Journals Respiratory Physiology & Neuro...

Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Sarah E Drummond, David P Burns, Karen M O'Connor, Gerard Clarke, Ken D O'Halloran
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are proposed as mediators of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced respiratory plasticity. We sought to determine if NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-derived ROS underpin CIH-induced maladaptive changes in respiratory control. Adult male mice (C57BL/6 J) were assigned to one of three groups: normoxic controls (sham); chronic intermittent hypoxia-exposed (CIH, 12 cycles/hour, 8 h/day for 14 days); and CIH + apocynin (NOX2 inhibitor, 2 mM) given in the drinking water throughout exposure to CIH...
June 8, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Joshua R Smith, Daniel M Hirai, Steven W Copp, Scott K Ferguson, Clark T Holdsworth, K Sue Hageman, David C Poole, Timothy I Musch
Diaphragm muscle blood flow (BF) and vascular conductance (VC) are elevated with chronic heart failure (HF) during exercise. Exercise training (ExT) elicits beneficial respiratory muscle and pulmonary system adaptations in HF. We hypothesized that diaphragm BF and VC would be lower in HF rats following ExT than their sedentary counterparts (Sed). Respiratory muscle BFs and mean arterial pressure were measured via radiolabeled microspheres and carotid artery catheter, respectively, during submaximal treadmill exercise (20 m/min, 5% grade)...
June 3, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Xintong Sui, Wei Liu, Zhi Liu
Exosome is a novel tool with an essential role in cell communication. However, its role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced acute lung injury is currently unknown. Here, we first found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could up-regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promote exosomes release in the murine alveolar macrophage cell line (MHs cells). Moreover, we found MHs cells derived exosomes also maintain the pro-inflammatory effect after LPS stimulation. Treating with hydrochloride hydrate (GW4869) could dose-dependently downregulated the release of exosomes and inhibited the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in MHs cells with LPS treatment...
June 3, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Antonio Viruez-Soto, Mónica Marlene López-Dávalos, Gabriel Rada-Barrera, Alfredo Merino-Luna, Daniel Molano-Franco, Amílcar Tinoco-Solorozano, Natalia Zubieta-DeUrioste, Gustavo Zubieta-Calleja, Christian Arias-Reyes, Jorge Soliz
Previous studies suggested that erythropoietin (EPO) may protect against severe COVID-19-induced injuries, ultimately preventing mortality. This hypothesis is based on the fact that, in addition to promoting the increase in red blood cells, EPO is an anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and protective factor in several non-erythropoietic tissues. Furthermore, EPO promotes nitric oxide production in the hypoxic lung and stimulates ventilation by interacting with the respiratory centers of the brainstem. Given that EPO in the blood is increased at high-altitude, we evaluated the serum levels of EPO in critical patients with COVID-19 at "Hospital Agramont" in the city of El Alto (4,150 masl) in Bolivia...
June 1, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Yuewei Xu, Xiaoming Gao, Li Wang, Manqin Yang, Ruonan Xie
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common cerebrovascular disease with high mortality. Bakuchiol (BAK), extracted from the seeds of psoralea corylifolia, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on lung, kidney and heart injuries. However, the effect of BAK on brain I/R injury remains elusive. In our study, a cerebral I/R model in mice was established by 1-h middle cerebral artery occlusion and 24-h reperfusion (1-h MCAO/24-h R). Prior to it, mice were gavaged with BAK (2.5 or 5 mg/kg) per day for 5 days...
June 1, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Dimitrios I Bourdas, Nickos D Geladas
Ten subjects were tested on a cycle ergometer to exhaustion with intensity corresponding to 150 % of their peak power output (TF150) under three conditions [C: base line measurement; PRE: after five repeated breath hold maneuvers (BH); and POST: after 5BH, preceded by two weeks of BH training]. Respiratory and blood measurements were carried out. Upon cessation of 5BH, subjects compared to C condition started TF150 with reduced arterialized blood pH (C:7.428±0.023, PRE:7.419±0.016, POST:7.398±0.021) and elevated bicarbonate concentration (mmol/l), ventilation (l/min) and oxygen uptake (ml/min) (C:28...
