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Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology

Cui Shilei, Ito Isao, Nakaji Hitoshi, Iwata Toshiyuki, Matsumoto Hisako, Oguma Tsuyoshi, Tajiri Tomoko, Nagasaki Tadao, Kanemitsu Yoshihiro, Izuhara Hiromi, Mishima Michiaki, Niimi Akio
BACKGROUND: A previous study involving guinea pigs showed that repeated cough could increase peripheral airway smooth muscle area, which can also aggravate cough. The airway pathologic changes produced by prolonged cough are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the airway pathologic changes in prolonged cough models of guinea pigs. METHODS: Guinea pigs were assigned to three treatment groups: citric acid inhalation (CA) alone, citric acid inhalation with codeine pretreatment (COD), or saline solution inhalation (SA)...
February 7, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Manash Saha, Clement Menuet, Qi-Jian Sun, Peter G R Burke, Cara M Hildreth, Andrew M Allen, Jacqueline K Phillips
Respiratory modulation of sympathetic nerve activity (respSNA) was studied in a hypertensive rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) rats and Lewis controls. In adult animals under in vivo anaesthetised conditions (n = 8-10/strain), respiratory modulation of splanchnic and renal nerve activity was compared under control conditions, and during peripheral (hypoxia), and central, chemoreceptor (hypercapnia) challenge. RespSNA was increased in the LPK vs. Lewis (area under curve (AUC) splanchnic and renal: 8...
February 2, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Emily Witte, Yumei Liu, Jaimie L Ward, Katie S Kempf, Alicen Whitaker, Eric D Vidoni, Jesse C Craig, David C Poole, Sandra A Billinger
Despite its necessity for understanding healthy brain aging, the influence of exercise intensity on cerebrovascular kinetics is currently unknown. We, therefore characterized middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) kinetics associated with two exercise intensities: low and moderate. We hypothesized that increasing exercise intensity would increase the MCAv amplitude response (Amp) and that age and estimated fitness (V̇O2max) would be related to Amp. Baseline (BL) values were collected for 90-seconds followed by a 6-minute exercise bout...
January 30, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Zhenshan Zhu, Chuhua Zhang, Li Zhang
The respiration flow pattern plays a key role in fluid flow, heat and mass transfer in human lung airway. To reveal the complex flow pattern within human lung multiple-generation airway, both the steady inspiration and expiration flows are comprehensively studied using laser Doppler velocimetry technique and computational fluid dynamics method for an idealized human tracheobronchial three-generation airway model at two flow rates, corresponding to an adult male breathing under light activity and moderate exercise conditions, respectively...
January 30, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Niloofar Taghizadeh, Alireza Eslaminejad, Mohammad Reza Raoufy
Psychological stress can provoke airway constriction in asthmatic patients, which may be because of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in asthma. We investigated the effect of enhancing respiratory sinus arrhythmia using heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) on spirometry performance and HRV indices during stress induced by Stroop Color-Word interference test in asthmatic patients and healthy volunteers. Stress caused decrease in FEV1%, FVC%, and PEF% compared to baseline in asthmatic patients, but not in healthy subjects...
January 26, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Vasileios Stavrou, Afroditi K Boutou, George D Vavougios, Chaido Pastaka, Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis, Yiannis Koutedakis, Zoe Daniil, Eleni Karetsi
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in order to provide an innovative tool to identify patients with OSAS. A prospective nested case control design was adopted. A consecutive population of male volunteers referred to a Sleep Unit was subjected to nocturnal polysomnography, full lung function testing and maximal CPET. A stepwise linear discriminant function analysis (DFA) was applied to construct a model which could identify individuals with moderate-to-severe OSAS from healthy controls...
January 23, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Lívia Cocato Luiz, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson, Celize Cruz Bresciani Almeida, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera Toro, Anamarli Nucci, José Dirceu Ribeiro
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy(DMD) shows motor and respiratory impairment. METHODS: 19 DMD patients(DMDG) (nine ambulatory and 10 non-ambulatory) were evaluated through motor function measure(MFM), 6-minute walk test(6MWT), respiratory muscle strength, cough peak flow, spirometry and volumetric capnography(VCap) tools. Control group that performed spirometry and VCap(CG1-n = 17) were different from those that performed the 6MWT(CG2-n = 8). RESULTS: The follow tools were assessed (p < 0...
