Journals Respiratory Physiology & Neuro...

Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Shiqian Zha, Xu Liu, Hao Chen, Yueying Hao, Jingyi Zhang, Qingfeng Zhang, Ke Hu
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) and intermittent transcutaneous electrical stimulation (ITES) might benefit patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the therapeutic value of combined IH and ITES in OSA is unknown. In this prospective, randomized, controlled crossover study, normoxia (air exposure for 50min before sleep and sham stimulation for 6h during sleep), IH (5 repeats of 5min 10-12% O2 alternating with 5min air for 50min, and sham stimulation for 6h), ITES (air exposure for 50min and 6 repeats of 30min transcutaneous electrical stimulation alternating with 30min of sham stimulation for 6h), and IH&ITES (10-12% O2 alternating with air for 50min and transcutaneous electrical stimulation alternating with sham stimulation for 6h) were administered to patients with OSA over four single-night sessions...
June 15, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Pu Wang, Mei-Yun Chang, Hai-Yen Hsia, Meng Dai, Yifan Liu, Yeong-Long Hsu, Feng Fu, Zhanqi Zhao
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the influence of different spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) on regional ventilation distribution in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). METHODS: A total of 24 patients with PMV were analyzed retrospectively. They received three different SBT modes which are automatic tube compensation (ATC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and T-piece (TP), over three days, and every SBT lasted two hours. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) was used to monitor the SBT process and five-minute EIT data from five periods (pre-SBT which is t0, at the beginning and the end of the first hour SBT are t1 and t2, at the beginning and the end of the second hour SBT are t3 and t4) were analyzed...
June 13, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Fausta Viccaro, Altea Lecci, Valentina Baccolini, Antonio Sciurti, Daniel Piamonti, Maurizio Inghilleri, Letizia D'Antoni, Paolo Palange
Assessing cough effectiveness, using Cough Peak Flow, is crucial for patients with Neuromuscular Diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Impaired cough function can contribute to respiratory decline and failure. The goal of the study is to determine the correlation between diaphragmatic excursion and cough expiratory phase, potentially utilizing ultrasonographic indices to estimate Cough Peak Flow in these patients. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in this study. The upward displacement of the diaphragm was measured with ultrasonography during voluntary cough expiration and Cough Peak Flow was simultaneously measured...
June 13, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Abed A Hijleh, Danilo C Berton, Igor Neder-Serafini, Matthew James, Sandra Vincent, Nicolle Domnik, Devin Phillips, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
Activity-related dyspnea in chronic lung disease is centrally related to dynamic (dyn ) inspiratory constraints to tidal volume expansion. Lack of reference values for exertional inspiratory reserve (IR) has limited the yield of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in exposing the underpinnings of this disabling symptom. One hundred fifty apparently healthy subjects (82 males) aged 40 to 85 underwent incremental cycle ergometry. Based on exercise inspiratory capacity (ICdyn ), we generated centile-based reference values for the following metrics of IR as a function of absolute ventilation: IRdyn1 ([1-(tidal volume/ICdyn )] x 100) and IRdyn2 ([1-(end-inspiratory lung volume/total lung capacity] x 100)...
June 11, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Daniel Piamonti, Luigi Panza, Roberto Flore, Valentina Baccolini, Daniela Pellegrino, Arianna Sanna, Altea Lecci, Giulia Lo Muzio, Dario Angelone, Flavio Marco Mirabelli, Matteo Morviducci, Paolo Onorati, Emanuele Messina, Valeria Panebianco, Carlo Catalano, Matteo Bonini, Paolo Palange
BACKGROUND: Long COVID is defined as persistency of symptoms, such as exertional dyspnea, twelve weeks after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ventilatory efficiency by the use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with exertional dyspnea despite normal basal spirometry after 18 (T18 ) and 36 months (T36 ) from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: One hundred patients with moderate-critical COVID-19 were prospectively enrolled in our Long COVID program...
May 31, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ruzanna A Shushanyan, Nikolay V Avtandilyan, Anna V Grigoryan, Anna F Karapetyan
High-altitude environments present extreme conditions characterized by low barometric pressure and oxygen deficiency, which can disrupt brain functioning and cause edema formation. The objective of the present study is to investigate several biomolecule expressions and their role in the development of High Altitude Cerebral Edema in a rat model. Specifically, the study focuses on analyzing the changes in total arginase, nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels in the brain following acute hypobaric hypoxic exposure (7620 m, SO2 =8...
