journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37919031/diagnosis-and-management-of-tuberculous-meningitis-in-children-an-update
#41
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ronald van Toorn, Regan Solomons
UPDATE ON THE DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS IN CHILDREN: Ronald van Toorn, Regan Solomons Seminars in Pediatric Neurology Volume 21, Issue 1, March 2014, Pages 12-18 Tuberculous meningitis (TBM), the most devastating manifestation of tuberculosis, is often missed or overlooked because of nonspecific symptoms and difficulties in diagnosis. It continues to be an important cause of neurologic handicap in resource-poor countries. Owing to the suboptimal performance of diagnostic tests of TBM, diagnosis relies on thorough history, clinical examination, and relevant investigations...
October 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37919030/commentary-on-brain-injury-during-transition-in-the-newborn-with-congenital-heart-disease-hazards-of-the-preoperative-period
#42
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jennifer M Lynch, J William Gaynor, Daniel J Licht
BRAIN INJURY DURING TRANSITION IN THE NEWBORN WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE: HAZARDS OF THE PREOPERATIVE PERIOD: Jennifer M. Lynch, J. William Gaynor, Daniel J. Licht Seminars in Pediatric Neurology Volume 28, December 2018, Pages 60-65 Infants born with critical congenital heart disease are at risk for neurodevelopmental morbidities later in life. In-utero differences in fetal circulation lead to vulnerabilities which lead to an increased incidence of stroke, white matter injury, and brain immaturity. Recent work has shown these infants may be most vulnerable to brain injury during the early neonatal period when they are awaiting their cardiac surgeries...
October 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37919029/contemporary-understanding-of-the-central-autonomic-nervous-system-in-fetal-neonatal-transition
#43
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sarah B Mulkey
THE CRITICAL ROLE OF THE CENTRAL AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN FETAL-NEONATAL TRANSITION: Sarah B. Mulkey, Adre dú Plessis Seminars in Pediatric Neurology Volume 28, December 2018, Pages 29-37 The objective of this article is to understand the complex role of the central autonomic nervous system in normal and complicated fetal-neonatal transition and how autonomic nervous system dysfunction can lead to brain injury. The central autonomic nervous system supports coordinated fetal transitional cardiovascular, respiratory, and endocrine responses to provide safe transition of the fetus at delivery...
October 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37919028/commentary-pediatric-pain-measurement-assessment-and-evaluation
#44
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Michela Carter, Renee Cb Manworren, Jennifer N Stinson
Renee C.B. Manworren, Jennifer Stinson Seminars in Pediatric Neurology Volume 23, Issue 3, August 2016, Pages 189-200 Assessment provides the foundation for diagnosis, selection of treatments, and evaluation of treatment effectiveness for pediatric patients with acute, recurrent, and chronic pain. Extensive research has resulted in the availability of a number of valid, reliable, and recommended tools for assessing children's pain. Yet, evidence suggests children's pain is still not optimally measured or treated...
October 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451754/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#45
REVIEW
Alexandra B Kornbluh, Ilana Kahn
The current diagnostic criteria for pediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) are summarized, as well as the evidence for performance of the most recent iteration of McDonald criteria in the pediatric population. Next, the varied roles of MRI in POMS are reviewed, including diagnostic considerations and research-based utilization. The primary role of bloodwork and cerebrospinal fluid studies in the diagnosis of POMS is to rule out disease mimics. Prognostically, POMS portends a more inflammatory course with higher relapse rate and disability reached at younger ages compared with AOMS counterparts...
July 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451753/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-mog-associated-diseases-updates-in-pediatric-practice
#46
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Mellad M Khoshnood, Jonathan D Santoro
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is a membrane bound protein found on the surface of oligodendrocyte cells and the outermost surface of myelin sheaths. MOG is posited to play a role as a cell surface receptor or cell adhesion molecule, though there is no definitive answer to its exact function at this time. In the last few decades, there has been a recognition of anti-MOG-antibodies (MOG-Abs) in association with a variety of neurologic conditions, though primarily demyelinating and white matter disorders...
