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Rafał Marciniec, Emil Zięba, Krystyna Winiarczyk
During meiosis in microsporogenesis, autonomous cellular organelles, i.e., plastids and mitochondria, move and separate into daughter cells according to a specific pattern. This process called chondriokinesis is characteristic for a given plant species. The key criterion for classification of the chondriokinesis types was the arrangement of cell organelles during two meiosis phases: metaphase I and telophase I. The autonomous organelles participate in cytoplasmic inheritance; therefore, their precise distribution to daughter cells determines formation of identical viable microspores...
March 9, 2019: Protoplasma
Camille Rivard, Laurie Amenc, Samia Benlahrech, Bouchra Makoudi, Mustapha Teffahi, Hiram A Castillo-Michel, Marine Cotte, Benedikt Lassalle-Kaiser, Jean-Jacques Drevon
Sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) are essential elements for plant growth and physiological functioning. Their deficiency can limit N2 fixation and nodule development in nodulated legumes. The location of S within nodule tissues could provide insights into S metabolism and its little-known relationship with N2 fixation. Determinate and indeterminate nodules were inoculated with specific rhizobia and grown hydroaeroponically under sufficient versus deficient P supplies. Cryogenic and freeze-dried thin sections of nodules at the flowering stage were mapped using synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to determine the S distribution within the nodule tissues with a spatial resolution of 2 or 3 μm...
March 5, 2019: Protoplasma
Anna Piekarska-Stachowiak, Joanna Szymanowska-Pułka, Izabela Potocka, Marcin Lipowczan
The topology of a cellular pattern, which means the spatial arrangement of cells, directly corresponds with cell packing, which is crucial for tissue and organ functioning. The topological features of cells that are typically analyzed are the number of their neighbors and the cell area. To date, the objects of most topological studies have been the growing cells of the surface tissues of plant and animal organs. Some of these researches also provide verification of Lewis's Law concerning the linear correlation between the number of neighboring cells and the cell area...
March 5, 2019: Protoplasma
Pallavi Singh, Hussain Ara, Sumaira Tayyeba, Chandana Pandey, Alok Krishna Sinha
Exhaustive studies on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) have reported the importance in regulating a variety of responses during plant growth and development. In particular, the potential MAPK genes, MPK3 and MPK6, seem to regulate a plethora of responses, conferring tolerance to varied abiotic, biotic, and developmental stimuli. This makes both MPK3 and MPK6 potential targets for further studies. It would be an important concern to overexpress and knock out these pivotal proteins and then, in turn, to monitor the plant response which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal contexts...
February 25, 2019: Protoplasma
Zhihuan Zhang, Bili Cao, Song Gao, Kun Xu
Drought is the main meteorological threat to plants and limits plant growth, development, and adaptation to environmental changes. However, root-shoot communication plays a vital role in improving tomato plant drought tolerance, especially when cultivars are grafted onto drought-tolerant rootstock. In this study, the relationship between photosynthetic capacity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to drought stress was studied in tomato grafted with different drought-resistant tomato seedlings. To determine the drought-relieving effect of drought-tolerant rootstocks, we measured the effects of grafting on plant growth, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), ROS accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities in tomato leaves and roots under drought stress...
February 25, 2019: Protoplasma
Elder Antônio Sousa Paiva, Stefan Dötterl, Orlando Cavalari De-Paula, Clemens Schlindwein, Letícia Silva Souto, Narah Costa Vitarelli, Claudia Inês da Silva, Sidnei Mateus, Isabel Alves-Dos-Santos, Denise Maria Trombert Oliveira
Caryocar brasiliense is a flagship species of the Brazilian Cerrado. It produces flowers with a strong peculiar scent, which are pollinated by bats and occasionally moths with short mouthparts. However, the cues responsible for attracting these nocturnal pollinators remain unknown. We aimed to identify osmophores of C. brasiliense, describe the ultrastructure of the cells involved in the synthesis and release of floral odour, and identify the constituents of the floral bouquet. We performed field observations and histochemical and ultrastructural analyses of flowers focusing on the androecium...
