Somayeh Jafari, Marc E Bouillon, Xu-Feng Huang, Stephen G Pyne, Francesca Fernandez-Enright
BACKGROUND: Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug with high clinical efficacy, but which can cause severe weight gain and metabolic disorders in treated patients. Blockade of the histamine 1 (H1) receptors is believed to play a crucial role in olanzapine induced weight gain, whereas the therapeutic effects of this drug are mainly attributed to its favourable serotoninergic 2A and dopamine 2 (5HT2A/D2) receptor binding affinity ratios. RESULTS: We have synthesized novel olanzapine analogues 8a and 8b together with the already known derivative 8c and we have examined their respective in vitro affinities for the 5HT2A, D2, and H1 receptors...
June 22, 2012: BMC Pharmacology
Niina Aaltonen, Marko Lehtonen, Katri Varonen, Gemma Arrufat Goterris, Jarmo T Laitinen
BACKGROUND: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signalling phospholipid with multiple biological functions, mainly mediated through specific G protein-coupled receptors. Aberrant LPA signalling is being increasingly implicated in the pathology of common human diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and cancer. The lifetime of the signalling pool of LPA is controlled by the equilibrium between synthesizing and degradative enzymatic activity. In the current study, we have characterized these enzymatic pathways in rat brain by pharmacologically manipulating the enzymatic machinery required for LPA degradation...
June 11, 2012: BMC Pharmacology
Thomas A Munro, Loren M Berry, Ashlee Van't Veer, Cécile Béguin, F Ivy Carroll, Zhiyang Zhao, William A Carlezon, Bruce M Cohen
BACKGROUND: Nor-BNI, GNTI and JDTic induce κ opioid antagonism that is delayed by hours and can persist for months. Other effects are transient. It has been proposed that these drugs may be slowly absorbed or distributed, and may dissolve in cell membranes, thus slowing elimination and prolonging their effects. Recent evidence suggests, instead, that they induce prolonged desensitization of the κ opioid receptor. METHODS: To evaluate these hypotheses, we measured relevant physicochemical properties of nor-BNI, GNTI and JDTic, and the timecourse of brain and plasma concentrations in mice after intraperitoneal administration (using LC-MS-MS)...
May 29, 2012: BMC Pharmacology
Robert Patrick Davis, Jill Pattison, Janice M Thompson, Ruslan Tiniakov, Karie E Scrogin, Stephanie W Watts
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) delivered over 1 week results in a sustained fall in blood pressure in the sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. We hypothesized 5-HT lowers blood pressure through direct receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. In vivo, 5-HT reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance during a 1 week infusion of 5-HT (25 µg/kg/min) in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat. The mesenteric vasculature was chosen as an ideal candidate for the site of 5-HT receptor mediated vascular relaxation given the high percentage of cardiac output the site receives...
May 6, 2012: BMC Pharmacology
John Cuppoletti, Anthony T Blikslager, Jayati Chakrabarti, Prashant K Nighot, Danuta H Malinowska
BACKGROUND: Linaclotide has been proposed as a treatment for the same gastrointestinal indications for which lubiprostone has been approved, chronic idiopathic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Stressors damage the epithelial cell barrier and cellular homeostasis leading to loss of these functions. Effects of active linaclotide on repair of barrier and cell function in pig jejunum after ischemia and in T84 cells after treatment with proinflammatory cytokines, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α were examined...
May 3, 2012: BMC Pharmacology
Aiying Wang, Charles Dorso, Lisa Kopcho, Gregory Locke, Robert Langish, Eric Harstad, Petia Shipkova, Jovita Marcinkeviciene, Lawrence Hamann, Mark S Kirby
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors have clinical benefit in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing levels of glucose-lowering incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide -1 (GLP-1), a peptide with a short half life that is secreted for approximately 1 hour following a meal. Since drugs with prolonged binding to their target have been shown to maximize pharmacodynamic effects while minimizing drug levels, we developed a time-dependent inhibitor that has a half-life for dissociation from DPP4 close to the duration of the first phase of GLP-1 release...
April 4, 2012: BMC Pharmacology
Vinita Periwal, Shireesha Kishtapuram, Vinod Scaria
BACKGROUND: The emergence of Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in pandemic proportions throughout the world and the paucity of novel therapeutics for tuberculosis have re-iterated the need to accelerate the discovery of novel molecules with anti-tubercular activity. Though high-throughput screens for anti-tubercular activity are available, they are expensive, tedious and time-consuming to be performed on large scales. Thus, there remains an unmet need to prioritize the molecules that are taken up for biological screens to save on cost and time...
March 31, 2012: BMC Pharmacology
Paul J Kammermeier
BACKGROUND: The efficacy, potency, and selectivity of the compound 2-Chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG), a nominally selective agonist for metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), were examined with select mGluRs by examining their ability to induce modulation of the native voltage dependent ion channels in isolated sympathetic neurons from the rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG). SCG neurons offer a null mGluR-background in which specific mGluR subtypes can be made to express via intranuclear cDNA injection...
2012: BMC Pharmacology
Jessica Stahl, Mareike Wohlert, Manfred Kietzmann
BACKGROUND: The transdermal application of substances represents an elegant approach to overcome side effects related to injections or oral treatment. Due to benefits like a constant plasma level, no pain during application and a simple therapeutic regime, the optimization of formulations for transdermal drug delivery has gained interest in the last decades. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compound which is nowadays often used transdermally. The objective of this work was to conduct a study on the effect of different 5% ibuprofen containing formulations (Ibutop® cream, Ibutop® gel, and ibuprofen solution in phosphate buffered saline) on the in vitro-percutaneous permeation of ibuprofen through skin to emphasise the importance of the formulation on percutaneous permeation and skin reservoir...