July 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451752/covid-19-and-the-pandemic-related-aspects-in-pediatric-demyelinating-disorders
#47
REVIEW
Grace Gombolay, Jamika Hallman-Cooper
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) infection, has been associated with several neurological symptoms, including acute demyelinating syndromes (ADS). There is a growing body of literature discussing COVID-19 and demyelinating conditions in adults; however, there is less published about COVID-19 demyelinating conditions in the pediatric population. This review aims to discuss the impact of COVID-19 in pediatric patients with central nervous system ADS (cADS) and chronic demyelinating conditions...
July 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451751/radiologically-isolated-syndrome-and-the-multiple-sclerosis-prodrome-in-pediatrics-early-features-of-the-spectrum-of-demyelination
#48
REVIEW
Aaron Bower, Naila Makhani
Radiologically isolated syndrome refers to the clinical scenario in which individuals have imaging concerning for multiple sclerosis and would otherwise satisfy radiographic dissemination in space criteria, but do not have any attributable signs or symptoms. Radiologically isolated syndrome has been increasingly recognized in the pediatric population and it is understood certain individuals will transition to a formal diagnosis of multiple sclerosis over time. This review aims to outline the available data within this unique population including the diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, risk factors associated with transitioning to multiple sclerosis, and the current therapeutic landscape...
July 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451750/the-evolving-spectrum-of-inflammatory-demyelination-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-children
#49
EDITORIAL
James Nicholas Brenton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451749/pediatric-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#50
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Kelsey Poisson, Karen Moeller, Kristen S Fisher
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is a demyelinating disease with a high relapse rate and risk of disability accrual. The condition is an astrocytopathy, with antibodies to the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel being detected in AQP4-IgG seropositive disease. Presentation is uncommon in the pediatric age range, accounting for about 3%-5% of cases. NMOSD is more prevalent in populations of Black or East Asian ancestry. Core clinical syndromes include optic neuritis, acute myelitis, area postrema syndrome, acute brainstem syndrome, acute diencephalic syndrome, and symptomatic cerebral syndrome...
July 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451748/transition-of-care-to-adult-neuroimmunology
#51
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Sona Narula
A structured health care transition is essential for adolescents with chronic disease to ensure continuity of care without treatment lapse. Though rare, multiple sclerosis is diagnosed in children and adolescents and these patients will eventually require transition to adult care in late adolescence and early adulthood. Some barriers to transition include limited independence of the adolescent, fear of an unknown adult care model, and difficulty ending close relationships with longstanding pediatric providers...
July 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451747/environmental-influences-on-risk-and-disease-course-in-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#52
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Darina Dinov, James Nicholas Brenton
Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) accounts for 3%-10% of all patients diagnosed with MS. Complex interplay between environmental factors impacts the risk for MS and may also affect disease course. Many of these environmental factors are shared with adult-onset MS. However, children with MS are in closer temporal proximity to the biological onset of MS and have less confounding environmental exposures than their adult counterparts. Environmental factors that contribute to MS risk include: geographical latitude, viral exposures, obesity, vitamin deficiencies, smoking, air pollution, perinatal factors, gut microbiome, and diet...
July 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37451746/monophasic-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-children
#53
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Duriel Hardy
Acquired demyelinating syndromes of the central nervous system are immune-mediated demyelinating disorders that can affect the brain, optic nerves, and spinal cord. These disorders have become increasingly recognized in children due to advances in imaging techniques, improvements in diagnostic testing, extensive research into understanding the pathophysiology underlying these disorders, and collaborative multi-institutional efforts to raise awareness of these disorders in children. Moreover, developments in the field of neuroimmunology have allowed us to identify autoantibodies that have presumed causal roles in acquired demyelinating syndromes...