February 22, 2019: Protoplasma
Peijie Gong, Michael Riemann, Duan Dong, Nadja Stoeffler, Bernadette Gross, Armin Markel, Peter Nick
Metacaspase, as hypersensitive response (HR) executors, has been identified in many plant species. Previously, the entire gene family of metacaspase has been uncovered, but there are still questions that remain unclear regarding HR-regulating gene members. In this study, based on metacaspase expression during different grapevine genotypes interacting with Plasmopara viticola, we identified MC2 and MC5 as candidates involved in HR. We overexpressed both metacaspases as GFP fusions in tobacco BY-2 cells to address subcellular localization and cellular functions...
February 22, 2019: Protoplasma
Anna V Tsyganova, Elena V Seliverstova, Nicholas J Brewin, Viktor E Tsyganov
Infection of host cells by nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, known as rhizobia, involves the progressive remodelling of the plant-microbe interface. This process was examined by using monoclonal antibodies to study the subcellular localisation of pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in wild-type and ineffective nodules of Pisum sativum and Medicago truncatula. The highly methylesterified homogalacturonan (HG), detected by monoclonal antibody JIM7, showed a uniform localisation in the cell wall, regardless of the cell type in nodules of P...
February 22, 2019: Protoplasma
M Breygina, N Maksimov, S Polevova, A Evmenyeva
Direct growth of a pollen tube is an effective mechanism of sperm delivery characteristic for the majority of seed plants. In most cases, only one tube grows from one grain to perform the delivery function; meanwhile in Picea the appearance of two tubes from a single pollen grain is quite common during in vitro germination. Here, we describe the phenomenon of bipolar germination and test two hypotheses on its nature and possible role in gametophyte functioning. The hypothesis on "trophic" function of multiple tubes provoked by poor nutrition discussed in literature was not confirmed by in vitro growth tests; bipolar germination strongly decreased with lowering sucrose availability...
February 20, 2019: Protoplasma
Joern Bullerdiek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2019: Protoplasma
Jaiana Richardo, Adriano Silvério
Passifloraceae shows a huge variability of pollen wall characteristics, most still little described. Passiflora is the largest genus with about 580 species with tropical distribution. Few studies in palynological approaches have described the intine layer which can fill existent gaps. Passiflora L. present four subgenera, from which Passiflora, Astrophea, and Decaloba were described in this study. The pollen wall variations were poorly studied, with the objective of describing the morphological and histochemical structure of Passiflora sporoderm that occurs in South America, aims to supply more pollen wall characters in some contexts...
February 4, 2019: Protoplasma
Tengfei Ma, Fang Dong, Die Luan, Hengjin Hu, Jie Zhao
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are hyperglycosylated members of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) superfamily and are widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. In Oryza sativa (rice), the gene expression and biological function of AGPs only have received minimal research attention. Here, we used qRT-PCR to detect the expression patterns of OsAGP genes in various organs, and found that six genes were preferentially expressed in panicles, three genes were specifically expressed in anthers, and one gene in the stigma...
January 23, 2019: Protoplasma
Zhong-Guang Li, Xin-Yu Ye, Xue-Mei Qiu
Glutamate (Glu), a neurotransmitter in animal, is a novel signaling molecule in plants, which takes part in cellular metabolism, seed germination, plant growth, development, and long-distance information transfer. However, whether Glu can enhance the heat tolerance in maize seedlings and its relation to calcium signaling is still elusive. In this study, maize seedlings were pretreated with Glu and then exposed to heat stress. The results showed that Glu pretreatment enhanced the survival percentage of maize seedlings under heat tolerance, indicating that Glu could increase the heat tolerance of maize seedlings...