June 1, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Martin Dres, Pierantonio Laveneziana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 31, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Olympe Nahmias, Ophélie Ritter, Yoshimasa Sagawa, Pauline Roux, Bruno Degano, Thibaud Soumagne
INTRODUCTION: Eccentric (ECC) cycling is viewed as an alternative to concentric (CON) cycling for exercise training in patients with severe COPD as it induces a much lower ventilatory demand for a given mechanical load than CON cycling. However, a more hyperpneic breathing pattern (i.e., higher fB and lower tidal volume (VT)) during ECC than during CON has been reported in healthy subjects. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do patients with severe COPD develop a more hyperpneic breathing pattern during ECC than during CON cycling, and is it associated with differences in dynamic hyperinflation, ventilatory efficiency and cardiometabolic adaptation? METHODS: Fourteen patients with severe COPD performed incremental CON and ECC cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET)...
May 29, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Renato Lima Vitorasso, Maria Aparecida de Oliveira, Wothan Tavares-de-Lima, Henrique Takachi Moriya
Balb/c mice respiratory mechanics was studied in two intravenous methacholine (MCh) protocols: bolus and continuous infusion. The Constant Phase Model (CPM) was used in this study. The harmonic distortion index ( kd ) was used to assess the respiratory system nonlinearity. The analysis of variance showed difference between groups (OVA vs control) and among doses for both protocols. Bolus protocol posttest: there was a difference between OVA and control at 0.3 and 1 mg/kg doses (p<0.0001 and p<0.001) for Rn ...
May 29, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Pauline Michel-Flutot, Lyandysha V Zholudeva, Margo L Randelman, Therese B Deramaudt, Arnaud Mansart, Jean-Claude Alvarez, Kun-Ze Lee, Michel Petitjean, Marcel Bonay, Michael A Lane, Stéphane Vinit
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising, innovative, and non-invasive therapy used clinically. Efficacy of rTMS has been demonstrated to ameliorate psychiatric disorders and neuropathic pain through neuromodulation of affected neural circuits. However, little is known about the mechanisms and the specific neural circuits via which rTMS facilitates these functional effects. The aim of this study was to begin revealing the mechanisms by which rTMS may tap into existing neural circuits, by using a well characterized spinal motor circuit - the phrenic circuit...
May 28, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ankit Tripathi, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Sarada S K Sagi
We have compared the prophylactic efficacies of quercetin and salbutamol in preventing pulmonary surfactants oxidation under hypoxia. Male SD rats supplemented orally with quercetin (50 mg/Kg BW) and salbutamol (2 mg/Kg BW) were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (7,620 m for 6 h). Hypoxia-mediated elevation in oxidative stress, inflammation, and extravasations of LDH & albumin content in BALF of rats were assessed. Western blotting and mRNA studies determined the differential expressions of Nrf-2, HO-1, and associated surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, & SP-D) in rat lungs...
May 27, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Amy Fullerton, Yuhan Mou, Natalie Silver, Neil N Chheda, Kathryn Hitchcock, Karen Hegland
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in reflexive and volitional cough airflows in advanced stage head and neck cancer survivors as it relates to aspiration status and time since treatment. The hypothesis is that those who aspirate several years after treatment completion would demonstrate reduced airflows for all cough parameters compared to those recently status post treatment completion given the known progressive deterioration associated with radiotherapy...
May 22, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Bai-Ting He, Ying-Mei Luo, Li-Shuang Wang, Yong-Yi Chen, Caroline Jolley, Joerg Steier, John Moxham, Michael L Polkey, Yuanming Luo
BACKGROUND: A fall of ≥ 20% in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) with a cumulative dose of histamine ≤ 7.8 µmol is considered to indicate bronchial hyperactivity, but no method exists for patients who cannot perform spirometry properly. Here we hypothesized that increases in respiratory central output measured by chest wall electromyography of the diaphragm (EMGdi-c) expressed as a function of tidal volume (EMGdi-c/VT) would have discriminative power to detect a 'positive' challenge test...