May 31, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Nina Pavlovna Aleksandrova, Galina Anatolevna Danilova
The goal of the current study was to identify the role of the glucocorticoids in the respiratory effects of proinflammatory cytokines. For this purpose intravenous injections of TNF-α were used in anesthetized spontaneously breathing rats before and after pretreatment of dexamethasone, a synthetic steroid with predominant glucocorticoid activity. Dexamethasone was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 1 mg/kg. TNF-α was administrated into the tail vein at a dose of 40 mg/kg. We found that dexamethasone pretreatment eliminated the cytokine-induced increase in pulmonary ventilation and decrease in the hypoxic ventilatory response...
May 31, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
B Koirala, A Concas, A Cincotti, Yi Sun, HernandezA Hernández, M L Goodwin, L B Gladden, N Lai
The utilization of continuous wave (CW) near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device to measure non-invasively muscle oxygenation in healthy and disease states is limited by the uncertainties related to the differential path length factor (DPF). DPF value is required to quantify oxygenated and deoxygenated heme groups' concentration changes from measurement of optical densities by NIRS. An integrated approach that combines animal and computational models of oxygen transport and utilization was used to estimate the DPF value in situ...
May 22, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Angela L Roger, Debolina D Biswas, Meredith L Huston, Davina Le, Aidan M Bailey, Logan A Pucci, Yihan Shi, Jacqueline Robinson-Hamm, Charles A Gersbach, Mai K ElMallah
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common X-linked disease. DMD is caused by a lack of dystrophin, a critical structural protein in striated muscle. Dystrophin deficiency leads to inflammation, fibrosis, and muscle atrophy. Boys with DMD have progressive muscle weakness within the diaphragm that results in respiratory failure in the 2nd or 3rd decade of life. The most common DMD mouse model - the mdx mouse - is not sufficient for evaluating genetic medicines that specifically target the human DMD (hDMD) gene sequence...
May 21, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Gijnovefa Kola, Eriko Hamada, Rishi R Dhingra, Frank J Jacono, Thomas E Dick, Denise Dewald, Kingman P Strohl, Thomaz Fleury-Curado, Mathias Dutschmann
Shape and size of the nasopharyngeal airway is controlled by muscles innervated facial, glossopharyngeal, vagal, and hypoglossal cranial nerves. Contrary to brainstem networks that drive facial, vagal and hypoglossal nerve activities (FNA, VNA, HNA) the discharge patterns and origins of glossopharyngeal nerve activity (GPNA) remain poorly investigated. Here, an in situ perfused brainstem preparation (n=19) was used for recordings of GPNA in relation to phrenic (PNA), FNA, VNA and HNA. Brainstem transections were performed (n=10/19) to explore the role of pontomedullary synaptic interactions in generating GPNA...
May 18, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
James Manifield, Charikleia Alexiou, Dimitrios Megaritis, Katherine Baker, Nicola Adams, Gill Barry, Ioannis Vogiatzis
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on inspiratory muscle strength, functional capacity and respiratory muscle kinematics during exercise in healthy older adults. METHODS: 24 adults were randomised into an IMT or SHAM-IMT group. Both groups performed 30 breaths, twice daily, for 8 weeks, at intensities of ~50% maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax; IMT) or <15% PImax (SHAM-IMT). Measurements of PImax, breathing discomfort during a bout of IMT, six-minute walk distance, physical activity levels, and balance were assessed pre- and post-intervention...
May 10, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Sajad Eshaghi, Hassan Khaleghi, Reza Maddahian
The objective of this study is to explore the transport, size growth, and deposition of Salbutamol Sulphate (SS) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). A CT-based realistic model of human airways from the oral cavity to the 5th generation of the lung was utilized as the computational domain. Four Test Cases (TC) with varying temperature and relative humidity (RH) under two inspiratory waveforms were considered to completely evaluate the impact of inhalation conditions on particle growth. Salbutamol Sulphate (SS) is a β2-adrenergic agonist and has been extensively used for asthma treatment...
May 2, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Carlos Eduardo Santos, Luis Felipe da Fonseca Reis, Sidney Fernandes da Silva, Iasmim Maria Pereira Pinto Fonseca, Wellington de Oliveira Pereira, Laura Franco Pessoa, Paolo Blanco Villela, Agnaldo José Lopes
This study aimed to evaluate the presence of dynamic hyperinflation (DH) during the Glittre-ADL test (TGlittre) coupled to the dynamic ventilation measurements in people with central obesity (pwCO) and to correlate it with lung mechanics at rest. Sixty-four pwCO underwent TGlittre and the following resting lung function tests: spirometry and impulse oscillometry system (IOS). On TGlittre, 22 participants presented DH at the end of the test (DH group), while 42 did not present DH (NDH group). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) were higher in the DH group than in the NDH group...