July 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37003634/a-focused-review-of-long-stay-patients-and-the-ethical-imperative-to-provide-inpatient-continuity
#54
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Edwards
Long-stay patients are an impactful, vulnerable, growing group of inpatients in today's (and tomorrow's) tertiary hospitals. They can outlast dozens of clinicians that necessarily rotate on and off clinical service. Yet, care from such rotating clinicians can result in fragmented care due to a lack of continuity that insufficiently meets the needs of these patients and their families. Using long-stay PICU patients as an example, this focused review discusses the impact of prolonged admissions and how our fragmented care can compound this impact...
April 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37003633/the-white-coat-cape-an-ethical-analysis-of-emerging-therapies-to-treat-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#55
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Jane A Hartsock
The recent emergence of promising therapies to treat neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy raises important questions regarding the ethical permissibility of allowing a parent to refuse these Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs. The 3 most recent drugs targeting spinal muscular atrophy have all been approved since 2019, lack long-term data regarding potential side-effects and long-term benefits, and are costly. Indeed, onasemnogene abeparvovec-xioi (Zolgensma) has been called the most expensive drug in the world...
April 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37003632/the-shifting-landscape-of-death-by-neurologic-criteria-in-pediatrics-current-controversies-and-persistent-questions
#56
REVIEW
Rebecca F P Long, Jenny Kingsley, Sabrina F Derrington
Since the concept of death by neurologic criteria (DNC) or "brain death" was articulated by the Harvard Ad Hoc Committee in 1968, efforts to establish and uphold DNC as equivalent to biologic death have been supported through federal and state legislation, professional guidelines, and hospital policies. Despite these endeavors, DNC remains controversial among bioethics scholars and clinicians and is not universally accepted by patient families and the public. In this focused review, we outline the current points of contention surrounding the diagnosis of DNC in pediatric patients...
April 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37003631/to-treat-or-not-to-treat-ethics-of-management-of-refractory-status-myoclonus-following-pediatric-anoxic-brain-injury
#57
REVIEW
Alyson K Baker, Jennifer L Griffith
The development of status myoclonus (SM) in a postcardiac arrest patient has historically been thought of as indicative of not only a poor neurologic outcome but of neurologic devastation. In many instances, this may lead clinicians to initiate conversations about withdrawal of life sustaining therapies (WLST) regardless of the time from return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Recent studies showing a percentage of patients may make a good recovery has called into question whether a self-fulfilling prophecy has developed where the concern for a poor neurologic outcome leads clinicians to prematurely discuss WLST...
April 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37003630/pediatric-neuroethics-current-controversies-with-timeless-reasoning
#58
EDITORIAL
Pedro Weisleder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37003629/disability-or-death-a-focused-review-of-informed-consent-in-pediatric-neurosurgery
#59
REVIEW
Nathan A Shlobin, John Paul G Kolcun, Brian D Leland, Laurie L Ackerman, Sandi K Lam, Jeffrey S Raskin
The management of pediatric neurosurgical disease often requires families to choose between long-term disability and premature death. This decision-making is codified by informed consent. In practice, decision-making is heavily weighted toward intervening to prevent death, often with less consideration of the realities of long-term disability. We analyze long-term disability in pediatric neurosurgical disease from the perspectives of patients, families, and society. We then present a pragmatic framework and conversational approach for addressing informed consent discussions when the outcome is expected to be death or disability...
April 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/37003628/ethical-considerations-of-genome-sequencing-for-pediatric-patients
#60
REVIEW
Michelle M Sergi, Melissa C Keinath, Jonathan Fanaroff, Kathryn E Miller
Advancements in genetic testing in the healthcare setting, most recently genomic sequencing, has enhanced our ability to diagnose genetic conditions. These advances include increased accessibility and affordability of genomic technologies. With expanded use comes the potential for significant ethical challenges for clinicians, particularly considering the implications of testing a child for one condition and incidentally finding a different condition or health risk. In this focused review, we address various ethical considerations from informed consent to the rights of a child undergoing genetic testing...
April 2023: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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