May 18, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Miao Lou, Luyao Zhang, Jingbin Zhang, Ruiping Ma, Minjie Gong, Zhenzhen Hu, Simin Wang, Ya Zhang, Guoxi Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of endoscopic endonasal surgery on nasal function for the treatment of clival chordoma. METHODS: Pre and post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans of a case of chordoma treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) were collected retrospectively, and models of the nasal cavity were reconstructed so that a subsequent numerical simulation of nasal airflow characteristics, warming, and humidification could be conducted. RESULTS: Middle turbinectomy resulted in redistribution of airflow within the nasal cavity, and the most significant changes occurred in the middle section...
May 18, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Hang Li, Hannah L Martin, Jeffrey R Marcus, Dennis O Frank-Ito
This study evaluates the impact of unilateral cleft lip nasal deformity (uCLND) on the ability of the nasal passages to warm and humidify inspired environmental air using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Nasal air conditioning was simulated at resting inspiration in ten individuals with uCLND and seven individuals with normal anatomy. The overall heat and water transfer through nasal mucosa was significantly greater (p = 0.02 for both heat and moisture fluxes) on the non-cleft side than on the cleft side...
May 18, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Keiichi Oyanagi, Atsuhiro Tsubaki
This study aimed to examine whether the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PEtCO2 ) affects the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2 Hb) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants were examined under the conditions of normal and increased ventilation. We measured O2 Hb, mean blood pressure, skin blood flow, PEtCO2 , respiratory rate, and minute volume at 30% of the maximum oxygen uptake during exercise. ΔO2 Hb and PEtCO2 during exercise were lower in the increased ventilation than in the normal ventilation condition...
May 13, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Mohammad Moniripiri, Hossein Amjadimanesh, Mohammad Faramarzi, Sasan Sadrizadeh, Omid Abouali
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is performed to treat sinusitis when treatment with medication fails. In the present study, three different virtual maxillary sinus endoscopic surgeries were performed. They included only uncinectomy, uncinectomy +8 mm Middle Meatal Antrostomy (MMA), and uncinectomy +18 mm MMA on a realistic 3-D computational model of the nasal cavity of an adult male have been performed under the supervision of a specialist. Simulations were performed for two human activity respiratory rates, including rest and moderate activities, and effects of different surgeries and respiratory rates on maxillary sinus were investigated...
May 11, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Eui-Sik Suh, Rebecca F D'Cruz, Michelle Ramsay, Joerg Steier, Caroline J Jolley, Charles C Reilly, Nicholas Hart, John Moxham, Patrick B Murphy, Gerrard F Rafferty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Huaheng Mo, JingJing Zhao, Xiaofeng Wu, Wei Liu, Ke Hu
OBJECTIVE: Exploring whether the genioglossus discharge in chronic intermittent hypoxia(CIH) - pretreated rats could be enhanced by intermittent electrical stimulation combined with acute intermittent hypoxia(AIH). METHODS: Rats were pretreated with CIH for 4 weeks and then were randomly divided into 6 groups: time control, intermittent electric stimulation, AIH, intermittent electric stimulation + AIH, continuous electric stimulation and continuous hypoxia exposure...
May 7, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Alessandra Magini, Gerald S Zavorsky, Anna Apostolo, Mauro Contini, Simone Barbieri, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
BACKGROUND: Alveolar-capillary membrane diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DMCO) and pulmonary capillary volume (Vcap) can be estimated by the multi-step Roughton and Foster (RF, original method from 1957) or the single-step NO-CO double diffusion technique (developed in the 1980s). The latter method implies inherent assumptions. We sought to determine which combination of the alveolar membrane diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DMNO) to DMCO ratio, an specific conductance of the blood for NO (θNO ) and CO (θCO ) gave the lowest week-to-week variability in patients with heart failure...
May 4, 2021: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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