January 23, 2019: Protoplasma
Shiwani Maurya, Muktesh Chandra, Ritesh K Yadav, Lokesh K Narnoliya, Rajender S Sangwan, Shilpi Bansal, Pankajpreet Sandhu, Umesh Singh, Devender Kumar, Neelam Singh Sangwan
Ocimum species commonly referred to as "Tulsi" are well-known for their distinct medicinal and aromatic properties. The characteristic aroma of Ocimum species and cultivars is attributed to their specific combination of volatile phytochemicals mainly belonging to terpenoid and/or phenylpropanoid classes in their essential oils. The essential oil constituents are synthesized and sequestered in specialized epidermal secretory structures called as glandular trichomes. In this comparative study, inter- and intra-species diversity in structural attributes and profiles of expression of selected genes related to terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathways have been investigated...
January 18, 2019: Protoplasma
Waseem Mushtaq, Quratul Ain, M B Siddiqui, Khalid Rehman Hakeem
The stress induced by allelochemicals present in stem aqueous extract (SAE) of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia on alterations in growth, ultrastructure on Cassia tora L., and mitotic changes on Allium cepa L. were inspected. Application of SAE at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2, and 4%) expressively reduced the growth of C. tora in terms of seedling length and dry biomass. Moreover, the ultrastructural variations induced in the epidermis of Cassia leaf (adaxial and abaxial surface) of 15-day-old saplings were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 17, 2019: Protoplasma
Qi-Hui Lyu, Bao-Zhen Hua
The fine structures of vasa deferentia and postvesicular vasa deferentia were investigated in the hangingfly Terrobittacus implicatus (Cai et al. 2006) and the scorpionfly Cerapanorpa nanwutaina (Chou 1981) using light and transmission electron microscopy, and schematic diagrams were drawn accordingly. The vasa deferentia of both species comprise muscular layers, a basal lamina, and a mono-layered epithelium, but the postvesicular vasa deferentia contain muscular layers, a basal lamina, a single-layered epithelium, a subcuticular cavity, and an inner cuticle respectively...
January 17, 2019: Protoplasma
Hieronim Golczyk
The major drawbacks of standard plant fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) designed for double-stranded DNA probes include requirement for experimentally determined heat denaturation of chromosomes at high temperatures and at least overnight hybridization. Consequently, processing with chromosomal preparations may easily result in heat-induced deterioration of chromosomal structural details, is time-consuming, and involves the use of toxic formamide and formaldehyde. Here, I have described a simple and appealing non-toxic procedure with ethylene carbonate (EC)-a formamide-substituting solvent and double-stranded repetitive DNA probes...
January 17, 2019: Protoplasma
Elton Luiz Scudeler, Ana Silvia Gimenes Garcia, Carlos Roberto Padovani, Daniela Carvalho Dos Santos
The effects of biopesticides on insects can be demonstrated by morphological and ultrastructural tools in ecotoxicological analysis. Azadirachtin-based products are widely used as biopesticides, affecting numerous insect populations. Through morphological biomarkers, this study aimed to characterize the fat bodies of both the southern armyworm Spodoptera eridania and the predator Ceraeochrysa claveri after chronic exposure to azadirachtin. Larvae of S. eridania and C. claveri were fed with fresh purple lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa) and egg clusters of Diatraea saccharalis treated with azadirachtin solution of 6 mg active ingredient (a...
January 14, 2019: Protoplasma
Zahra Shirazi, Ali Aalami, Masoud Tohidfar, Mohammad Mehdi Sohani
Licorice is a well-known medicinal plant, containing various secondary metabolites of triterpenoid and phenolic families. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of salinity stress on the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of triterpenoids such as glycyrrhizin, betulinic acid, soyasaponins, and phytosterols in licorice root, as well as providing a phonemic platform to characterize antioxidant properties, glycyrrhizin, and total phenolic content. This study also includes measuring the gene expression level and glycyrrhizin content in leaves and roots of control plants...
January 8, 2019: Protoplasma
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