muscle does not regenerate in the absence of muscle stem cells...
February 12, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
L I Bannow, G A Bonaterra, M Bertoune, S Maus, R Schulz, N Weissmann, S Kraut, R Kinscherf, W Hildebrandt
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) imposes vascular and metabolic risks through chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and impairs skeletal muscle performance. As studies addressing limb muscles are rare, the reasons for the lower exercise capacity are unknown. We hypothesize that CIH-related morphological alterations in neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) and mitochondrial integrity might be the cause of functional disorders in skeletal muscles. METHODS: Mice were kept under 6 weeks of CIH (alternating 7% and 21% O2 fractions every 30 s, 8 h/day, 5 days/week) compared to normoxia (NOX)...
February 12, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Salem Werdyani, Dawn Aitken, Zhiwei Gao, Ming Liu, Edward W Randell, Proton Rahman, Graeme Jones, Guangju Zhai
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscles are essential components of the neuromuscular skeletal system that have an integral role in the structure and function of the synovial joints which are often affected by osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of this study was to identify the baseline metabolomic signatures for the longitudinal reduction of muscle strength over 10 years in the well-established community-based Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort (TASOAC). METHODS: Study participants were 50-79 year old individuals from the TASOAC...
February 7, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
C A Staunton, E D Owen, K Hemmings, A Vasilaki, A McArdle, R Barrett-Jolley, M J Jackson
Motor unit remodelling involving repeated denervation and re-innervation occurs throughout life. The efficiency of this process declines with age contributing to neuromuscular deficits. This study investigated differentially expressed genes (DEG) in muscle following peroneal nerve crush to model motor unit remodelling in C57BL/6 J mice. Muscle RNA was isolated at 3 days post-crush, RNA libraries were generated using poly-A selection, sequenced and analysed using gene ontology and pathway tools. Three hundred thirty-four DEG were found in quiescent muscle from (26mnth) old compared with (4-6mnth) adult mice and these same DEG were present in muscle from adult mice following nerve crush...
January 29, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Tara C Smith, Georgios Vasilakos, Scott A Shaffer, Jason M Puglise, Chih-Hsuan Chou, Elisabeth R Barton, Elizabeth J Luna
BACKGROUND: The sarcoglycan complex (SC) is part of a network that links the striated muscle cytoskeleton to the basal lamina across the sarcolemma. The SC coordinates changes in phosphorylation and Ca++ -flux during mechanical deformation, and these processes are disrupted with loss-of-function mutations in gamma-sarcoglycan (Sgcg) that cause Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2C/R5. METHODS: To gain insight into how the SC mediates mechano-signaling in muscle, we utilized LC-MS/MS proteomics of SC-associated proteins in immunoprecipitates from enriched sarcolemmal fractions...
January 22, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Sujatha Jagannathan, Jessica C de Greef, Lawrence J Hayward, Kyoko Yokomori, Davide Gabellini, Karlien Mul, Sabrina Sacconi, Jamshid Arjomand, June Kinoshita, Scott Q Harper
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the second most common genetic myopathy, characterized by slowly progressing and highly heterogeneous muscle wasting with a typical onset in the late teens/early adulthood [1]. Although the etiology of the disease for both FSHD type 1 and type 2 has been attributed to gain-of-toxic function stemming from aberrant DUX4 expression, the exact pathogenic mechanisms involved in muscle wasting have yet to be elucidated [2-4]. The 2021 FSHD International Research Congress, held virtually on June 24-25, convened over 350 researchers and clinicians to share the most recent advances in the understanding of the disease mechanism, discuss the proliferation of interventional strategies and refinement of clinical outcome measures, including results from the ReDUX4 trial, a phase 2b clinical trial of losmapimod in FSHD [NCT04003974]...
January 17, 2022: Skeletal Muscle
Emma Rose Hinkle, Tasneem Omar Essader, Gabrielle Marie Gentile, Jimena Giudice
BACKGROUND: Measuring biological features of skeletal muscle cells is difficult because of their unique morphology and multinucleate nature upon differentiation. Here, we developed a new Fiji macro package called ViaFuse (that stands for viability and fusion) to measure skeletal muscle cell viability and differentiation. To test ViaFuse, we utilized immunofluorescence images of differentiated myotubes where the capping actin protein of muscle z-line subunit beta (CAPZB) was depleted in comparison with control cells...