December 14, 2011: BMC Pharmacology
Jacob D Durrant, J Andrew McCammon
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) is an infectious agent for which drug development has been largely neglected. We here use a recently developed computer program called AutoGrow to add interacting molecular fragments to S5, a known inhibitor of the validated T. brucei drug target RNA editing ligase 1, in order to improve its predicted binding affinity. RESULTS: The proposed binding modes of the resulting compounds mimic that of ATP, the native substrate, and provide insights into novel protein-ligand interactions that may be exploited in future drug-discovery projects...
August 30, 2011: BMC Pharmacology
Tamaki Hayase
BACKGROUND: The contributions of brain cannabinoid (CB) receptors, typically CB1 (CB type 1) receptors, to the behavioral effects of nicotine (NC) have been reported to involve brain transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors, and the activation of candidate endogenous TRPV1 ligands is expected to be therapeutically effective. In the present study, the effects of TRPV1 ligands with or without affinity for CB1 receptors were examined on NC-induced depression-like behavioral alterations in a mouse model in order to elucidate the "antidepressant-like" contributions of TRPV1 receptors against the NC-induced "depression" observed in various types of tobacco abuse...
July 18, 2011: BMC Pharmacology
Chieko Kudo, Hiroyuki Yamakoshi, Atsuko Sato, Hiroshi Nanjo, Hisatsugu Ohori, Chikashi Ishioka, Yoshiharu Iwabuchi, Hiroyuki Shibata
BACKGROUND: Curcumin is known to possess many anti-tumor properties such as inhibition of tumor growth and induction of apotosis. However, limited bioavailability of curcumin prevents its clinical application. A synthesized curcumin analog, 1,5-diaryl-3-oxo-1,4-pentadiene such as GO-Y030, has the improved anti-tumor potential in vitro as well as in mouse model of colorectal carcinogenesis. RESULTS: These compounds were divided into two groups; one is the higher anti-proliferative group, in which 79...
May 28, 2011: BMC Pharmacology
W Dimpfel, J A Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Rasagiline, a new drug developed to treat Parkinson's disease, is known to inhibit monoamine oxidase B. However, its metabolite R-(-)-aminoindan does not show this kind of activity. The present series of in vitro experiments using the rat hippocampal slice preparation deals with effects of both compounds on the pyramidal cell response after electric stimulation of the Schaffer Collaterals in comparison to selegiline, another MAO B inhibitor. METHOD: Stimulation of the Schaffer Collaterals by single stimuli (SS) or theta burst stimulation (TBS) resulted in stable responses of pyramidal cells measured as population spike amplitude (about 1 mV under control SS conditions or about 2 mV after TBS)...
February 21, 2011: BMC Pharmacology
Olivier Dellis, Pierre Mercier, Christine Chomienne
BACKGROUND: Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) is the major Ca2+ ion entry pathway in lymphocytes and is responsible of a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) when deficient. It has recently been observed or highlighted in other cell types such as myoblasts and neurons, suggesting a wider physiological role of this pathway. Whereas Orai1 protein is considered to be the channel allowing the SOCE in T cells, it is hypothesized that other proteins like TRPC could associate with Orai1 to form SOCE with different pharmacology and kinetics in other cell types...
January 26, 2011: BMC Pharmacology
Tina C Wan, Dilip K Tosh, Lili Du, Elizabeth T Gizewski, Kenneth A Jacobson, John A Auchampach
BACKGROUND: When stimulated by small molecular agonists, the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) mediates cardioprotective effects without inducing detrimental hemodynamic side effects. We have examined pharmacologically the protective properties of a multivalent dendrimeric conjugate of a nucleoside as a selective multivalent agonist for the mouse A3AR. RESULTS: A PAMAM dendrimer fully substituted by click chemistry on its peripheral groups with 64 moieties of a nucleoside agonist was shown to be potent and selective in binding to the mouse A3AR and effective in cardioprotection in an isolated mouse heart model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
2011: BMC Pharmacology
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2011: BMC Pharmacology
Elizabeth Chia, Satomi Kagota, Enoka P Wijekoon, John J McGuire
BACKGROUND: Under conditions of cardiovascular dysfunction, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) agonists maintain vasodilatation activity, which has been attributed to increased cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide synthase and calcium-activated potassium channel (SK3.1) activities. Protease-activated receptor 2 agonist mediated vasodilatation is unknown under conditions of dysfunction caused by angiotensin II. The main purpose of our study was to determine whether PAR2-induced vasodilatation of resistance arteries was attenuated by prolonged angiotensin II treatment in mice...
2011: BMC Pharmacology
Linda Palma, Carla Sfara, Antonella Antonelli, Mauro Magnani
BACKGROUND: Since its recent discovery, interleukin-23 has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases favoring the development of a T cell subset referred to as T helper 17. Glucocorticoids are widely employed in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases as they inhibit pro-inflammatory signaling and prevent production of inflammation mediators. Very limited information is available about the efficacy of synthetic glucocorticoids in containing the expression of interleukin-23 under cell activation...
2011: BMC Pharmacology
Elizabeth Alli, Vandana B Sharma, Anne-Renee Hartman, Patrick S Lin, Lisa McPherson, James M Ford
BACKGROUND: Breast cancers due to germline mutations or altered expression of the BRCA1 gene associate with an aggressive clinical course and frequently exhibit a "triple-negative" phenotype, i.e. lack of expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and lack of overexpression of the HER2/NEU oncogene, thereby rendering them relatively insensitive to hormonal manipulation and targeted HER2 therapy, respectively. BRCA1 plays a role in multiple DNA repair pathways, and thus, when mutated, results in sensitivity to certain DNA damaging drugs...
2011: BMC Pharmacology
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