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Seminars in Pediatric Neurology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522729/brain-injury-during-transition-in-the-newborn-with-congenital-heart-disease-hazards-of-the-preoperative-period
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer M Lynch, J William Gaynor, Daniel J Licht
Infants born with critical congenital heart disease are at risk for neurodevelopmental morbidities later in life. In-utero differences in fetal circulation lead to vulnerabilities which lead to an increased incidence of stroke, white matter injury, and brain immaturity. Recent work has shown these infants may be most vulnerable to brain injury during the early neonatal period when they are awaiting their cardiac surgeries. Novel imaging and monitoring modalities are being employed to investigate this crucial time period and elucidate the precise timing and cause of brain injury in this population...
December 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522728/it-s-all-about-the-brain-neuromonitoring-during-newborn-transition
#2
REVIEW
E M Dempsey, E M W Kooi, Geraldine Boylan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522727/circulatory-changes-and-cerebral-blood-flow-and-oxygenation-during-transition-in-newborns-with-congenital-heart-disease
#3
REVIEW
Shabnam Peyvandi, Mary T Donofrio
This review aims to describe how the complex events of cardiovascular transition may affect the brain of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). In particular, we describe the vulnerabilities of the neonatal brain in the transitional period during and immediately after delivery and propose management strategies that can potentially influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in this patient population. Delayed brain development has been identified in the third trimester fetus with certain forms of CHD. Neonates with critical CHD are at risk for brain injury even before their neonatal operation...
December 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522726/understanding-fetal-heart-rate-patterns-that-may-predict-antenatal-and-intrapartum-neural-injury
#4
REVIEW
Christopher A Lear, Jenny A Westgate, Austin Ugwumadu, Jan G Nijhuis, Peter R Stone, Antoniya Georgieva, Tomoaki Ikeda, Guido Wassink, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
Electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring is widely used to assess fetal well-being throughout pregnancy and labor. Both antenatal and intrapartum FHR monitoring are associated with a high negative predictive value and a very poor positive predictive value. This in part reflects the physiological resilience of the healthy fetus and the remarkable effectiveness of fetal adaptations to even severe challenges. In this way, the majority of "abnormal" FHR patterns in fact reflect a fetus' appropriate adaptive responses to adverse in utero conditions...
December 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522725/the-critical-role-of-the-central-autonomic-nervous-system-in-fetal-neonatal-transition
#5
Sarah B Mulkey, Adre Dú Plessis
The objective of this article is to understand the complex role of the central autonomic nervous system in normal and complicated fetal-neonatal transition and how autonomic nervous system dysfunction can lead to brain injury. The central autonomic nervous system supports coordinated fetal transitional cardiovascular, respiratory, and endocrine responses to provide safe transition of the fetus at delivery. Fetal and maternal medical and environmental exposures can disrupt normal maturation of the autonomic nervous system in utero, cause dysfunction, and complicate fetal-neonatal transition...
December 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522724/fetal-cerebrovascular-maturation-effects-of-hypoxia
#6
William J Pearce
The human cerebral vasculature originates in the fourth week of gestation and continues to expand and diversify well into the first few years of postnatal life. A key feature of this growth is smooth muscle differentiation, whereby smooth muscle cells within cerebral arteries transform from migratory to proliferative to synthetic and finally to contractile phenotypes. These phenotypic transformations can be reversed by pathophysiological perturbations such as hypoxia, which causes loss of contractile capacity in immature cerebral arteries...
December 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30522723/introduction-to-seminars-in-neurology
#7
EDITORIAL
Adré J du Plessis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30293590/promoting-the-human-rights-of-children-with-neurologic-conditions
#8
REVIEW
Keiko Shikako-Thomas, Meaghan Shevell
Children with neurologic conditions benefit from international conventions, and national treaties, policies and regulations that safeguard their human rights. These regulations also exist to serve as guidance in the creation of comprehensive systems of care, inclusive environments, accessible societies and communities that allow these children to thrive and to achieve the best of their capacities. This narrative review of issues related to human rights and advocacy in pediatric neurologic disabilities will provide an overview of the human rights conventions that relate to children with disabilities, and the most current approaches implicating health care providers in rights promotion for these individuals and their families...
October 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30293589/justice-and-neurodevelopmental-disability-moral-political-philosophies-policies-and-their-outcomes
#9
REVIEW
Eric Racine, Roxanne Caron, Michèle Stanton-Jean
Neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy and autism, touch a population which has been dubbed to be "doubly vulnerable." Individuals with neurodevelopmental disability have conditions that impair their cognition, communication, mobility, or social interactions, and they also rely on others to make decisions on their behalf. Accordingly, these children-as described in other contributions of this special issue-are particularly prone to suffer from systemic (ie, social, economic, and political) conditions that give or prevent access to quality and timely health care and social services as well as economic opportunities...
October 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30293588/a-developmental-social-neuroscience-model-for-understanding-pathways-to-substance-use-disorders-during-adolescence
#10
REVIEW
Hanie Edalati, Christine Doucet, Patricia J Conrod
Adolescence is a transitional period of development characterized by critical changes in physical, neural, cognitive, affective, and social functions. Studies investigating the underlying mechanisms of substance use at levels of self-report, brain response, and behavioral data are generally consistent with suggestions from dual-process model that differential growth rates of frontally mediated control and striato-frontal reward processing are related to a heightened risk of substance use during adolescence...