December 16, 2021: Skeletal Muscle
Amritpal Dhaliwal, Felicity R Williams, Jonathan I Quinlan, Sophie L Allen, Carolyn Greig, Andrew Filer, Karim Raza, Subrata Ghosh, Gareth G Lavery, Philip N Newsome, Surabhi Choudhary, Leigh Breen, Matthew J Armstrong, Ahmed M Elsharkawy, Janet M Lord
BACKGROUND: Several chronic inflammatory diseases co-exist with and accelerate sarcopenia (reduction in muscle strength, function and mass) and negatively impact on both morbidity and mortality. There is currently limited research on the extent of sarcopenia in such conditions, how to accurately assess it and whether there are generic or disease-specific mechanisms driving sarcopenia. Therefore, this study aims to identify potential mechanisms driving sarcopenia within chronic inflammatory disease via a multi-modal approach; in an attempt to help define potential interventions for future use...
December 11, 2021: Skeletal Muscle
John Girgis, Dabo Yang, Imane Chakroun, Yubing Liu, Alexandre Blais
BACKGROUND: The Six1 transcription factor is implicated in controlling the development of several tissue types, notably skeletal muscle. Six1 also contributes to muscle metabolism and its activity is associated with the fast-twitch, glycolytic phenotype. Six1 regulates the expression of certain genes of the fast muscle program by directly stimulating their transcription or indirectly acting through a long non-coding RNA. We hypothesized that additional mechanisms of action of Six1 might be at play...
November 19, 2021: Skeletal Muscle
Hongyang Xu, Holly Van Remmen
As a key regulator of cellular calcium homeostasis, the Sarcoendoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump acts to transport calcium ions from the cytosol back to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) following muscle contraction. SERCA function is closely associated with muscle health and function, and SERCA activity is susceptible to muscle pathogenesis. For example, it has been well reported that pathological conditions associated with aging, neurodegeneration, and muscular dystrophy (MD) significantly depress SERCA function with the potential to impair intracellular calcium homeostasis and further contribute to muscle atrophy and weakness...
November 12, 2021: Skeletal Muscle
Marta Murgia, Leonardo Nogara, Martina Baraldo, Carlo Reggiani, Matthias Mann, Stefano Schiaffino
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle is composed of three major fiber types, referred to as type 1, 2A, and 2X fibers. This heterogeneous cellular composition complicates the interpretation of studies based on whole skeletal muscle lysate. A single-fiber proteomics approach is required to obtain a fiber-type resolved quantitative information on skeletal muscle pathophysiology. METHODS: Single fibers were dissected from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of young adult males and processed for mass spectrometry-based single-fiber proteomics...
November 2, 2021: Skeletal Muscle
Hayley Goullée, Rhonda L Taylor, Alistair R R Forrest, Nigel G Laing, Gianina Ravenscroft, Joshua S Clayton
BACKGROUND: CRISPR/Cas9 is an invaluable tool for studying cell biology and the development of molecular therapies. However, delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 components into some cell types remains a major hurdle. Primary human myoblasts are a valuable cell model for muscle studies, but are notoriously difficult to transfect. There are currently no commercial lipofection protocols tailored for primary myoblasts, and most generic guidelines simply recommend transfecting healthy cells at high confluency...
September 22, 2021: Skeletal Muscle
Robert W Arpke, Ahmed S Shams, Brittany C Collins, Alexie A Larson, Nguyen Lu, Dawn A Lowe, Michael Kyba
BACKGROUND: Although muscle regenerative capacity declines with age, the extent to which this is due to satellite cell-intrinsic changes vs. environmental changes has been controversial. The majority of aging studies have investigated hindlimb locomotory muscles, principally the tibialis anterior, in caged sedentary mice, where those muscles are abnormally under-exercised. METHODS: We analyze satellite cell numbers in 8 muscle groups representing locomotory and non-locomotory muscles in young and 2-year-old mice and perform transplantation assays of low numbers of hind limb satellite cells from young and old mice...
September 4, 2021: Skeletal Muscle
Olga Mucha, Paulina Podkalicka, Katarzyna Kaziród, Emilia Samborowska, Józef Dulak, Agnieszka Łoboda
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an incurable disease, caused by the mutations in the DMD gene, encoding dystrophin, an actin-binding cytoskeletal protein. Lack of functional dystrophin results in muscle weakness, degeneration, and as an outcome cardiac and respiratory failure. As there is still no cure for affected individuals, the pharmacological compounds with the potential to treat or at least attenuate the symptoms of the disease are under constant evaluation. The pleiotropic agents, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, known as statins, have been suggested to exert beneficial effects in the mouse model of DMD...
September 3, 2021: Skeletal Muscle
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.