January 17, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Michael La Monica
The objective was to compare the metabolic influence of varying work-to-rest ratios during upper body sprint interval training (SIT). Forty-two recreationally-trained men were randomized into a training group [10 s work - 2 min of rest (10:2) or 4 min of rest (10:4), or 30 s work - 4 min of rest (30:4)] or a control group (CON). Participants underwent six training sessions over two weeks. Assessments consisted of a graded exercise test [maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2 peak) and peak power output (PPO)], four constant-work rate trials [critical power, anaerobic working capacity, and electromyographic fatigue threshold], and an upper body Wingate test (mean/peak power and total work)...
January 17, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Liu Zuoyou, Satomi Shiota, Yoshiteru Morio, Ai Sugiyama, Mitsuaki Sekiya, Shin-Ichiro Iwakami, Hiroki Ienaga, Yoshinosuke Fukuchi, Kazuhisa Takahash
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to lung diseases is classified as group 3 by the Dana Point classification. Given the basic pathophysiological conditions of group 3 lung diseases and the previously well-known concept of hypercapnic pulmonary vasoconstriction, chronic hypercapnia besides alveolar hypoxia might be another causative factor to increase mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAm). Two hundred twenty-five subjects with chronic pulmonary diseases were assessed by a right heart catheterization and blood gas parameters...
January 17, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Chul-Ho Kim, Pavol Sajgalik, Erik Van Iterson, Jae Sy, Bruce D Johnson
This study investigated whether rIPC alters the typical changes in pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary gas exchange associated with exercise in hypoxia. METHODS: 16 healthy adults were randomized to either rIPC treatment (n = 8) or control (n = 8). Afterward, subjects performed supine ergometry at constant load (30 watts, 40˜50 rpm) for 25 min during hypoxia (12.5% O2 ). Following a 90˜120 min rest, either rIPC or sham treatment was performed, which was then followed by post-assessment exercise...
January 15, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Vipa Bernhardt, Dharini M Bhammar, Rubria Marines-Price, Tony G Babb
We hypothesized that weight loss would ameliorate dyspnea on exertion (DOE) and feelings of unpleasantness related to the DOE in obese men. Eighteen men (34 ± 7yr, 35 ± 4 kg/m2 BMI, mean ± SD) participated in a 12-week weight loss program. Body composition, pulmonary function, cardiorespiratory measures, DOE, and unpleasantness (visual analog scale) were assessed before and after weight loss. Subjects were grouped by Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB, Borg 0-10 scale) during submaximal cycling: Ten men rated RPB ≥ 4 (+DOE), eight rated RPB ≤ 2 (-DOE)...
January 15, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Liliane P S Mendes, Luana S Teixeira, Layza J da Cruz, Danielle S R Vieira, Verônica F Parreira
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of flow incentive spirometer (FIS), volume incentive spirometer (VIS), and sustained maximal inspiration exercise (SMI) on breathing pattern, chest wall motion, and thoracoabdominal asynchrony. METHODS: Sixteen healthy adults aged 27.63 ± 5.26 years were evaluated by optoelectronic plethysmography in the supine position with trunk inclination of 45° during quiet breathing and during exercise performance. RESULTS: In the comparisons among exercises, VIS promoted a significantly higher inspiratory time and lower mean inspiratory flow compared with FIS...
January 14, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Raphael R Perim, Gordon S Mitchell
Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) elicits distinct mechanisms of phrenic motor plasticity initiated by brainstem neural network activation versus local (spinal) tissue hypoxia. With moderate AIH (mAIH), hypoxemia activates the carotid body chemoreceptors and (subsequently) brainstem neural networks associated with the peripheral chemoreflex, including medullary raphe serotonergic neurons. Serotonin release and receptor activation in the phrenic motor nucleus then elicits phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF)...
January 10, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Rui Gustavo Dorneles, Franciele Plachi, Ricardo Gass, Vinicius Timm Toniazzo, Paulo Thome, Paulo R Sanches, Marcelo B Gazzana, J Alberto Neder, Danilo C Berton
We aimed to assess detailed ventilatory and sensory responses to exercise contrasting subjects with and without PAH. 20 non-smoking patients with PAH (37.5 ± 12.1 ys; FEV1 /FVC = 0.77 ± 0.04; mPAP by heart catheterization = 50.6 ± 18.1 mmHg) and 10 matched controls performed cycling cardiopulmonary exercise test with serial assessments of dyspnea, airway occlusion pressure during the first 0.1 s (P0.1) of tidal volume and inspiratory capacity (IC). Patients showed lower spirometric variables compared to controls...