October 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30293587/imaging-evidence-of-the-effect-of-socio-economic-status-on-brain-structure-and-development
#11
REVIEW
Lara Maria Leijser, Arjumand Siddiqi, Steven Paul Miller
Numerous studies have shown an association between children's socio-economic status (SES) and disparities in neurocognitive development, achievements, and function later in life. Research focus has recently shifted to imaging of the brain's response to the child's environment. This review summarizes the emerging studies on the influences of early-life SES on brain structure and development, and addresses the relation between brain development and enriched environments. The studies provide evidence of significant associations between SES and brain structure, growth and maturation, not only in healthy infants and children but also in infants with medical conditions...
October 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30293586/socioeconomic-status-and-pediatric-neurologic-disorders-current-evidence
#12
REVIEW
Maureen S Durkin, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important risk factor for many neurological disorders and a determinant of health outcomes and quality of life, especially for individuals with neurologic disorders and developmental disabilities. This article focuses on the relationship between SES and pediatric epilepsy, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. Disparities in the prevalence and long-term impact of SES on functioning in persons with disabilities are observed worldwide. Clinicians can use the information presented in the article to target early identification and interventions for improving outcomes in populations most at risk for these disorders and for poor health, social, and economic outcomes...
October 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30293585/global-burden-of-pediatric-neurological-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Charles Richard Newton
Neurological conditions in children represent a significant proportion of the global burden of disease, since they contribute to premature mortality and years lived with disability. The burden of neurological conditions, as measured by the total disability adjusted live years has decreased significantly over the last 25 years (1990-2015), mainly due to the reduction in the mortality, as the years lived with disability has increased slightly. However, in some regions of the world, notably South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the burden remains high, driven by the high incidence of prematurity, neonatal encephalopathy and infections of the central nervous system...
October 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30293584/the-current-global-reality-poverty-and-income-inequality
#14
REVIEW
Samuel Freeman
The distribution of wealth within and between countries is unequal, a reality that has preoccupied economists since their discipline's origins. Poverty and income inequality are intimately tied to health outcomes, including for pediatric neurologic disease. This article provides an overview of the distribution of the global poor and global poverty reduction efforts. The emergence of a global middle class is discussed, as are issues related to income inequality within wealthy nations.
October 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29961533/atypical-presentation-of-a-progressive-and-treatable-encephalopathy-in-an-older-child-with-gelastic-and-dacrystic-seizures
#15
Jorge Vidaurre, Sunjay Nunley
We discuss an unusual case of a teenage boy who presented with waxing and waning cognitive decline and gelastic-dacrystic seizures, evolving later into a rapidly progressive encephalopathy with status epilepticus. Extensive genetic and metabolic testing did not lead to a specific diagnosis. Cerebrospinal fluid studies performed during admission to the intensive care unit provided the information needed to establish a diagnosis. After implementation of specific treatment, his seizures stopped and his background electroencephalogram returned to normal...
July 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29961532/editorial-to-follow-case-21-regarding-cases-14-21
#16
EDITORIAL
John B Bodensteiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29961531/a-boy-with-red-ears
#17
Juliana Coleman, Margie A Ream
Vague complaints of ear pain can bring frustration in the neurology office as the differential is broad and often nonneurologic. Herein, we present a case of red ear syndrome, a treatable migraine variant that can cause significant distress and lead to delayed treatment if not considered as a diagnostic possibility.
July 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29961530/a-quiet-disease-with-loud-manifestations
#18
Benjamin Louis Moresco, Melissa Dziuk Svoboda, Yu-Tze Ng
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital virus passed from mother to fetus in the United States, and the most common acquired cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Neuroimaging in patients with symptomatic congenital CMV demonstrates abnormalities frequently, but many providers are unaware of the extent of these findings. We present a case of a 15-month-old girl with progressive sensorineural hearing loss and developmental delays. Magnetic resonance imaging of her brain was done by her otolaryngologist as part of a routine cochlear implant evaluation where it was found to be drastically abnormal and reported as a likely leukodystrophy...
July 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29961529/diplopia-with-dural-fibrotic-thickening
#19
Brittany Brand, Dave Somers, Blake Wittenberg, Jessica Gautreaux, Stephen Deputy
Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is a rare disorder of diffuse thickening of the cranial or spinal dura mater without an identifiable cause. Most common in adult males, idiopathic HP typically presents with headache with or without varied associated focal neurologic deficits and findings of dural enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging in a linear, nodular, or combined pattern. As it is felt to be an autoimmune disorder, treatment with high-dose corticosteroids is typically recommended, and without intervention, the course is usually progressive...
July 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29961528/a-20-month-old-girl-with-fever-seizures-hemiparesis-and-brain-lesions-requiring-a-diagnostic-brain-biopsy
#20
Satsuki Matsumoto, Eiyu Matsumoto
We report a case of a 20-month-old girl with atypical presentation of a fairly common condition. She presented with acute onset of fever, seizures, and hemiparesis. Her cerebrospinal fluid showed total nucleated cells 10/mm3 with lymphocyte dominance. Polymerase chain reaction was negative for herpes simplex virus. Computed tomography of head showed a cerebral hemorrhage of the left frontal lobe and small subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right frontal region. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple foci of hyperintensity in bilateral parietal lobes and right basal ganglia...
July 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
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