April 28, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Renato Filogonio, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Joseph Santin
The neural control of breathing exhibits sex differences. There is now a large effort to account for biological sex in mammalian research, but the degree to which ectothermic vertebrates exhibit sex differences in the central control of breathing is not well-established. Therefore, we compared respiratory-related neural activity in brainstem-spinal cord preparations from female and male bullfrogs to determine if important aspects of the central control of breathing vary with sex. We found that the breathing pattern was similar across males and females, but baseline frequency of the respiratory network was faster in females...
April 28, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Leonardo Cesanelli, Federico Cesanelli, Hans Degens, Danguole Satkunskiene
The aim of this study was to characterize the breathing patterns of individuals with obesity during routine activities such as sitting and standing, and to identify potential contributors to alterations in these patterns. Measurements performed in 20 male subjects with obesity (BMI, 31.8±1.5kg/m2 ) and 20 controls (BMI, 23.5±1.4kg/m2 ) included anthropometric parameters, breathing-patterns in sitting and standing positions, spirometry, maximal respiratory pressures, and diaphragm B-mode ultrasonography...
April 26, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Ahmad Hamdan, Sarin Rungmanee, Nithita Sattaratpaijit, Nader Shammout, B Tucker Woodson, Guilherme J M Garcia
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients who use continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) often complain of nasal dryness and nasal obstruction as side effects of CPAP. The physiological mechanisms by which CPAP may cause nasal dryness and nasal obstruction remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that CPAP interferes with the nasal cycle, abolishing the resting phase of the cycle and leading to nasal dryness. We performed rhinomanometry measurements in 31 OSA patients sitting, laid supine, and supine after 10minutes of CPAP at 10 cmH2 O...
April 26, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Kenta Kawamura, Kazumichi Ae, Rinri Uematsu, Kazuto Yamaguchi, Kazuhide Tomita
For measurements of exercise intensity, an individual's oxygen uptake (V̇O2 ) is measured with an exhaled gas analyzer that involves a mask, but exercise coaching would benefit if an individual's V̇O2 could be estimated with more easily obtained predictors. We investigated the predictability of V̇O2 by electromyography (EMG) of the neck inspiratory muscles. We analyzed the EMG results of the sternocleidomastoid (EMGst) and scalene (EMGsc) muscles of 14 healthy adults who performed a treadmill exercise load test...
April 23, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Louis Gélinas, Andrés Rojas-Ruiz, Magali Boucher, Cyndi Henry, Ynuk Bossé
Eight pig tracheal strips were stimulated to contract with log increments of methacholine from 10-8 to 10-5 M. For each strip, the concentration-response was repeated four times in a randomized order to measure isometric force, isotonic shortening against a load corresponding to either 5 or 10 % of a reference force, and average force, stiffness, elastance and resistance over one cycle while the strip length was oscillating sinusoidally by 5 % at 0.2 Hz. For each readout, the logEC50 was calculated and compared...
April 9, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Franciele Plachi, Fernanda Machado Balzan, Ricardo Gass, Kimberli D Käfer, Artur Zanelatto Santos, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, JAlberto Neder, Danilo C Berton
The causes and consequences of excess exercise ventilation (EEV) in patients with fibrosing interstitial lung disease (f-ILD) were explored. Twenty-eight adults with f-ILD and 13 controls performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test. EEV was defined as ventilation-carbon dioxide output (⩒E-⩒CO2 ) slope ≥36L/L. Patients showed lower pulmonary function and exercise capacity compared to controls. Lower DLCO was related to higher ⩒E-⩒CO2 slope in patients (P<0.05)...
March 28, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Leah M Mann, Jason S Chan, Sarah A Angus, Connor J Doherty, Benjamin P Thompson, Glen E Foster, Paolo B Dominelli
We sought to determine if peripheral hypercapnic chemosensitivity is related to expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise. Twenty participants completed one testing day which consisted of peripheral hypercapnic chemosensitivity testing and a maximal exercise test to exhaustion. The chemosensitivity testing consisting of two breaths of 10% CO2 (O2 ~21%) repeated 5 times during seated rest and the first 2 exercise intensities during the maximal exercise test. Following chemosensitivity testing, participants continued cycling with the intensity increasing 20W every 1...
March 27, 2024: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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