January 7, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Yasin B Seven, Gordon S Mitchell
Respiratory motor neuron death arises from multiple neurodegenerative and traumatic neuromuscular disorders. Despite motor neuron death, compensatory mechanisms minimize its functional impact by harnessing intrinsic mechanisms of compensatory respiratory plasticity. However, the capacity for compensation eventually reaches limits and pathology ensues. Initially, challenges to the system such as increased metabolic demand reveal sub-clinical pathology. With greater motor neuron loss, the eventual result is de-compensation, ventilatory failure, ventilator dependence and then death...
January 6, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Jacopo P Mortola
On theoretical grounds any given level of pulmonary or alveolar ventilation can be obtained at various absolute lung volumes and through many combinations of tidal volume, breathing frequency and inspiratory and expiratory timing. However, inspection of specific cases of newborn and adult mammals at rest indicates that the breathing pattern reflects a principle of economy oriented toward minimal respiratory work. The mechanisms that permit optimization of respiratory cost are poorly understood; yet, it is their efficiency and coordination that permits pulmonary ventilation at rest to require only a minimal fraction of resting metabolism...
December 31, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Latoya L Allen, Yasin B Seven, Tracy L Baker, Gordon S Mitchell
Spinal chloride-dependent synaptic inhibition is critical in regulating breathing and requires neuronal chloride gradients established by cation-chloride cotransporters Na+ -K+ -2Cl- (NKCC1) and K+ -Cl- (KCC2). Spinal transection disrupts NKCC1/KCC2 balance, diminishing chloride gradients in neurons below injury, contributing to spasticity and chronic pain. It is not known if similar disruptions in NKCC1/KCC2 balance occur in respiratory motor neurons after incomplete cervical contusion (C2SC). We hypothesized that C2SC disrupts NKCC1/KCC2 balance in phrenic motor neurons...
December 24, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Yoshitaka Isobe, Satoru Ito, Toshiaki Matsuda, Shingo Iwano, Akemi Uchida, Nobunori Takahashi, Toshihisa Kojima, Keiko Wakahara, Etsuro Yamaguchi, Yoshinori Hasegawa
The aim of this study was to examine long-term changes in pulmonary function and respiratory impedance (Zrs) as assessed by forced oscillation technique (FOT) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related pulmonary disorders. Data of 42 RA patients who underwent pulmonary function tests and Zrs measurements at least twice at a >900-day interval were retrospectively reviewed. Zrs, respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs), were measured as a function of oscillatory frequency from 4 to 36 Hz. The Rrs and difference between inspiratory and expiratory phases of Xrs were significantly decreased...
December 21, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Quentin Bretonneau, Aurélien Pichon, Claire de Bisschop
BACKGROUND: During acute bronchial obstruction, despite a higher work of breathing, blood supply and oxygen availability may be reduced in intercostal muscles because of mechanical constraints. This hypothesis was assessed in healthy subjects breathing with and without expiratory load (ETL). METHODS: Eleven men (24 ± 2 years) breathed at rest for 5 min in unloaded condition and for 20 min through a 20-cmH2O ETL. Tissue saturation index (TSI) and changes (Δ) in concentration of total and oxy-haemoglobin ([tHb] and [O2 Hb]) were measured in the seventh intercostal space by near-infrared spectroscopy...
December 21, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ivan Poliacek, Zuzana Kotmanova, Marcel Veternik, Teresa Pitts, Lukas Martvon, Jakub Misek, Jan Jakus, Michal Simera
The role of pulmonary stretch receptor discharge and volume feedback in modulation of tracheobronchial cough is not fully understood. The current study investigates the effect of expiratory occlusion with or without preceding inspiratory resistance (delivery of tidal or cough volume by the ventilator lasting over the active cough expiratory period) on the cough motor pattern. Experiments on 9 male cats under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia have shown that inspiratory resistance followed by expiratory occlusion increased cough inspiratory and expiratory efforts and prolonged several time intervals (phases) related to muscle activation during cough...
December 21, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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